Thermal Changes (thermal + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Analysis of 154 cases of teeth with cracks

Byoung-Duck Roh
Abstract,,, It is well known that cracked teeth occur most frequently in the mandibular molars with large or poor restorations, in those over 50 years of age. However, with increasing knowledge and experience with cracks of teeth, cracks appear to be found frequently in intact teeth without restorations. The aim of this study is to analyze the cases of tooth cracks in a dental hospital in a year, and to find out the characteristic features of cracks of teeth. For 1 year, each tooth that were identified as a cracked tooth was recorded and analyzed in terms of the classification of cavity and restorative material, the nature of opposing tooth, the location in the arch, the age and gender, and the clinical signs and symptoms, and treatment result. Cracked teeth were observed most frequently in the teeth with no restorations (60.4%) and with class I restorations (29.2%). The most prevalent age was in those over 40 years of age (31.2% in their 40s, 26.6% in their 50s) and the prevalence was similar in men (53.9%) and women (46.1%). Cracked teeth were found most frequently in the maxillary molars (33.8% in first molar, 23.4% in second molar) than in the mandibular molars (20.1% in first molar, 16.2% in second molar). 96.1% of the cracked teeth responded to the bite test, and 81.1% of the cracked teeth were observed in the mesiodistal direction. The prevalence of cracked tooth was highest in the intact teeth with no restoration, in maxillary molars, and in those over 40 years of age. When examining a intact maxillary posterior tooth that is sensitive to a bite and thermal change, crack in the mesiodistal direction need to be considered one of the causes. [source]

Rock thermal data at the grain scale: applicability to granular disintegration in cold environments

Kevin Hall
Abstract Consideration of the mechanisms associated with the granular disintegration of rock has been limited by available data. In most instances, both the size of the transducer and the nature of the study have negated any applicability of the resulting data to the understanding of grain-to-grain separation within rock. The application of microthermocouples (,015 mm diameter) and high-frequency logging (20 s intervals) at a taffoni site on southern Alexander Island and from a rock outcrop on Adelaide Island (Antarctica) provide new data pertaining to the thermal conditions, at the grain scale, of the rock surface. The results show that thermal changes (,T/t) can be very high, with values of 22 C min,1 being recorded. Although available data indicate that there can be differences in frequency and magnitude of ,uctuations as a function of aspect, all aspects experienced some large magnitude (,2 C min,1) ,uctuations. Further, in many instances, large thermal changes in more than one direction could occur within 1 min or in subsequent minutes. These data suggest that the surface grains experience rapidly changing stress ,elds that may, with time, effect fatigue at the grain boundaries; albedo differences between grains and the resulting thermal variations are thought to exacerbate this. The available data failed to show any indication of water freezing (an exotherm) and thus it is suggested that microgelivation may not play as large a role in granular breakdown as is often postulated for cold regions, and that in this dry, Antarctic region thermal stress may play a signi,cant role. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal regimes and their potential evolutionary consequences

Michael J. Angilletta Jr
Abstract Dams designed for hydropower and other purposes alter the environments of many economically important fishes, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We estimated that dams on the Rogue River, the Willamette River, the Cowlitz River, and Fall Creek decreased water temperatures during summer and increased water temperatures during fall and winter. These thermal changes undoubtedly impact the behavior, physiology, and life histories of Chinook salmon. For example, relatively high temperatures during the fall and winter should speed growth and development, leading to early emergence of fry. Evolutionary theory provides tools to predict selective pressures and genetic responses caused by this environmental warming. Here, we illustrate this point by conducting a sensitivity analysis of the fitness consequences of thermal changes caused by dams, mediated by the thermal sensitivity of embryonic development. Based on our model, we predict Chinook salmon likely suffered a decrease in mean fitness after the construction of a dam in the Rogue River. Nevertheless, these demographic impacts might have resulted in strong selection for compensatory strategies, such as delayed spawning by adults or slowed development by embryos. Because the thermal effects of dams vary throughout the year, we predict dams impacted late spawners more than early spawners. Similar analyses could shed light on the evolutionary consequences of other environmental perturbations and their interactions. [source]

Fetal Learning With Ethanol: Correlations Between Maternal Hypothermia During Pregnancy and Neonatal Responsiveness to Chemosensory Cues of the Drug

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2004
Paula Abate
Abstract: Background: Fetuses learn about ethanol odor when the drug is present in the amniotic fluid. Prenatal learning comprising ethanol's chemosensory cues also suggests an acquired association between ethanol's chemosensory and postabsorptive properties. Ethanol-related thermal disruptions have been implicated as a significant component of the drug's unconditioned properties. In the present study, ethanol-induced thermal changes were analyzed in pregnant rats subjected to a moderate ethanol dose. This thermal response was later tested for its correlation with the responsiveness of the progeny to ethanol and nonethanol chemosensory stimuli. Methods: During gestational day (GD) 14, pregnant rats were subjected to a minor surgical procedure to place a subcutaneous telemetric thermal sensor in the nape of the neck. During GDs 17 to 20, females received a daily intragastric administration of ethanol (2 g/kg) or water, using solutions kept at room temperature. Maternal body temperatures were recorded before and after (4 consecutive hours) the administration of water or ethanol. Newborns representative of both prenatal treatments were tested in terms of behavioral activity elicited by the smell of ethanol or of a novel odorant (cineole). A third group of pups were tested in response to unscented air stimulation. Results: Ethanol administration during late gestation induced reliable maternal hypothermia, a thermal disruption greater than that observed in water-treated females. It was systematically observed that maternal ethanol-induced hypothermia negatively correlated with neonatal motor reactivity elicited by ethanol olfactory stimulation. No other significant correlations were observed in terms of responsiveness to cineole or to unscented air in animals prenatally exposed to ethanol or water. Conclusions: In conjunction with prior research, the present results indicate that fetal ethanol exposure may yield learning of an association between ethanol's sensory and unconditioned properties. Ethanol-induced hypothermia during late gestation seems to represent a significant component of ethanol's unconditioned consequences. Specifically, ethanol-related thermal disruptions in the womb are highly predictive of neonatal responsiveness to ethanol's chemosensory cues that are known to be processed by the near-term fetus. [source]