Thermal Conductivity (thermal + conductivity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Thermal Conductivity

  • effective thermal conductivity
  • high thermal conductivity
  • lattice thermal conductivity
  • low lattice thermal conductivity
  • low thermal conductivity
  • lower thermal conductivity

  • Terms modified by Thermal Conductivity

  • thermal conductivity measurement
  • thermal conductivity value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Lattice Monte Carlo and Experimental Analyses of the Thermal Conductivity of Random-Shaped Cellular Aluminum

    Thomas Fiedler
    The effective thermal conductivity of open- and closed-cell aluminium foams with stochastic pore morphologies has been determined by numerical, analytical and experimental methods. A three dimensional analysis technique has been used where numerical calculation models are generated based on 3D computed tomographic (CT) reconstructions. The resulting three dimensional grid models are used for thermal Lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) analyses. The second part of this paper addresses experimental measurements of open-cell M-pore® and closed-cell Alporas® cellular aluminium. Finally, results obtained using both approaches are compared to classical analytic predictions. [source]

    Combined Analytical and Phonon-Tracking Approaches to Model Thermal Conductivity of Etched and Annealed Nanoporous Silicon

    Jaona Randrianalisoa
    A combination of analytical and phonon-tracking approaches is proposed to predict thermal conductivity of porous nanostructured thick materials. The analytical approach derives the thermal conductivity as function of the intrinsic properties of the material and properties characterizing the phonon interaction with pore walls. [source]

    Thermal Conductivity of Cellular Metals Measured by the Transient Plane Source Method,

    E. Solórzano
    The thermal conductivity of a collection of cellular metals has been measured by the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method. Using this method, it has been possible to cover different volumes of selected samples and to study their in-homogeneities from their surface to their inner part. Additionally, these samples have been characterized by tomography. With the TPS method, in combination with tomography, it has been possible to analyse the in-homogeneity of the samples as well as to characterize the thermal conductivity of a single in-homogeneous sample as a complete collection of different porosity specimens. This is the corrected version of the paper by Solórzano et al., Adv. Eng. Mater.2008, 10, 371, which was unfortunately published in an uncorrected version. [source]

    Carbon Nanosheets for Polymeric Nanocomposites with High Thermal Conductivity

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    L. Monica Veca
    Nanometer-thick 2D carbon structures ("carbon nanosheets") are processed from commercially available expanded graphite. These carbon nanosheets are then incorporated in various polymers to produce flexible nanocomposites that exhibit record-setting anisotropic thermal conductivities, which may prove highly valuable in many technological applications. [source]

    Sintered Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride with High Thermal Conductivity and High Strength

    You Zhou
    Sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN) materials were prepared from a high-purity Si powder doped with Y2O3 and MgO as sintering additives by nitriding at 1400°C for 8 h and subsequently postsintering at 1900°C for various times ranging from 3 to 24 h. Microstructures and phase compositions of the nitrided and the sintered compacts were characterized. The SRBSN materials sintered for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h had thermal conductivities of 100, 105, 117, and 133 W/m/K, and four-point bending strengths of 843, 736, 612, and 516 MPa, respectively. Simultaneously attaining thermal conductivity and bending strength at such a high level made the SRBSN materials superior over the high-thermal conductivity silicon nitride ceramics that were prepared by sintering of Si3N4 powder in our previous works. This study indicates that the SRBSN route is a promising way of fabricating silicon nitride materials with both high thermal conductivity and high strength. [source]

    Thermal Barrier Coatings Design with Increased Reflectivity and Lower Thermal Conductivity for High-Temperature Turbine Applications

    Matthew J. Kelly
    High reflectance thermal barrier coatings consisting of 7% Yittria-Stabilized Zirconia (7YSZ) and Al2O3 were deposited by co-evaporation using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Multilayer 7YSZ and Al2O3 coatings with fixed layer spacing showed a 73% infrared reflectance maxima at 1.85 ,m wavelength. The variable 7YSZ and Al2O3 multilayer coatings showed an increase in reflection spectrum from 1 to 2.75 ,m. Preliminary results suggest that coating reflectance can be tailored to achieve increased reflectance over a desired wavelength range by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. In addition, microstructural enhancements were also used to produce low thermal conductive and high hemispherical reflective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in which the coating flux was periodically interrupted creating modulated strain fields within the TBC. TBC showed no macrostructural differences in the grain size or faceted surface morphology at low magnification as compared with standard TBC. The residual stress state was determined to be compressive in all of the TBC samples, and was found to decrease with increasing number of modulations. The average thermal conductivity was shown to decrease approximately 30% from 1.8 to 1.2 W/m-K for the 20-layer monolithic TBC after 2 h of testing at 1316°C. Monolithic modulated TBC also resulted in a 28% increase in the hemispherical reflectance, and increased with increasing total number of modulations. [source]

    Thermal Conductivity of the Rare-Earth Strontium Aluminates

    Chunlei Wan
    The thermal conductivity of a series of complex aluminates, RE2SrAl2O7, with different rare-earth (RE) ions, has been measured up to 1000°C. There is a strong dependence on the atomic number of the RE ion, ranging from an approximately 1/T dependence for the lanthanum strontium aluminate to an almost temperature-independent behavior of the dysprosium strontium aluminate. The latter conductivity is comparable with that of yttria-stabilized zirconia, the current material of choice for thermal barrier coatings. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivities of all the aluminates studied can be fit to a standard phonon,phonon scattering model, modified to account for a minimum phonon mean free path, in which the difference in behavior is attributed to increased phonon,phonon scattering with the atomic mass of the RE ion. Although a satisfactory parametric fit is obtained, the model does not take into account either the detailed layer structure of the aluminates, consisting of alternating rock-salt and perovskite layers in a natural superlattice structure, or the site preferences of the RE ion. This suggests that further model development is warranted. [source]

    Thermal Conductivity of Monazite-Type REPO4 (RE=La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd)

    Aibing Du
    Low-thermal conductivity ceramics in monazite-type REPO4 (RE=La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) ceramics are expected to have potential in structural (refractories, thermal insulator) and nuclear applications. To this end, the present study determines their thermal conductivities and examines how differences of the rare earth ions change their thermal conductivity at different temperatures. The results show that their conductivities are remarkably low from 25° to 1000°C. In addition, different conductivity variation mechanisms exist that change gradually upon altering from LaPO4 to GdPO4 at low and high temperatures. At relatively lower temperatures (,400°C), the thermal conductivities of all the REPO4 ceramics decrease nearly at first, reach a minimum value, and then rise with gradual altering from LaPO4 to GdPO4. It may be due to the combined effects of the increase of both the anharmonicities in lattice vibrations and the bond strength. As the temperature increases, the conductivity trends become obscure, and the conductivities of the monazite-type REPO4 approach their minimum thermal conductivities when the temperature is above 800°C. [source]

    Processing and Thermal Conductivity of Sintered Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride: (II) Effects of Magnesium Compound and Yttria Additives

    Xinwen Zhu
    The effects of the magnesium compound and yttria additives on the processing, microstructure, and thermal conductivity of sintered reaction-bonded silicon (Si) nitride (SRBSN) were investigated using two additive compositions of Y2O3,MgO and Y2O3,MgSiN2, and a high-purity coarse Si powder as the starting powder. The replacement of MgO by MgSiN2 leads to the different characteristics in RBSN after complete nitridation at 1400°C for 8 h, such as a higher ,-Si3N4 content but finer ,-Si3N4 grains with a rod-like shape, different crystalline secondary phases, lower nitrided density, and coarser porous structure. The densification, ,,, phase transformation, crystalline secondary phase, and microstructure during the post-sintering were investigated in detail. For both cases, the similar microstructure observed suggests that the ,-Si3N4 nuclei in RBSN may play a dominant role in the microstructural evolution of SRBSN rather than the intergranular glassy chemistry during post-sintering. It is found that the SRBSN materials exhibit an increase in the thermal conductivity from ,110 to ,133 (Wm·K),1 for both cases with the increased time from 6 to 24 h at 1900°C, but there is almost no difference in the thermal conductivity between them, which can be explained by the similar microstructure. The present investigation reveals that as second additives, the MgO is as effective as the MgSiN2 for enhancing the thermal conductivity of SRBSN. [source]

    Microstructure Tailoring for High Thermal Conductivity of ,-Si3N4 Ceramics

    Hiroshi Yokota
    ,-Si3N4 ceramics sintered with Yb2O3 and ZrO2 were fabricated by gas-pressure sintering at 1950°C for 16 h changing the ratio of "fine" and "coarse" high-purity ,-Si3N4 raw powders, and their microstructures were quantitatively evaluated. It was found that the amount of large grains (greater than a few tens of micrometers) could be drastically reduced by mixing a small amount of "coarse" powder with a "fine" one, while maintaining high thermal conductivity (>140 W·(m·K),1). Thus, this work demonstrates that it is possible for ,-Si3N4 ceramics to achieve high thermal conductivity and high strength simultaneously by optimizing the particle size distribution of raw powder. [source]

    Effect of Microstructure on the Thermal Conductivity of Hot-Pressed Silicon Nitride Materials

    Angel De Pablos
    Si3N4 materials with distinct microstructures were prepared by hot-pressing, varying the holding time at the maximum temperature, and using different types and amounts of sintering additives. Materials with thermal conductivities of 15,82 W·(m·K),1 were obtained by changing the processing variables. The highest conductivity was measured for the material with the coarsest microstructure. The effect of microstructural parameters, such as percentage of secondary phases, grain size, and texture on thermal properties of Si3N4 ceramics, were studied. Hot-pressed Si3N4 ceramics were modeled as a two-phase composite made of large grains of high conductivity and a small-grained phase of low conductivity. [source]

    Transverse Thermal Conductivity of Thin C/SiC Composites Fabricated by Slurry Infiltration and Pyrolysis

    Min Z. Berbon
    Thin C/SiC composites were fabricated by infiltrating a woven carbon fiber fabric with a slurry of SiC powder and polymer precursor for SiC, followed by heat treatment for pyrolysis. The effects of heat treatment parameters on the crystallization of the polymer-derived SiC, the composite microstructure, and the transverse thermal properties were assessed. Whereas composites heat-treated at 1000°C were crack-free and nearly fully dense, composites that were subjected to further multiple reinfiltration and heat treatment cycles at 1600°C developed porosity and cracking. However, the transverse thermal conductivity was increased significantly by the higher-temperature heat treatment, to values higher than that of a composite with a chemical-vapor-infiltration SiC matrix and the same fiber reinforcement. [source]

    Effect of Interfacial Reaction on the Thermal Conductivity of Al,SiC Composites with SiC Dispersions

    Chihiro Kawai
    The effect of interfacial reactions between Al and SiC on the thermal conductivity of SiC-particle-dispersed Al-matrix composites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the thermal barrier conductance (hc) of the interface in the Al,SiC composites was quantified using a rule of mixture regarding thermal conductivity. Al,SiC composites with a composition of Al (pure Al or Al,11 vol% Si alloy),66.3 vol% SiC and a variety of SiC particle sizes were used as specimens. The addition of Si to an Al matrix increased the thermal barrier conductance although it decreased overall thermal conductivity. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of Al4C3 and Si as byproducts in addition to Al and SiC in some specimens. TEM observation indicated that whiskerlike products, possibly Al4C3, were formed at the interface between the SiC particles and the Al matrix. The thermal barrier conductance and the thermal conductivity of the Al,SiC composites decreased with increasing Al4C3 content. The role of Si addition to an Al matrix was concluded to be restraining an excessive progress of the interfacial reaction between Al and SiC. [source]

    Inverse Problem for Composites with Imperfect Interface: Determination of Interfacial Thermal Resistance, Thermal Conductivity of Constituents, and Microstructural Parameters

    Ce-Wen Nan
    An explicit method is introduced to solve inverse problems for composites with imperfect interfaces. We apply the method to determine the thermal conductivity of constituents and the interfacial thermal resistance in SiC-particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites and to estimate the whisker thermal conductivity, the interfacial thermal resistance, and the whisker alignment distribution in two types of SiC-whisker-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic composites from their measured effective thermal conductivity reported in the literature. Certain bounds for these three properties of both SiC-whisker-reinforced glass-ceramic composites are obtained, and reasonable estimates for their exact values from room temperature to 500°C are made. The inverse problem is quite sensitive to noise in the measurements. We also comment on existing estimates. [source]

    Characterization of Powder Beds by Thermal Conductivity: Effect of Gas Pressure on the Thermal Resistance of Particle Contact Points

    Michael Shapiro
    Abstract The thermal conductivity of ceramic powder packed beds was measured at temperatures below 100,°C for various powder sizes and compositions and under different gas atmospheres. Measurements at low pressures (down to 10,Pa) combined with a theoretical model allowed the elucidation of geometrical and thermal resistance parameters for the contact points between granules. The gap thickness and contact point size were found to be well correlated with the mean particle size. The thermal conductivities of all powders at low pressure were found to differ at most by a factor of two, whereas the solid-phase conductivities of the powder materials differed by more than one order of magnitude. A theoretical model accounting for the size-dependence of contact point conductivity is incorporated to rationalize this trend. [source]

    Flexible Hybrid Semiconductors with Low Thermal Conductivity: The Role of Organic Diamines,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 42 2009
    Xiaoying Huang Dr.
    Flexible Leiter: Einzigartig sind die hier vorgestellten Halbleiterkristalle aus einer organisch-anorganischen Hybridverbindung wegen ihrer Flexibilität und niedrigen thermischen Leitfähigkeit. Die Hybride bestehen aus ZnTe-Schichten, die durch unterschiedliche Diamine verknüpft sind (im Bild ist ein Beispiel zu sehen; C,graue, N,blaue, Te,rote, Zn,hellblaue Kugeln). [source]

    Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity with CuO for Nanofluids

    M.-S. Liu
    Abstract The enhancement of the thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol in the presence of copper oxide (CuO) is investigated. CuO nanofluids are prepared in a two-step method. No surfactant is employed as a dispersant. The volume fraction of CuO nanoparticles suspended in ethylene glycol liquid is below 5,vol.-%. The crystalline phases of the CuO powders are measured with x-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). CuO nanoparticles are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine their microstructure. The thermal conductivities of the CuO suspensions are measured by a modified transient hot wire method. The viscosity was measured with a viscosity instrument. The results show that CuO nanofluids with low concentrations of nanoparticles have considerably higher thermal conductivities than the identical ethylene glycol base liquids without solid nanoparticles. The thermal conductivity ratio improvement for CuO nanofluids is approximately linear with the volume fraction of nanoparticles. For CuO nanoparticles at a volume fraction of 0.05 (5,vol-.%) thermal conductivity was enhanced by up to 22.4,%. CuO nanofluids thus have good potential for effective heat transfer applications. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: A Low Band Gap Iron Sulfide Hybrid Semiconductor with Unique 2D [Fe16S20]8- Layer and Reduced Thermal Conductivity.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 22 2010
    Min Wu
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Fly ash concrete subjected to thermal cyclic loads

    M. S. KHAN
    ABSTRACT The present study describes the behaviour of concrete as well as fly ash concrete when subjected to varying number of high temperature heating cycles. A Concrete mix (1:2.37:2.98) with 340 kg/m3 cement and,w/cm,ratio 0.45 was prepared. Cement was replaced by varying percentages (0%, 20%, 40%, 50% and 60%) of fly ash by weight of cement. The concrete was subjected to a constant temperature of 200°C for 7, 14, 21 and 28 heating cycles. One heating cycle corresponds to 8 h heating and subsequent cooling in 24 h. Subsequently the effect of temperature on the properties of the concrete was investigated and compared with that of the properties of unheated concrete. The compressive strength of plain as well as fly ash concrete increased when it was subjected to thermal cyclic loads. Moreover, the compressive strength increased with an increase in number of heating cycles. Thermal conductivity of concrete was found to decrease with an increase in the fly ash content. [source]

    Thermal conductivity of wool and wool,hemp insulation

    Z. Ye
    Abstract Measurements have been obtained for the thermal resistance of sheep-wool insulation and wool,hemp mixtures, both in the form of bonded insulation batts, using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The density was 9.6,25.9 kg m,3 for the wool and 9.9,18.1 kg m,3 for the wool,hemp mixtures. The measurements were made at a mean sample temperature of 13.3°C using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The estimated uncertainly in the resistance measurements was of the order of ±7%. The thermal conductivity of the samples, derived from the thermal resistance measurements on the basis of the measured thickness, was well correlated with the density, although the variation with density was larger than that obtained in previous studies. The conductivity of the wool,hemp samples was not significantly different from that of the wool samples at the same density. Moisture uptake produced an increase of less than 5% in the conductivity of the bonded wool insulation for an increase in absorbed moisture content of 20%. The thermal resistance was 1.6% lower on average for samples oriented in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical plane, but this difference is not significant. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    M.O. NGADI
    ABSTRACT Thermal properties of fried products namely butterfly and popcorn shrimp, French toast and breading were determined for a wide range of temperature (20 to 140C), moisture content (3.3 to 87.4% w.b.) and fat content (0.005 to 0.618 kg/kg dry weight) typically encountered during deep-fat frying. Solid density of the products ranged from 1034 to 1508 kg/m3. Solid density increased with decreasing moisture content of product. Thermal conductivity ranged from 0.03 to 0.85 W/mC. Specific heat ranged from 1.51 to 4.67 kJ/kgC. The results were in the range of published data for similar products. Temperature, moisture and fat content affected variations of thermal conductivity and specific heat. Regression equations were used to fit experimental data. [source]

    Design, Preparation, and Characterization of Graded YSZ/La2Zr2O7 Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Hongfei Chen
    Large-area spallation and crack formation during service are big problems of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), owing to their weak bond strengths and high residual stresses. Functional gradient TBCs with a gradual compositional variation along the thickness direction are proposed to mitigate these problems. In this paper, a six-layer structured TBC composed of Y2O3 partially stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and La2Zr2O7 (LZ), was prepared by plasma spraying with dual powder feeding ports. This coating had a gradient composition and function. Thermal conductivity of the coating was comparable with that of a single LZ coating while the coefficient of thermal expansion was nearly equal to that of YSZ single coating. The experiment was conducted to compare the thermal shock resistance of a graded coating with a conventional YSZ/LZ double-layer system. Changes in weight and morphology of specimens before and after thermal shock tests were analyzed. Results demonstrated that the thermal shock resistance of the graded coating was superior to the double-layer coating. Typically, a barely visible pimple-like spallation was present on the surface of the graded coating after 21 cycles. On the other hand, obvious delamination was observed for a double-layer coating after six to seven cycles. Special focus was also placed on a comparative investigation of stresses that are closely related to spallation via the use of numerical simulation. [source]

    Spark Plasma Sintered Silicon Nitride Ceramics with High Thermal Conductivity Using MgSiN2 as Additives

    Gui-hua Peng
    Silicon nitride ceramics were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at temperatures of 1450°,1600°C for 3,12 min, using ,-Si3N4 powders as raw materials and MgSiN2 as sintering additives. Almost full density of the sample was achieved after sintering at 1450°C for 6 min, while there was about 80 wt%,-Si3N4 phase left in the sintered material. ,-Si3N4 was completely transformed to ,-Si3N4 after sintering at 1500°C for 12 min. The thermal conductivity of sintered materials increased with increasing sintering temperature or holding time. Thermal conductivity of 100 W·(m·K),1 was achieved after sintering at 1600°C for 12 min. The results imply that SPS is an effective and fast method to fabricate ,-Si3N4 ceramics with high thermal conductivity when appropriate additives are used. [source]

    Physical properties of rocks from the upper part of the Yaxcopoil-1 drill hole, Chicxulub crater

    Y. Popov
    Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, density, and porosity were measured on 120 dry and water-saturated rocks with a core sampling interval of 2,2.5 m. Nondestructive, non-contact optical scanning technology was used for thermal property measurements including thermal anisotropy and inhomogeneity. Supplementary petrophysical properties (acoustic velocities, formation resisitivity factor, internal surface, and hydraulic permeability) were determined on a selected subgroup of representative samples to derive correlations with the densely measured parameters, establishing estimated depth logs to provide calibration values for the interpretation of geophysical data. Significant short- and long-scale variations of porosity (1,37%) turned out to be the dominant factor influencing thermal, acoustic, and hydraulic properties of this post impact limestone formation. Correspondingly, large variations of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, acoustic velocities, and hydraulic permeability were found. These variations of physical properties allow us to subdivide the formation into several zones. A combination of experimental data on thermal conductivity for dry and water-saturated rocks and a theoretical model of effective thermal conductivity for heterogeneous media have been used to calculate thermal conductivity of mineral skeleton and pore aspect ratio for every core under study. The results on thermal parameters are the necessary basis for the determination of heat flow density, demonstrating the necessity of dense sampling in the case of inhomogeneous rock formations. [source]

    Thermo-optic nonlinear response of silver nanoparticle colloids under a low power laser irradiation at 532,nm

    Rouhollah Karimzadeh
    Abstract The thermo-optical properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the water are investigated under irradiation of a continuous wave (CW) laser at 532,nm. Thermal conductivity of the AgNP colloids is estimated using the Maxwell model. The closed Z-scan measurements reveal thermal contribution for the nonlinear refractive index of the AgNPs. The Z-scan behavior is investigated based on nonlocal thermo-optic process. It is shown that the aberrant thermal lens model is in excellent agreement with the Z-scan experimental results of the sample. A fit allows extracting the values of nonlinear refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient to be ,1.0,×,10,8,cm2/W and ,0.99,×,10,4,W/mK, respectively. Our results suggest that thermal nonlinear effects play an important role in the development of photonic application involving metal nanoparticle colloids and in the investigation of nonlocal nonlinear processes. [source]

    Thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of aluminum nitride filled linear low-density polyethylene composites

    Junwei Gu
    To acquire polymer composites with high thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, the aluminum nitride (AlN) microparticles modified with titanate coupling reagent of isopropyltrioleictitanate (NDZ-105) were employed to blend linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) via powder mixing method. Thermal conductive coefficient of the AlN/LLDPE composites was measured using hot disk thermal analyzer, and the thermal stability characteristics of AlN/LLDPE composites were mainly investigated via thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results indicated that the use of AlN particles modified by NDZ-105 significantly enhanced thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of AlN/LLDPE composites. The thermal conductivity coefficient , was 1.0842 W/mk with 30% volume fraction of AlN, about three times higher than that of native LLDPE. The tensile strength of composites was maximum (17.42 MPa) with 20% mass fraction of AlN. DSC analyses results indicated that AlN had an influence on the melting temperature and the crystallinity of LLDPE. Additionally, TGA analyses showed that the thermal stability of LLDPE was significantly increased with addition of AlN. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Thermal conductive PS/graphite composites

    Haoming Tu
    Abstract Polystyrene (PS) was compounded with graphite that possesses high thermal conductivity and layer structures, and the PS/graphite thermal conductive nano-composites were prepared. Thermal conductivity of PS improved remarkably in the presence of the graphite, and a much higher thermal conductivity of 1.95,W/m,K can be achieved for the composite with 34,vol% of colloidal graphite. The Maxwell-Eucken model and the Agari model were used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the composites. For the purpose of improving the interfacial compatibility of PS/graphite, realizing the exfoliation and nano-dispersion of graphite in the PS matrix, three intercalation methods, including rolling intercalation, solvent intercalation, and pan milling intercalation, were applied to prepare the composites, and the morphologies, thermal conductivities, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It should be noted that the one prepared by pan milling intercalation not only had excellent thermal conductivity but also much higher mechanical properties, resulting from a high degree of layer exfoliation of the graphite, the formation of the chain structure agglomerates of the graphite, and the creation of more conductive paths under the strong shear stress of pan milling. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Processing of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced ZrB2 Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications,

    Jorge Barcena
    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) based on zirconium diboride (ZrB2) reinforced by vapor grown carbon nanofibers are a potential constituent of reusable thermal protection systems. A manufacturing procedure was devised that involved the fabrication of thin films by tape casting to obtain a layer that could be integrated into a more complex system. Higher thermal conductivities and improved toughness can be expected for nanofiber additions, as compared to the matrix alone. Consolidation by hot-pressing was more effective than pressureless sintering, in terms of the final relative density and flatness of specimens. Examination of microstructures showed that few carbon nanofibers were present in the matrix after consolidation by sintering, which was attributed to a reaction between the nanofibers and zirconium oxide present on the surface of the ZrB2 powder. As a solution, oxygen impurities from the boride powders were removed by reduction with carbon coatings derived from phenolic resin. The deleterious reaction was avoided, but residual carbon remained at the grain boundaries, likely from decomposition of the binder. The use of an alternative binder (PMMA vs. PVB) will be used in future studies to reduce the residual carbon content. Further, consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) will be explored to further reduce the reaction of surface oxides with the nanofibers. Finally, characterization of the microstructure at the nanometric level and further determination of the mechanical and thermal properties will be conducted as part of future studies. [source]

    Polymer Scaffolds for Small-Diameter Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Haiyun Ma
    Abstract To better engineer small-diameter blood vessels, a few types of novel scaffolds are fabricated from biodegradable poly(L -lactic acid) (PLLA) by means of thermally induced phase-separation (TIPS) techniques. By utilizing the differences in thermal conductivities of the mold materials and using benzene as the solvent scaffolds with oriented gradient microtubular structures in the axial or radial direction can be created. The porosity, tubular size, and the orientational direction of the microtubules can be controlled by the polymer concentration, the TIPS temperature, and by utilizing materials of different thermal conductivities. These gradient microtubular structures facilitate cell seeding and mass transfer for cell growth and function. Nanofibrous scaffolds with an oriented and interconnected microtubular pore network are also developed by a one-step TIPS method using a benzene/tetrahydrofuran mixture as the solvent without the need for porogen materials. The structural features of such scaffolds can be conveniently adjusted by varying the solvent ratio, phase-separation temperature, and polymer concentration to mimic the nanofibrous features of an extracellular matrix. These scaffolds were fabricated for the tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels by utilizing their advantageous structural features to facilitate blood-vessel regeneration. [source]

    Towards a methodology for the characterization of fire resistive materials with respect to thermal performance models,

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 4 2006
    Dale P. Bentz
    Abstract A methodology is proposed for the characterization of fire resistive materials with respect to thermal performance models. Typically in these models, materials are characterized by their densities, heat capacities, thermal conductivities, and any enthalpies (of reaction or phase changes). For true performance modelling, these thermophysical properties need to be determined as a function of temperature for a wide temperature range from room temperature to over 1000°C. Here, a combined experimental/theoretical/modelling approach is proposed for providing these critical input parameters. Particularly, the relationship between the three-dimensional microstructure of the fire resistive materials and their thermal conductivities is highlighted. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]