Therapy Used (therapy + used)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Lipids and skin barrier function , a clinical perspective

Jakob Mutanu Jungersted
The stratum corneum (SC) protects us from dehydration and external dangers. Much is known about the morphology of the SC and penetration of drugs through it, but the data are mainly derived from in vitro and animal experiments. In contrast, only a few studies have the human SC lipids as their focus and in particular, the role of barrier function in the pathogenesis of skin disease and its subsequent treatment protocols. The 3 major lipids in the SC of importance are ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. Human studies comparing levels of the major SC lipids in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls have suggested a possible role for ceramide 1 and to some extent ceramide 3 in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therapies used in diseases involving barrier disruption have been sparely investigated from a lipid perspective. It has been suggested that ultraviolet light as a treatment increases the amount of all 3 major SC lipids, while topical glucocorticoids may lead to a decrease. Such effects may influence the clinical outcome of treatment in diseases with impaired barrier function. We have, therefore, conducted a review of the literature on SC lipids from a clinical perspective. It may be concluded that the number of human studies is very limited, and in the perspective of how important diseases of impaired barrier function are in dermatology, further research is needed. [source]

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Used to Heal Complex Urinary Fistula Wounds Following Renal Transplantation into an Ileal Conduit

Sarah Heap
Transplantation into an ileal conduit is an established option for patients with end-stage renal failure and a nonfunctioning urinary tract. Urinary fistulae are more common following these complex transplants. Urinary fistula in this scenario can cause substantial morbidity and even result in graft loss. The management options depend on the viability of the transplant ureter, the level of local sepsis and the overall condition of the patient. Urinary diversion with a nephrostomy and ureteric stents has been described in aiding the healing of urinary leaks in renal transplants into a functioning urinary tract. We describe the successful use of negative wound pressure therapy to eradicate the local sepsis and help the healing of a recurrent urinary fistula following kidney transplantation into an ileal conduit. To our knowledge these are the first such cases reported in the literature. [source]

Lymphoma risk in inflammatory bowel disease: Is it the disease or its treatment?

Jennifer L. Jones MD
Abstract With the increasingly widespread use of immunosuppressive and biologic agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis come concerns about potential long-term consequences of such therapies. Disentangling the potential confounding effects of the underlying disease, its extent, severity, duration, and behavior, and concomitant medical therapy has proven to be exceedingly difficult. Unlike the case in rheumatoid arthritis, the overwhelming preponderance of population-based evidence suggests that a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not associated with an increased relative risk of lymphoma. However, well-designed studies that evaluate the potential modifying effect of IBD severity have yet to be performed. Although the results from hospital- and population-based studies have conflicted, the results of a recent meta-analysis suggest that patients receiving purine analogs for the treatment of IBD have a lymphoma risk ,4-fold higher than expected. Analyses of lymphoma risk in patients receiving biologic agents directed against tumor necrosis factor-alpha are confounded by concomitant use of immunosuppressive agents in most of these patients. Nevertheless, there may be a small but real risk of lymphoma associated with these therapies. Although the relative risk of lymphoma may be elevated in association with some of the medical therapies used in the treatment of IBD, this absolute risk is low. Weighing the potential risk of lymphoma associated with select medical therapies against the risk of undertreating IBD will help physicians and patients to make more informed decisions pertaining to the medical management of IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

An evaluation of intermittent therapies used to treat onychomycosis and other dermatomycoses with the oral antifungal agents

Aditya K. Gupta
First page of article [source]

Current management of adult idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in practice: a cohort study of 201 patients from a single center,

J. Zimmer
Summary To define usefulness and response to therapy and outcome in adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of 201 consecutive patients with ITP, diagnosed between 1985 and 1994. In particular, we analyzed the therapies used, their response rates, prognostic indicators of response and outcome. In 62 patients, with minor bleeding episodes and a mean (±SD) platelet count of 88 ± 23 × 109/l, no treatment was used and chronic ITP was diagnosed in 59%. A total of 139 patients, with bleeding episodes in 71.2% cases and a mean platelet count of 20 ± 13 × 109/l, received at least one treatment. Three patients died (1.5% of the series). Corticosteroids were used in 118 patients, with an initial response rate of 82.2% and a long-term complete response (CR) of only 22.9%. Intravenous immunoglobulin was used in 26 patients, with an initial transient response in more than 60%. A splenectomy was performed in 55 patients, with an initial response rate of 92.5% and a long-term CR in 60%. Young age and prior response to corticosteroids were significant predictors of a durable response to splenectomy. Danazol was given in 37 patients, with a favorable response in 73% of cases. Our results illustrate the guidelines of the American Society of Hematology. Patients with moderate thrombocytopenia do not require treatment. In severe cases, splenectomy is the only treatment giving durable cures in a significant proportion of patients. Despite frequent chronicity, ITP is life-threatening only in a minor subset of patients. [source]

Mind-Body Interventions During Pregnancy

Amy E. Beddoe
ABSTRACT Objective:, To examine published evidence on the effectiveness of mind-body interventions during pregnancy on perceived stress, mood, and perinatal outcomes. Data sources:, Computerized searches of PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Study Selection:, Twelve out of 64 published intervention studies between 1980 and February 2007 of healthy, adult pregnant women met criteria for review. Data extraction and synthesis:, Studies were categorized by type of mind-body modality used. Progressive muscle relaxation was the most common intervention. Other studies used a multimodal psychoeducation approach or a yoga and meditation intervention. The research contained methodological problems, primarily absence of a randomized control group or failure to adequately control confounding variables. Nonetheless, there was modest evidence for the efficacy of mind-body modalities during pregnancy. Treatment group outcomes included higher birthweight, shorter length of labor, fewer instrument-assisted births, and reduced perceived stress and anxiety. Conclusions:, There is evidence that pregnant women have health benefits from mind-body therapies used in conjunction with conventional prenatal care. Further research is necessary to build on these studies in order to predict characteristics of subgroups that might benefit from mind-body practices and examine cost effectiveness of these interventions on perinatal outcomes. [source]

Optimizing outcomes with incretin-based therapies: Practical information for nurse practitioners to share with patients

BC-ADM, C-RNP, CDE Nurse Practitioner, Evelyne Fleury-Milfort MSN, Instructor in Clinical Medicine
Abstract Purpose: To introduce the role of incretin therapies and suggest strategies for nurse practitioners to implement them in practice. Data sources: PubMed, Medline, summary of product characteristics/package inserts. Conclusions: Incretin-based therapies offer a new alternative to currently available agents. They provide adequate levels of glycemic control and are associated with low incidence of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, for example sitagliptin, have a modest effect on A1c levels (,0.7%) as monotherapy; however, they reduce A1c to a greater extent when combined with metformin (,2.0%). Typical starting dose of sitagliptin is 100 mg; dose adjustments are required in subjects with renal complications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, exenatide and liraglutide, reduce A1c levels (often in excess of 1.5%) and body weight. Exenatide has a starting dose of 5 ,g and is not recommended for patients with hepatic impairment or severe/end-stage renal disease. Liraglutide has been found to benefit from a stepwise dose escalation (i.e., 0.6 mg weekly increments) until a 1.8-mg dose is reached. Unlike exenatide, dose adjustments in patients with renal and hepatic complications are not required. Implications for practice: Incretin-based therapies may help to overcome some of the drawbacks of current therapies used to treat type 2 diabetes. [source]

Use of Rheolytic Thrombectomy in the Treatment of Feline Distal Aortic Thromboembolism

S. Brent Reimer
The purpose of this prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a commercially available rheolytic thrombectomy system in the treatment of naturally occurring feline aortic thromboembolic disease. All 6 cats enrolled in the investigation were affected at the level of the distal aorta and had signs of the disease affecting both pelvic limbs. Cats were anesthetized and an arteriotomy was performed on 1 carotid artery to gain access to the arterial system. Selective arterial angiography was used to confirm the presence of thromboembolic disease. The thrombectomy system was advanced to the level of the thrombus using fluoroscopic guidance. Repeat angiography was used intermittently to assess progress of thromboembolus dissolution throughout the procedure. The use of the rheolytic thrombectomy system resulted in successful thrombus dissolution in 5 of 6 cats. Three of 6 cats survived to discharge. Both of these results compare favorably with conventional therapies used in the treatment of this disease. Feline distal aortic thromboembolism is a frustrating disease that warrants a guarded to poor prognosis. Rheolytic thrombectomy may provide veterinarians with an alternative therapy in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases, including feline distal aortic thromboembolism. [source]

Treatment of warts at the turn of the millennium

Delwyn J Dyall-Smith
SUMMARY Gunpowder may no longer be a recommended treatment for warts, but most of the therapies used in 1950 are still used to some extent now. The problems, now as then, are the multiplicity of treatment options and the lack of a cure. Several treatments popular in the past decade are discussed. [source]

Primary medical therapy for acromegaly

Michael C. Sheppard
Summary There is now considerable evidence that the clinical outcome in patients with acromegaly can be improved very substantially by means of better surgical expertise and effective medical therapies used in a flexible and innovative manner. Medical therapy alone in patients who have not undergone surgery or radiotherapy (primary medical therapy) offers the prospect of near normalisation of GH/IGF-I levels together with substantial tumour shrinkage in a significant number of patients. [source]

Complementary and alternative therapies for Down syndrome

Nancy J. Roizen
Abstract In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy, and a host of other therapies such as massage therapy have been used. There is a lack of well-designed scientific studies on the use of alternative therapies in individuals with Down syndrome. Antioxidants hold theoretical promise for treatment of the cognitive, immune, malignancy, and premature aging problems associated with Down syndrome. Medications for treatment of Alzheimer's disease may also result in benefit for the population of individuals with Down syndrome. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:149,155. [source]

Plasma antioxidative activity during atorvastatin and fluvastatin therapy used in coronary heart disease primary prevention

Jan Kowalski
Abstract We estimated the effect of atorvastatin and fluvastatin on plasma antioxidative activity used in coronary heart disease (CHD) primary prevention. Anti-oxidative activity of blood plasma was determined by Bartosz et al. method [Curr. Top. Biophys. (1998)22:11,13], based on reduction of preformed cation radical of 2,2,azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) by blood plasma. The study comprised 35 patients with CHD risk who were randomly divided into two groups. The atorvastatin group comprised 17 patients who were administered the drug orally in a daily dose of 10 mg and the fluvastatin group consisted of 18 patients on an oral dose of 40 mg once daily. The control group comprised 12 healthy subjects with no drug administration. Blood samples were collected from cubital vein before and after 6-week therapy. Significantly (P < 0.05) increased , in comparison with the initial values , antioxidative activity of blood plasma was found in atorvastatin and fluvastatin groups after 6-week therapy. Moreover, the increase in antioxidative plasma activity in atorvastatin group was significantly higher in comparison with the fluvastatin group. The results of our study have demonstrated that atorvastatin and fluvastatin have an additional mechanism independent of the effect on cholesterol concentration. Thus, we presume that administration of these statins in CHD risk patients may have a beneficial effect. [source]

Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis , a systematic review with a meta-analysis

Felipe Francisco Tuon MD
Background, New World leishmaniasis is an important endemic disease and public health problem in developing countries. The increase in ecologic tourism has extended this problem to developed countries. Few drugs have emerged over the past 50 years, and drug resistance has increased, such that the cure rate is no better than 80% in large studies. Despite these data, there has been no systematic review with a meta-analysis of the therapy used in this important tropical disease. The aim of this study was to determine the best drug management in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Latin America based on the best studies published in the medical literature. Methods, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify articles related to CL and therapy. Articles with adequate data on cure and treatment failure, internal and external validity information, and more than four patients in each treatment arm were included. Results, Fifty-four articles met our inclusion criteria and 12 were included in the meta-analysis. Pentavalent antimonials were the most studied drugs, with a total of 1150 patients, achieving a cure rate of 76.5%. The cure rate of pentamidine was similar to that of pentavalent antimonials. Other drugs showed variable results, and all demonstrated an inferior response. Conclusion, Although pentavalent antimonials are the drugs of choice in the treatment of CL, pentamidine showed similar results. Nevertheless, several aspects, such as cost, adverse effects, local experience, and availability of drugs to treat CL, must be considered when determining the best management of this disease, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. [source]

V.A.C.® Therapy in the management of paediatric wounds: clinical review and experience

Mona Baharestani
ABSTRACT Usage of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of acute and chronic wounds has grown exponentially in the past decade. Hundreds of studies have been published regarding outcomes and methods of therapy used for adult wounds. This treatment is increasingly being used to manage difficult-to-treat paediatric wounds arising from congenital defects, trauma, infection, tumour, burns, pressure ulceration and postsurgical complications in children, although relatively few studies have been aimed at this population. Given the anatomical and physiological differences between adults and children, a multidisciplinary expert advisory panel was convened to determine appropriate use of NPWT with reticulated open cell foam (NPWT/ROCF) as delivered by Vacuum Assisted Closure® (V.A.C.® Therapy, KCI Licensing, Inc., San Antonio, TX) for the treatment of paediatric wounds. The primary objectives of the expert advisory panel were to exchange state-of-practice information on paediatric wound care, review the published data regarding the use of NPWT/ROCF in paediatric wounds, evaluate the strength of the existing data and establish guidelines on best practices with NPWT/ROCF for the paediatric population. The proposed paediatrics-specific clinical practice guidelines are meant to provide practitioners an evidence base from which decisions could be made regarding the safe and efficacious selection of pressure settings, foam type, dressing change frequency and use of interposing contact layer selections. The guidelines reflect the state of knowledge on effective and appropriate wound care at the time of publication. They are the result of consensus reached by expert advisory panel members based on their individual clinical and published experiences related to the use of NPWT/ROCF in treating paediatric wounds. Best practices are described herein for novice and advanced users of NPWT/ROCF. Recommendations by the expert panel may not be appropriate for use in all circumstances. Decisions to adopt any particular recommendation must be made by the collaborating medical team, including the surgeon and wound care specialist based on available resources, individual patient circumstances and experience with the V.A.C.® Therapy System. [source]

Is pentoxifylline therapy effective for the treatment of acute rheumatic carditis?

A pilot study
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether pentoxifylline has a beneficial effect on the treatment of rheumatic carditis. Methods: A total of 33 children between the ages 6 and 16 were studied in two groups. The first group (5 boys, 10 girls, mean age: 12.2 ± 2.9 years) was treated with steroid plus pentoxifylline and the second group (6 boys, 12 girls, mean age; 11.6 ± 2.8 years) was treated with steroid only for 3,6 weeks until the acute-phase reactants became normal. At admission and on the 7th, 30th, and 90th days of the treatment, laboratory studies including white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, throat culture and cytokines (interleukin-1,, tumour necrosis factor-,) were performed. Cardiac evaluation with chest X-ray, electrocardiography and echocardiography was performed in all patients. In the control group (12 boys, 3 girls, mean age; 10.7 ± 3.2 years) all parameters were evaluated once only. Results: In both groups, the similar white blood cell count was significantly decreased on the 90th day, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and interleukin-1, were significantly decreased on the 30th and 90th days. In the first group (treated with steroid plus pentoxifylline), the cardiothoracic index was significantly greater at the beginning of the therapy. In the first group, tumour necrosis factor-, became normal on the 30th day and in the second group, tumour necrosis factor-, became normal on the 7th day of therapy. For all parameters, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the type of therapy used. Conclusion: The present study showed that pentoxifylline plus steroid treatment has no beneficial effects on the treatment of acute rheumatic carditis when compared with steroid alone. [source]

Gene therapy used for tissue engineering applications

Mieke Heyde
This review highlights the advances at the interface between tissue engineering and gene therapy. There are a large number of reports on gene therapy in tissue engineering, and these cover a huge range of different engineered tissues, different vectors, scaffolds and methodology. The review considers separately in-vitro and in-vivo gene transfer methods. The in-vivo gene transfer method is described first, using either viral or non-viral vectors to repair various tissues with and without the use of scaffolds. The use of a scaffold can overcome some of the challenges associated with delivery by direct injection. The ex-vivo method is described in the second half of the review. Attempts have been made to use this therapy for bone, cartilage, wound, urothelial, nerve tissue regeneration and for treating diabetes using viral or non-viral vectors. Again porous polymers can be used as scaffolds for cell transplantation. There are as yet few comparisons between these many different variables to show which is the best for any particular application. With few exceptions, all of the results were positive in showing some gene expression and some consequent effect on tissue growth and remodelling. Some of the principal advantages and disadvantages of various methods are discussed. [source]

Developing anticancer chemotherapy services in a developing country: Hodgkin lymphoma experience

Jagdish Chandra MD
Abstract Background and Objective Reporting on how the cancer treatment facilities were developed at a medical college hospital in India and the profile and outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at this new center were the objectives of the study. Methods Patients under 18 years with a diagnosis of HL were evaluated using abdominal ultrasonography, CT scan examination of chest, abdomen and pelvis and bone marrow examination. Most patients were treated with combination chemotherapy. Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Pathology were involved for evaluation. Radiotherapy when required was made available at a nearby hospital. Results Thirty-five patients between 1.2 and 18 years (median age 7 years) were diagnosed as HL during the study period. Advanced disease (Stage IIb or more) was present in 83% cases. Mixed cellularity was the commonest histological subtype (50.5%). Primary therapy used was COPP in 29 (83%) cases. Of the 34 patients who received treatment 30 showed initial good response to therapy. One patient responded to ABVD after having progression on COPP. Of 31 responders, 4 relapsed. Twenty-seven patients (80%) are surviving free of disease for a median follow up of 4.5 years (range 1.5,18 years). Chemotherapy was well tolerated. Febrile neutropenia occurred in four cases. Conclusions Pediatric HL in India was characterized by advanced disease at presentation. Mixed-cellularity was the predominant histological subtype. An effective program was developed with initial attention to patients with HL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:485,488. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Multicenter Analysis of Novel and Established Variables Associated with Successful Human Islet Isolation Outcomes

J. S. Kaddis
Islet transplantation is a promising therapy used to achieve glycometabolic control in a select subgroup of individuals with type I diabetes. However, features that characterize human islet isolation success prior to transplantation are not standardized and lack validation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 806 isolation records from 14 pancreas-processing laboratories, considering variables from relevant studies in the last 15 years. The outcome was defined as postpurification islet equivalent count, dichotomized into yields ,315 000 or ,220 000. Univariate analysis showed that donor cause of death and use of hormonal medications negatively influenced outcome. Conversely, pancreata from heavier donors and those containing elevated levels of surface fat positively influence outcome, as did heavier pancreata and donors with normal amylase levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the positive impact on outcome of surgically intact pancreata and donors with normal liver function, and confirmed that younger donors, increased body mass index, shorter cold ischemia times, no administration of fluid/electrolyte medications, absence of organ edema, use of University of Wisconsin preservation solution and a fatty pancreas improves outcome. In conclusion, this multicenter analysis highlights the importance of carefully reviewing all donor, pancreas and processing parameters prior to isolation and transplantation. [source]

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Hemodialysis, Hemodiafiltration, and Peritoneal Dialysis

Jaromír Eiselt
Abstract Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a mediator of endothelial dysfunction. Production and elimination of ADMA may be affected by the type of renal replacement therapy used and oxidative stress. Plasma ADMA, advanced glycation end products (AGE), and homocysteine were assessed in 59 subjects: 20 hemodialysis (HD) patients, 19 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 20 controls. Results were compared between the groups. The effect of 8 weeks of HD and high-volume predilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) was compared in a randomized study. HD patients showed higher ADMA (1.20 [0.90,1.39 µmol/L]) compared to controls (0.89 [0.77,0.98], P < 0.01), while ADMA in PD did not differ from controls (0.96 [0.88,1.28]). AGE and homocysteine were highest in HD, lower in PD (P < 0.01 vs. HD), and lowest in controls (P < 0.001 vs. HD and PD). PD patients had higher residual renal function than HD (P < 0.01). The decrease in ADMA at the end of HD (from 1.25 [0.97,1.33] to 0.66 [0.57,0.73], P < 0.001) was comparable to that of HDF. Switching from HD to HDF led to a decrease in predialysis homocysteine level in 8 weeks (P < 0.05), while ADMA and AGE did not change. Increased ADMA levels in patients undergoing HD, as compared to PD, may be caused by higher oxidative stress and lower residual renal function in HD. Other factors, such as diabetes and statin therapy, may also be at play. The decrease in ADMA at the end of HD and HDF is comparable. Switching from HD to HDF decreases in 8 weeks the predialysis levels of homocysteine without affecting ADMA. [source]