Thermal Annealing (thermal + annealing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Thermal Annealing

  • rapid thermal annealing


  • Selected Abstracts


    Hybrid Solar Cells from Regioregular Polythiophene and ZnO Nanoparticles,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2006

    Abstract Blends of nanocrystalline zinc oxide nanoparticles (nc-ZnO) and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) processed from solution have been used to construct hybrid polymer,metal oxide bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Thermal annealing of the spin-cast films significantly improves the solar-energy conversion efficiency of these hybrid solar cells to ,,0.9,%. Photoluminescence and photoinduced absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that charge-carrier generation is not quantitative, because a fraction of P3HT appears not to be in contact with or in close proximity to ZnO. The coarse morphology of the films, also identified by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, likely limits the device performance. [source]


    Effect of wood flour loading and thermal annealing on viscoelastic properties of poly(lactic acid) composite films

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
    M. Hrabalova
    Abstract Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films filled with up to 50 wt % softwood flour were prepared by melt compounding and thermocompression. Thermal annealing of the melt was performed at temperatures from 90C to 120C, for 45 min. Responses on polymer-filler interactions, viscoelastic properties, crystallinity of PLA as well as PLA-wood flour-filled films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effectiveness of fillers on the storage moduli (C) was also calculated. The results reveal that wood flour (WF) in conjunction with thermal annealing affected the melting behavior of PLA matrix, and the glass transition temperature. It was further found that the effectiveness of the wood filler in biocomposites widely improved with thermal annealing as well as with higher WF concentration. Finally, it was found that the compatibility between WF and the PLA matrix can be improved when suitable annealing conditions are applied. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Cathodoluminescence evaluation of subsurface damage in GaN substrate after polishing

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    K. Y. Lai
    Abstract The surface of HVPE grown GaN substrates were treated with two different polishing procedures. Both procedures were successful in producing highly smooth and featureless surfaces. However, subsurface damage was observed in the sample treated by one of the procedures. The subsurface damage was revealed by cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy imaging but was not visible by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermal annealing at 950 C with different gases was performed in an attempt to remove subsurface damages. Annealing in gas mixtures containing H2 increased both the presence of surface scratches and overall surface roughness. On the other hand, annealing in mixtures of NH3 and N2 (with no H2) led to the surfaces with significantly reduced subsurface damage. The surface roughness and optical properties of the sample after the annealing with such gas mixtures were slightly sacrificed. In order to evaluate subsurface damage depth, CL images were taken from the annealed surface for different acceleration voltages. The results suggest that the observed subsurface damages were within 1.48 ,m of the surface. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Metastable and stable states of xanthan polyelectrolyte complexes studied by atomic force microscopy

    BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 3 2004
    Gjertrud Maurstad
    Abstract The compaction of the semiflexible polysaccharide xanthan with selected multi- and polyvalent cations was studied. Polyelectrolyte complexes prepared at concentrations of 1,2 ,g/ml were observed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. High-molecular-weight xanthan compacted with chitosan yields a blend of mainly toroidal and metastable structures and a small fraction of rod-like species. Polyelectrolyte complexes of xanthan with polyethylenimine and trivalent chromium yielded similar structures or alternatively less well packed species. Racquet-type morphologies were identified as kinetically trapped states occurring on the folding path toward the energetically stable state of the toroids. Thermal annealing yielded a shift of the distribution of xanthan,chitosan morphologies toward this stable state. Ensembles of toroidal and rod-like morphologies of the xanthan,chitosan structures, collected using an asphericity index, were analyzed. The mean height of the toroids increased upon heating, with a selective increase in the height range above 2 nm. It is suggested that the observed metastable structures are formed from the high-molecular-weight fraction of xanthan and that these are driven toward the toroidal state, being a low-energy state, following annealing. Considered a model system for condensation of semiflexible polymers, the compaction of xanthan by chitosan captures the system at various stages in the folding toward a low-energy state and thus allows experimental analyses of these intermediates and their evolution. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers, 2004 [source]


    Preparation, structure and photoluminescence properties of SiO2,coated ZnS nanowires

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Changhyun Jin
    Abstract It is essential to passivate one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with insulating materials to avoid crosstalking as well as to protect them from contamination and oxidation. The structure and influence of thermal annealing on the photoluminescence properties of ZnS-core/SiO2 -shell nanowires synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnS powders followed by the sputter deposition of SiO2 were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the cores and shells of the core-shell nanowires were single crystal zinc blende-type ZnO and amorphous SiO2, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed that the core-shell nanowires had a green emission band centered at around 525 nm with a shoulder at around 385 nm. The PL emission of the core-shell nanowires was enhanced in intensity by annealing in an oxidative atmosphere and further enhanced by subsequently annealing in a reducing atmosphere. Also the origin of the enhancement of the green emission by annealing is discussed based on the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis results. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Oxide layer dissolution in Si/SiOx/Si wafer bonded structures

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    N. Zakharov
    Abstract The evolution of the interfaces of hydrophilic-bonded Si wafers and the corresponding low-angle twist boundary have been analysed in relation to thermal annealing and their relative crystallographic orientation. Two orientation relationships were investigated: Si<001>/Si<001> and Si<001>/Si<110>, where the interfaces are seperated by thin native SiO2 layers. The interfaces were analysed by TEM and STEM/EELS. It is found that the decomposition rate of the intermediate oxide layer and the formation of a Si(Si bonded interface depend very much on the lattice mismatch and on the twist angle. The velocity of the dissolution of the thin oxide layers and the formation of Si(Si bonds at the bonding interface depend on the orientation relations of the corresponding wafers. The processes of interface fusion and the dissolution of oxide layer are discussed. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Formation of diffusion-hindering interlayers in metals in contact by dedicated thermal treatment

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1-2 2005
    D. C. Meyer
    Abstract Thermal evolution of the structure of Fe/Al multilayers (MLs) with nominal composition 5*(5 nm Al / 5 nm Fe) prepared by crossed-beam pulsed laser deposition is studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray reflectometry after different temperature-time procedures of thermal treatments under high-vacuum conditions. In comparison to direct thermal annealing at temperatures of 250 C and 275 C, respectively, which results in nearly complete mixing of the MLs and formation of the FeAl intermetallic compound, quite different behaviour was found after dedicated thermal pretreatment. Annealing at successive growing temperatures before final annealing at temperatures mentioned, resulted in conservation of pronounced multilayer structure. From the results it is generalised, that also in the case of ML systems, the tendency of mixing a dedicated tuning of interface characteristics by thermal treatment allows for formation of diffusion-hindering interlayers. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Influence of nanocrystalization on magnetoelastic Villari effect in Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 alloy

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3-5 2003
    R. Szewczyk
    Abstract The results of an investigation of the influence of thermal annealing on the magnetoelastic properties of Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 soft magnetic alloy in both amorphous and nanocrystalline state are presented. A new method developed was used to apply uniform compressive stresses to the investigated ring core made of the alloy. The compressive stresses produced by external mechanical forces were applied perpendicularly to the direction of the magnetizing field. Due to the uniform distribution of stresses in the core brittle nanocrystalline alloys may be tested for stresses up to 10 MPa. The results revealed, that process of nanocrystallisation causes significant increase in the stress sensitivity of the Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 alloy. Moreover the influence of stresses caused by external forces is more significant at relatively low values of the magnetizing field suggesting that these nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials are stress sensitive in the range of technical operation of inductive components based on such materials. [source]


    Nanodiamond Thin Film Electrodes: Metal Electro-Deposition and Stripping Processes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3 2003
    Hian, Lau Chi
    Abstract The properties of a nanodiamond thin film deposit formed on titanium substrates in a microwave-plasma enhanced CVD process, are investigated for applications in electroanalysis. The nanodiamond deposit consists of intergrown nano-sized platelets of diamond with a high sp2 carbon content giving it high electrical conductivity and electrochemical reactivity. Nanodiamond thin film electrodes (of approximately 2,,m thickness) are characterized by electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. First, for a reversible one electron redox system, Ru(NH3)63+/2+, nanodiamond is shown to give well-defined diffusion controlled voltammetric responses. Next, metal deposition processes are shown to proceed on nanodiamond with high reversibility and high efficiency compared to processes reported on boron-doped diamond. The nucleation of gold is shown to be facile at edge sites, which are abundant on the nanodiamond surface. For the deposition and stripping of both gold and copper, a stripping efficiency (the ratio of electro-dissolution charge to electro-deposition charge) of close to unity is detected even at low concentrations of analyte. The effect of thermal annealing in air is shown to drastically modify the electrode characteristics probably due to interfacial oxidation, loss of active sp2 sites, and loss of conductivity. [source]


    Organic Electronics: High Tg Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Gate Dielectrics for N,N,-Ditridecyl Perylene Diimide Based Field-Effect Transistors: Improving Performance and Stability with Thermal Treatment (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 16 2010
    Mater.
    Abstract A novel application of ethylene-norbornene cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) as gate dielectric layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that require thermal annealing as a strategy for improving the OFET performance and stability is reported. The thermally-treated N,N, -ditridecyl perylene diimide (PTCDI-C13)-based n-type FETs using a COC/SiO2 gate dielectric show remarkably enhanced atmospheric performance and stability. The COC gate dielectric layer displays a hydrophobic surface (water contact angle = 95 1) and high thermal stability (glass transition temperature = 181 C) without producing crosslinking. After thermal annealing, the crystallinity improves and the grain size of PTCDI-C13 domains grown on the COC/SiO2 gate dielectric increases significantly. The resulting n-type FETs exhibit high atmospheric field-effect mobilities, up to 0.90 cm2 V,1 s,1 in the 20 V saturation regime and long-term stability with respect to H2O/O2 degradation, hysteresis, or sweep-stress over 110 days. By integrating the n-type FETs with p-type pentacene-based FETs in a single device, high performance organic complementary inverters that exhibit high gain (exceeding 45 in ambient air) are realized. [source]


    High Tg Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Gate Dielectrics for N,N,-Ditridecyl Perylene Diimide Based Field-Effect Transistors: Improving Performance and Stability with Thermal Treatment

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 16 2010
    Jaeyoung Jang
    Abstract A novel application of ethylene-norbornene cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) as gate dielectric layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that require thermal annealing as a strategy for improving the OFET performance and stability is reported. The thermally-treated N,N, -ditridecyl perylene diimide (PTCDI-C13)-based n-type FETs using a COC/SiO2 gate dielectric show remarkably enhanced atmospheric performance and stability. The COC gate dielectric layer displays a hydrophobic surface (water contact angle = 95 1) and high thermal stability (glass transition temperature = 181 C) without producing crosslinking. After thermal annealing, the crystallinity improves and the grain size of PTCDI-C13 domains grown on the COC/SiO2 gate dielectric increases significantly. The resulting n-type FETs exhibit high atmospheric field-effect mobilities, up to 0.90 cm2 V,1 s,1 in the 20 V saturation regime and long-term stability with respect to H2O/O2 degradation, hysteresis, or sweep-stress over 110 days. By integrating the n-type FETs with p-type pentacene-based FETs in a single device, high performance organic complementary inverters that exhibit high gain (exceeding 45 in ambient air) are realized. [source]


    P3HT/PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Impact of Blend Composition and 3D Morphology on Device Performance

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 9 2010
    Svetlana S. van Bavel
    Abstract The performance of polymer solar cells (PSC) strongly depends on the 3D morphological organization of the donor and acceptor compounds within the bulk heterojunction active layer. The technique of electron tomography is a powerful tool for studying 3D morphology of the layers composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester; PCBM), especially to quantify the amount and distribution of fibrillar P3HT nanocrystals throughout the volume of the active layer. In this study, electron tomography is used to characterize P3HT/PCBM layers with different blend compositions, both before and after thermal annealing. The power conversion efficiency of the corresponding PSCs is strongly dependent on the overall crystallinity of P3HT and the way P3HT crystals are distributed throughout the thickness of the active layer. [source]


    Abrupt Morphology Change upon Thermal Annealing in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene)/Soluble Fullerene Blend Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
    Minjung Shin
    Abstract The in situ morphology change upon thermal annealing in bulk heterojunction blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) is measured by a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) method using a synchrotron radiation source. The results show that the film morphology,including the size and population of P3HT crystallites,abruptly changes at 140,C between 5 and 30,min and is then stable up to 120,min. This trend is almost in good agreement with the performance change of polymer solar cells fabricated under the same conditions. The certain morphology change after 5,min annealing at 140,C is assigned to the on-going thermal transition of P3HT molecules in the presence of PCBM transition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the crack-like surface of blend films becomes smaller after a very short annealing time, but does not change further with increasing annealing time. These findings indicate that the stability of P3HT:PCBM solar cells cannot be secured by short-time annealing owing to the unsettled morphology, even though the resulting efficiency is high. [source]


    High-Resolution Spectroscopic Mapping of the Chemical Contrast from Nanometer Domains in P3HT:PCBM Organic Blend Films for Solar-Cell Applications

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 3 2010
    Xiao Wang
    Abstract A high-resolution near-field spectroscopic mapping technique is successfully applied to investigate the influence of thermal annealing on the morphology of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-penyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blend film. Based on the simultaneously recorded morphological and spectroscopic information, the interplay among the blend film morphology, the local P3HT:PCBM molecular distribution, and the P3HT photoluminescence (PL) quenching efficiency are systematically discussed. The PL and Raman signals of the electron donor (P3HT) and acceptor (PCBM) are probed at an optical resolution of approximately 10,nm, which allows the chemical nature of the different domains to be identified directly. In addition, the local PL quenching efficiency, which is related to the electron transfer from P3HT to PCBM, is quantitatively revealed. From these experimental results, it is proposed that high-resolution near-field spectroscopic imaging is capable of mapping the local chemical composition and photophysics of the P3HT:PCBM blends on a scale of a few nanometers. [source]


    Transistor Paint: Environmentally Stable N -alkyldithienopyrrole and Bithiazole-Based Copolymer Thin-Film Transistors Show Reproducible High Mobilities without Annealing

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 21 2009
    Junying Liu
    Abstract New solution processable 4-(2-hexyldecan)- 4H -bisthieno[2,3- d:3,,2,- b]pyrrole and 4,4,-dialkyl-2,2,-bithiazole-based copolymers (PBTzDTPs) are synthesized with excellent FET performance. These novel copolymers have considerable potential in printable electronics as they have high charge carrier mobilities, excellent air stability, good solution processibility, and no requirement for post-deposition thermal annealing, all requirements for this field of application. The thin film transistors fabricated from PBTzDTPs achieve field effect mobilities as high as 0.14,cm2 V,1 s,1 with current on/off ratios up to 106 without thermal annealing. In addition, the devices exhibit stable performance in air, showing no significant degradation over 60 days. Moreover, the polymers described here provide an excellent example of the systems in which higher mobility performance does not require higher crystalline, long-range ordered structures. Such a system appears to be particularly promising for rapid fabrication techniques, where kinetic conditions usually prevent the development of long-range order. [source]


    Spontaneous Lamellar Alignment in Thickness-Modulated Block Copolymer Films

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 16 2009
    Bong Hoon Kim
    Abstract Here, spontaneous lamellar alignment in a thickness-modulated block copolymer film is presented as a facile, scalable, and general approach for creating a highly aligned lamellar morphology. Thickness-modulated block copolymer films are prepared on neutral surfaces by various methods, such as solution dropping, dewetting-induced self-organized patterning, and thermal imprinting. Regardless of the film preparation method, the self-assembled lamellar domains become spontaneously aligned along the thickness gradient after sufficient thermal annealing. Real-time AFM imaging reveals that spontaneous alignment occurs through the directional growth of well-ordered domains along the thickness gradient, which is accompanied by defect dynamics, with vertical linear defects moving from thicker parts of the film towards the thinner ones, reducing their length and thus the associated energy. The mechanism underlying this interesting self-aligning behavior is provided by a ,geometric anchoring' phenomenon, originally envisioned to account for the liquid crystal alignment under a non-flat geometry of confinement. This novel self-aligning principle offers a valuable opportunity to control nanoscale alignment in block copolymer films by manipulating the, much larger, microscale morphology. [source]


    Repeated Transfer of Colloidal Patterns by Using Reversible Buckling Process

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 13 2009
    Dong Choon Hyun
    Abstract The reversible nature of buckling is employed to repeatedly transfer colloids assembled in buckling patterns to flat surfaces. The cycle of colloidal loading,transfer,buckling is repeatedly carried out to fabricate the same colloidal patterns. The key to success is the reduction in the amplitude of the buckling patterns to a few nanometers as well as the recovery of initial buckling patterns after repeated stretching. The reduced buckling amplitude by poststretching or thermal annealing embosses the colloids assembled in the trenches of the buckling patterns, which enables the transfer regardless of the size, species, or layer thickness of the particles. This report demonstrates various transferred patterns composed of colloidal crystals, fluorescence hydrogel colloids, Au nanoparticles, and iron oxide magnetic particles. Since the process does not require surface modification of the colloids, it can be used to fabricate any colloidal patterns. [source]


    Synthesis and Processing of Monodisperse Oligo(fluorene- co -bithiophene)s into Oriented Films by Thermal and Solvent Annealing

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 12 2009
    Lichang Zeng
    Abstract A series of oligo(fluorene- co -bithiophene)s, OF2Ts, have been synthesized and characterized to investigate the effects of oligomer length and pendant aliphatic structure on glassy-nematic mesomorphism. The OF2Ts comprising more than one repeat unit and their polymer analogue, PF2T, carrying 52 number-average repeat units, possess the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level at ,5.3,,0.2,eV, but the anisotropic field-effect mobilities increase with the oligomer length. Spin coating from high-boiling chlorobenzene with and without subsequent exposure to saturated chlorobenzene vapor constitute solvent-vapor annealing and quasi-solvent annealing, respectively. Solvent-vapor annealing yields monodomain glassy-nematic films in which OF2Ts are aligned as well as with thermal annealing across a 2,cm diameter. Quasi-solvent annealing, however, amounts to kinetically trapping a lower orientational order than solvent-vapor or thermal annealing. While amenable to thermal annealing at elevated temperatures, PF2T shows no alignment at all following either strategy of solvent annealing. [source]


    Influence of Electric Field on Microstructures of Pentacene Thin-Films in Field-Effect Transistors,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 2 2008
    L. Cheng
    Abstract We report on electric-field-induced irreversible structural modifications in pentacene thin films after long-term operation of organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. Micro-Raman spectroscopy allows for the analysis of the microstructural modifications of pentacene in the small active channel of OFET during device operation. The results suggest that the herringbone packing of pentacene molecules in a solid film is affected by an external electric field, particularly the source-to-drain field that parallels the a,b lattice plane. The analysis of vibrational frequency and Davydov splitting in the Raman spectra reveals a singular behavior suggesting a reduced separation distance between pentacene molecules after long-term operations and, thus, large intermolecular interactions. These results provide evidence for improved OFET performance after long-term operation, related to the microstructures of organic semiconductors. It is known that the application of large electric fields alters the semiconductor properties of the material owing to the generation of defects and the trapping of charges. However, we first suggest that large electric fields may alter the molecular geometry and further induce structural phase transitions in the pentacene films. These results provide a basis for understanding the improved electronic properties in test devices after long-term operations, including enhanced field-effect mobility, improved on/off current ratio, sharp sub-threshold swing, and a slower decay rate in the output drain current. In addition, the effects of source-to-drain electric field, gate electric field, current and charge carriers, and thermal annealing on the pentacene films during OFET operations are discussed. [source]


    Palladium Nanowire from Precursor Nanowire: Crystal-to-Crystal Transformation via In,Situ Reduction by Polymer Matrix,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 14 2007
    S. Porel
    Abstract Precursor nanowires of potassium palladium(II) chloride crystallized inside a poly(vinyl alcohol) film are reduced to palladium nanowires by the polymer itself under mild thermal annealing. The chemical reaction occurring in situ inside the polymer film, including byproduct formation, is investigated through electronic absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy together with atomic force and electron microscopy. The overall process can be described as a novel case of crystal-to-crystal transformation at the nanoscopic level. Optical limiting characteristics of the nanowire-embedded polymer film are explored. The fabrication procedure developed, involving chemistry inside a polymer matrix mediated by the polymer, opens up a convenient route to the fabrication of free-standing metal nanowire-embedded thin films. [source]


    Effects of Annealing on the Nanomorphology and Performance of Poly(alkylthiophene):Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 7 2007
    H. Nguyen
    Abstract The evolution of nanomorphology within thin solid-state films of poly(3-alkylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3AT:PCBM) blends during the film formation and subsequent thermal annealing is reported. In detail, the influence of the P3AT's alkyl side chain length on the polymer/fullerene phase separation is discussed. Butyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, and dodecyl side groups are investigated. All of the P3ATs used were regioregular. To elucidate the nanomorphology, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy are applied. Furthermore, photovoltaic devices of each of the different P3ATs have been constructed, characterized, and correlated with the nanostructure of the blends. It is proposed that the thermal-annealing step, commonly applied to these P3AT:PCBM blend films, controls two main issues at the same time: a),the crystallization of P3AT and b),the phase separation and diffusion of PCBM. The results show that PCBM diffusion is the main limiting process for reaching high device performances. [source]


    Insight into the Role of Oxidation in the Thermally Induced Green Band in Fluorene-Based Systems,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 4 2007
    R. Grisorio
    Abstract The causes of the spectral instability of poly[9,9-dioctylfluoren-2,7-diyl-co-2,,7,-spiro(cyclohexane-1,9,-fluorene)] during thermal annealing in air, which leads to a green photoluminescence (PL) emission band, are investigated. The Igreen/Iblue ratio evolution (I,=,intensity) is found to be independent of the amount of monoalkylfluorene defects, despite the fact that their presence might be regarded as a trigger for the radical process leading to polymer degradation in the presence of a trace amount of metal catalyst. Furthermore, the absence of a correlation between the degree of oxidation of the material and the Igreen/Iblue ratio indicates that the spatial disposition of fluorenones formed during the thermal degradation of the material, rather than their amount, is to be strictly related to the Igreen/Iblue ratio. The evidenced formation of fluorenone agglomerates, which could be considered the cause for the consistent increase in the Igreen/Iblue ratio during a thermal oxidation of a polyfluorene, confirms that the radical mechanism can also involve dialkylfluorene systems. Finally, the higher resistance to thermal degradation shown by spirocyclohexane fluorene units with respect to dioctylfluorene ones allows the synthesis of new, spectrally stable, fluorene-based copolymers. [source]


    Depletion of PCBM at the Cathode Interface in P3HT/PCBM Thin Films as Quantified via Neutron Reflectivity Measurements

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 22 2010
    Andrew J. Parnell
    Using neutron reflectivity, self-stratification in a model P3HT/PCBM blend is observed. The as-spun and solvent-annealed films show a depletion of PCBM near the top surface and enrichment of PCBM at the substrate (see figure). Depletion of PCBM at the cathode interface in a photovoltaic device could act as a barrier to efficient electron extraction. On thermal annealing, the PCBM depleted region is eliminated; an effect that partially explains the improvement of P3HT/PCBM devices on thermal annealing. [source]


    Printed Origami Structures (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2010
    20/2010)
    Bok Y. Ahn, Jennifer Lewis, and co-workers report on p.,2251 a new method for creating complex 3D structures that combines direct-write assembly with a wet-folding origami technique. Planar lattices composed of a titanium hydride ink are printed, and then folded, rolled, or molded into the desired shape. These 3D objects are then transformed into metallic or ceramic structures by thermal annealing. [source]


    Directing Colloidal Self-Assembly with Biaxial Electric Fields

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 30 2009
    Mirjam E. Leunissen
    Hexagonal sheets of colloidal particles self-assemble in a biaxial electric field and can be made permanent by thermal annealing. One can also rapidly switch the suspension structure from isotropic, to 1D ,strings' and 2D ,sheets', which is useful for applications that require anisotropic suspension properties. Thus, multiaxial fields offer a flexible way to manipulate colloidal interactions and their self-assembled structures. [source]


    Ordered Ferroelectric Lead Titanate Nanocellular Structure by Conversion of Anodic TiO2 Nanotubes

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 30 2009
    Jan M. Macak
    The novel synthesis of ferroelectric perovskite PbTiO3 layers is reported. For that, anodic self-organized TiO2 nanotubes are used as a template for deposition of Pb inside the nanotubes. Upon thermal annealing, the filled template is converted to desired perovskite structure with nanocellular architecture. This approach could be advantageously used for synthesis of other piezoelectric or composite materials. [source]


    Highly Ordered, Millimeter-Scale, Continuous, Single-Crystalline Graphene Monolayer Formed on Ru (0001)

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 27 2009
    Yi Pan
    A single-crystalline graphene monolayer is grown on a Ru(0001) surface by thermal annealing of a ruthenium single crystal containing carbon. The layer is highly ordered, continuous, and exhibits perfect crystallinity, with good long-range order on the order of millimeters (see figure). These findings offer high-quality graphene layers for fundamental research as well as large-scale graphene wafers for device fabrication and integration. [source]


    Dispersible Ferromagnetic FePt Nanoparticles

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 8 2009
    Jaemin Kim
    A simple method to produce ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticle dispersions by thermal annealing of core/shell-structured FePt/MgO nanoparticles and removal of MgO in the presence of hexadecanethiol and oleic acid is reported. The ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles have a room temperature coercivity of 1 T and magnetization of 56.4 emu per gram of FePt, and are suitable for single-particle magnetism studies and other magnetic applications. [source]


    Fabrication of Highly Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Films by Vapor Phase Polymerization and Their Application in Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 17 2007
    A. Levermore
    Flexible polymer light-emitting diodes (see photo) are fabricated using highly conductive vapor-phase polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (VPP,PEDOT) as an anode material. The influence of the VPP,PEDOT film thickness and the effects of thermal annealing and oxygen-plasma treatment on conductivity, work function, and optical transmission are explored and used to optimize device performance, resulting ultimately in devices that have efficiencies comparable to those with indium tin oxide anodes. [source]


    Self-Assembly of Nanoparticle,Copolymer Mixtures: A Kinetic Point of View,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 3 2007
    J. He
    The prediction of synergistic effects between two self-organizing systems is tested. In,situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (see figure) is used during thermal annealing of a nanoparticle,copolymer mixture, and shows that the orientation of the microdomains begins at the free surface and propagates in the film towards the substrate. This synergistic interaction is shown to apply to both cylindrical and lamellar block-copolymer morphologies. [source]