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## Thermal Convection (thermal + convection)
## Selected Abstracts## Adsorptive Stripping Analysis of Riboflavin at Electrically Heated Graphite Cylindrical Electrodes ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 21 2007Shao-Hua WuAbstract Electrically heated graphite cylindrical electrodes (HGCEs) made from ground pencil leads have been used to perform adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements of trace riboflavin (RF). The SWV stripping peak current was significantly enhanced with increasing the electrode temperature only during preconcentration step. This enhancement was due to the forced thermal convection induced by heating the electrode rather than the bulk solution. It is the thermal convection that has the ability to improve mass transfer and facilitate adsorption thus enhance stripping responses. It was found that the detection limit of 5×10,9,M (S/N=3) could be obtained at an electrode temperature of 72,°C during 5,min accumulation, more than one magnitude lower than that at 22,°C (room temperature), the sensitivity could be enhanced ca. eight or four folds for two different RF concentration ranges. So it is possible to develop a new highly sensitive method to determine riboflavin at HGCEs. Such HGCEs were also successfully used to determine RF in multivitamin tablets. [source] ## Can the Earth's dynamo run on heat alone? GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2003David GubbinsSUMMARY The power required to drive the geodynamo places significant constraints on the heat passing across the core,mantle boundary and the Earth's thermal history. Calculations to date have been limited by inaccuracies in the properties of liquid iron mixtures at core pressures and temperatures. Here we re-examine the problem of core energetics in the light of new first-principles calculations for the properties of liquid iron. There is disagreement on the fate of gravitational energy released by contraction on cooling. We show that only a small fraction of this energy, that associated with heating resulting from changes in pressure, is available to drive convection and the dynamo. This leaves two very simple equations in the cooling rate and radioactive heating, one yielding the heat flux out of the core and the other the entropy gain of electrical and thermal dissipation, the two main dissipative processes. This paper is restricted to thermal convection in a pure iron core; compositional convection in a liquid iron mixture is considered in a companion paper. We show that heat sources alone are unlikely to be adequate to power the geodynamo because they require a rapid secular cooling rate, which implies a very young inner core, or a combination of cooling and substantial radioactive heating, which requires a very large heat flux across the core,mantle boundary. A simple calculation with no inner core shows even higher heat fluxes are required in the absence of latent heat before the inner core formed. [source] ## Fluid,solid interaction problems with thermal convection using the immersed element-free Galerkin method INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 1 2010Claudio M. PitaAbstract In this work, the immersed element-free Galerkin method (IEFGM) is proposed for the solution of fluid,structure interaction (FSI) problems. In this technique, the FSI is represented as a volumetric force in the momentum equations. In IEFGM, a Lagrangian solid domain moves on top of an Eulerian fluid domain that spans over the entire computational region. The fluid domain is modeled using the finite element method and the solid domain is modeled using the element-free Galerkin method. The continuity between the solid and fluid domains is satisfied by means of a local approximation, in the vicinity of the solid domain, of the velocity field and the FSI force. Such an approximation is achieved using the moving least-squares technique. The method was applied to simulate the motion of a deformable disk moving in a viscous fluid due to the action of the gravitational force and the thermal convection of the fluid. An analysis of the main factors affecting the shape and trajectory of the solid body is presented. The method shows a distinct advantage for simulating FSI problems with highly deformable solids. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Dendritic solidification of binary alloys with free and forced convection INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 3 2005P. ZhaoAbstract Dendritic solidification with forced convection and free convection driven by contraction and thermo- solutal buoyancy is simulated in two-dimensional space using a sharp-interface model. Both pure substances and alloys are considered. The model is formulated using the finite element method and works directly with primitive variables. The coupled energy- and solutal concentration-equations, along with the Navier,Stokes equations for incompressible flow, are solved using different meshes. Temperature is solved in a fixed mesh that covers the whole domain (solid + liquid) where the solid,liquid interface is explicitly tracked using marker points. The concentration and momentum equations are solved in the liquid region using an adaptive mesh of triangular elements that conforms to the interface. The velocity boundary conditions are applied directly on the interface. The model is validated using a series of problems that have analytical, experimental and numerical results. Four simulations are presented: (1) crystal growth of succinonitrile with thermal convection under two small undercoolings; (2) dendritic growth into an undercooled pure melt with a uniform forced flow; (3) equiaxial dendritic growth of a pure substance and an alloy with contraction-induced convection; and (4) directional solidification of Pb,0.2 wt% Sb alloy with convection driven by the combined action of contraction, thermal and solutal buoyancy. Some of the simulation results are compared to those reported using other methods including the phase-field method; others are new. In each case, the effects of convection on dendritic solidification are analysed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## On the angular momentum transport due to vertical convection in accretion discs MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY: LETTERS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010Geoffroy LesurABSTRACT The mechanism of angular momentum transport in accretion discs has long been debated. Although the magnetorotational instability appears to be a promising process, poorly ionized regions of accretion discs may not undergo this instability. In this Letter, we revisit the possibility of transporting angular momentum by turbulent thermal convection. Using high-resolution spectral methods, we show that strongly turbulent convection can drive outward angular momentum transport at a rate that is, under certain conditions, compatible with observations of discs. We find, however, that the angular momentum transport is always much weaker than the vertical heat transport. These results indicate that convection might be another way to explain global disc evolution, provided that a sufficiently unstable vertical temperature profile can be maintained. [source] ## Experimental Investigation of thermal convection in an inclined narrow gap II PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2009Daniel RubesIn the past decade the development in micro technology has experienced great progress, what made the knowledge of the flow behavior in small cavities fundamentally interesting. Our experimental contribution describes the measured temperature and velocity fields in a fluid containing inclined cavity with the dimensions 17 × 6 × 24 mm3 (w × d × h). Using PIV/T, we can determine the velocity and temperature distribution in the cavity simultaneously. The chamber is illuminated with a white light sheet of 1 mm. A 20% glycerin-water mixture is examined. The lower side is heated to 46.2°C, while the upper side has a constant temperature of 26°C. In this work we present the measured velocity and temperature fields of the fluid at different angles of the cavity orientation with respect to the direction of gravity in the stationary state. This is a continuation of last years presentation [1] in the sense that the temperature difference has been substantially increased. (© 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] |