Thermal Conductivity Values (thermal + conductivity_value)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Microstructural Characterization of High-Thermal-Conductivity Aluminum Nitride Ceramic

Hiromi Nakano
An aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic with a thermal conductivity value of 272 W·(m·K),1, which is as high as the experimentally measured thermal conductivity of an AlN single crystal, was successfully fabricated by firing at 1900°C with a sintering aid of 1 mol% Y2O3 under a reducing N2 atmosphere for 100 h. Oxygen concentrations were determined to be 0.02 and 0.03 mass% in the grains and in the grain-boundary phases, respectively. Neither stacking fault in the grains nor crystalline phase in the grain-boundary regions was found by transmission electron microscopy. An amorphous phase possessing yttrium and oxygen elements was detected between the grains as thin films with a thickness of <1 nm. Because the amount of grain-boundary phase was small, the high-thermal conductivity of the ceramic was attributable to the low oxygen concentration in the AlN grains. [source]

Effective thermal actions and thermal properties of timber members in natural fires

Jürgen KönigArticle first published online: 28 JUL 200
Abstract For the thermal analysis of structural or non-structural timber members, using conventional simplified heat transfer models, thermal conductivity values of timber are normally calibrated to test results such that they implicitly take into account influences such as mass transport that are not included in the model. Various researchers and designers have used such effective thermal conductivity values, originally determined for standard fire exposure, to evaluate other fire scenarios such as natural fires. This paper discusses in qualitative terms some parameters that govern the burning of wood and their influence on effective conductivity values. Reviewing fire tests of timber slabs under natural fire conditions, the study explains why effective conductivity values, giving correct results for the ISO 834 standard fire scenario, should not be used in other fire scenarios. For this reason, the thermal properties of timber given in EN 1995-1-2 are limited to standard fire exposure. As shown by heat transfer calculations, the effective thermal conductivity of the char layer is strongly dependent on the charring rate and therefore varies during a natural fire scenario. It has also been shown that char oxidation during the decay phase in a natural fire has a significant influence on the temperature development in the timber member, since char surface temperatures exceed the gas temperature in the compartment or furnace. Using increased effective gas temperature as thermal action during the decay phase, and varying conductivity values for the char layer, fairly good agreement could be obtained regarding the temperature development in the timber member and the char depth. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On the Design of High-Efficiency Thermoelectric Clathrates through a Systematic Cross-Substitution of Framework Elements

Xun Shi
Abstract Type I clathrates have recently been identified as prospective thermoelectric materials for power generation purposes due to their very low lattice thermal conductivity values. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of almost all type I clathrates is, however, less than 1 and occurs at, or above, 1000,K, making them unfavorable especially for intermediate temperature applications. In this report, the Zintl,Klemm rule is demonstrated to be valid for Ni, Cu, and Zn transition metal substitution in the framework of type I clathrates and offers many degrees of freedom for material modification, design, and optimization. The cross-substitution of framework elements introduces ionized impurities and lattice defects into these materials, which optimize the scattering of charge carriers by the substitution-induced ionized impurities and the scattering of heat-carrying lattice phonons by point defects, respectively, leading to an enhanced power factor, reduced lattice thermal conductivity, and therefore improved thermoelectric figure of merit. Most importantly, the bandgap of these materials can be tuned between 0.1 and 0.5,eV by adjusting the cross-substitution ratio of framework elements, making it possible to design clathrates with excellent thermoelectric properties between 500 and 1000,K. [source]

Measurement and prediction of thermal conductivity for hemp fiber reinforced composites

T. Behzad
The thermal conductivity of hemp fiber reinforced polymer composites were studied from the steady state temperature drop across samples exposed to a known heat flux. The transverse and in-plane thermal conductivities for oriented and randomly oriented composites for different volume fractions of fiber were investigated. Experimental results showed that the orientation of fibers has a significant effect on the thermal conductivity of composites. To validate the experimental results, the heating tests for the thermal conductivity measurements were simulated by a finite element model using the thermal conductivity values obtained from the experiments. Predicted temperatures show close agreement with measured temperatures. Moreover, the experimental results of thermal conductivities of composites at different directions were compared with two theoretical models and illustrated good agreement between the obtained results and models. POLYM. ENG. SCI. 47:977,983, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]