Therapy Techniques (therapy + techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Factors affecting treatment outcomes following complicated crown fractures managed in primary and secondary care

N. G. Jackson
Abstract,,, The aims of this retrospective observational study were to determine the factors which affect treatment provision and the Median Survival Time (MST) for maintenance of tooth vitality following complicated crown fracture. The survey was carried out for patients treated at Newcastle Dental Hospital (NDH) according to departmental guidelines over a 2-year period following the introduction of a new protocol for management of these types of injuries. Seventy-three cases of complicated crown fracture were identified in 69 children with a mean age of 10.3 years (SD = 2.5 years). Seventy-one percent of the fractures occurred in males (M:F ratio was 2.5:1). Fifty-one percent of the complicated crown fractures were in immature teeth. Of the 73 traumatised teeth, 45% presented initially in general dental practice (GDP), 37% at the dental hospital and 8% at local accident and emergency departments with the remaining 10% seen at other or unrecorded locations. Of the 41 fractures, which presented initially at a location other than the dental hospital, 38% were referred to the dental hospital without the provision of an emergency pulp bandage. The overall definitive treatments provided for the 37 open apex teeth included pulp cap (19%), partial pulpotomy (32%), cervical pulpotomy (8%) and pulpectomy (35%), while for the 36 closed apex teeth it was pulp cap (28%), pulpotomy (11%), and pulpectomy (61%). Of the 30 teeth, which underwent vital pulp therapy (18 open and 12 closed apex), the MST for the 15 teeth treated with pulp caps was 1460 days (95% CI: 1067, 1853) while for the 15 teeth treated with pulpotomies it was 1375 days (95% CI: 964, 1786). There was no statistically significant difference in the MST between teeth treated with pulp caps and pulpotomies. In conclusion, the proportion of patients referred to secondary care with complicated crown fractures without provision of a pulp bandage is of some concern. More conservative treatment of closed apex teeth sustaining complicated crown fractures, utilizing vital pulp therapy techniques would appear to be appropriate. [source]

The effects of manual therapy and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders

Summary, No studies have investigated the effects of the treatments directed at the cervical spine in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Our aim was to investigate the effects of joint mobilization and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity in the muscles of mastication in patients with TMD. Nineteen patients (14 females), aged 19,57 years, with myofascial TMD were included. All patients received a total of 10 treatment session over a 5-week period (twice per week). Treatment included manual therapy techniques and exercise directed at the cervical spine. Outcome measures included bilateral pressure pain threshold (PPT) levels over the masseter and temporalis muscles, active pain-free mouth opening (mm) and pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and were all assessed pre-intervention, 48 h after the last treatment (post-intervention) and at 12-week follow-up period. Mixed-model anovas were used to examine the effects of the intervention on each outcome measure. Within-group effect sizes were calculated in order to assess clinical effect. The 2 3 mixed model anova revealed significant effect for time (F = 778; P < 0001) but not for side (F = 02; P = 07) for changes in PPT over the masseter muscle and over the temporalis muscle (time: F = 668; P < 0001; side: F = 007; P = 08). Post hoc revealed significant differences between pre-intervention and both post-intervention and follow-up periods (P < 0001) but not between post-intervention and follow-up period (P = 09) for both muscles. Within-group effect sizes were large (d > 10) for both follow-up periods in both muscles. The anova found a significant effect for time (F = 786; P < 0001) for changes in pain intensity and active pain-free mouth opening (F = 171; P < 0001). Significant differences were found between pre-intervention and both post-intervention and follow-up periods (P < 0001) but not between the post-intervention and follow-up period (P > 07). Within-group effect sizes were large (d > 08) for both post-intervention and follow-up periods. The application of treatment directed at the cervical spine may be beneficial in decreasing pain intensity, increasing PPTs over the masticatory muscles and an increasing pain-free mouth opening in patients with myofascial TMD. [source]

In vivo molecular imaging of adenoviral versus lentiviral gene therapy in two bone formation models

Brian T. Feeley
Abstract Regional gene therapy techniques are promising methods to enhance bone formation in large bone defects that would be difficult to treat with allograft or autograft bone stock. In this study, we compared in vivo temporal expression patterns of adenoviral- and lentiviral-mediated gene therapy in two bone formation models. Primary rat bone marrow cells (RBMC) were transduced with lentiviral or adenoviral vectors containing luciferase (Luc) or BMP-2 cDNA, or cotransduced with vectors containing Luc and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). In vitro protein production was determined with luciferase assay or ELISA (for BMP-2 production) weekly for 12 weeks. Two bone formation models were used,a hind limb muscle pouch or radial defect,in SCID mice. A cooled charged-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to image in vivo luciferase expression weekly for 12 weeks. In vitro, adenoviral expression of BMP-2 and luciferase was detected by ELISA or luciferase assay, respectively, for 4 weeks. Lentiviral expression of BMP-2 and luciferase was sustained in culture for 3 months. Using the CCD camera, we found that adenoviral vectors expressed luciferase expression for up to 21 days, but lentiviral vectors expressed target gene expression for 3 months in vivo in both bone formation models. There was no detectable difference in the amount of bone formed between the adenoviral and lentiviral groups. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of BMP-2 can induce long term in vitro and in vivo gene expression, which may be beneficial when developing tissue engineering strategies to heal large bone defects or defects with a compromised biologic environment. 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1709,1721, 2006 [source]

Vertebral artery atherosclerosis: a risk factor in the use of manipulative therapy?

Jeanette Mitchell BSc (Physiotherapy), MSc Senior Lecturer
Abstract Background and Purpose Vertebrobasilar insufficiency, a direct result of compromised blood flow in the vertebrobasilar circulation, may be caused by stretching and/or compression of the vertebral arteries, particularly if superimposed on underlying atherosclerosis of the vessels. This is an important consideration when using manipulative therapy techniques. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of atherosclerosis and to calculate the relative associated decrease in blood flow in the third and fourth parts of the vertebral artery, in a sample of the adult population. Method A laboratory-based experimental investigation was used to study 362 vertebral arteries from embalmed adult cadavers that were routinely processed for light microscopic study. The incidence of each grade of atherosclerosis in the vessels was recorded. Atherosclerosis was classified as grades 0,5, where Grade 0 represented no atherosclerosis and Grade 5 a fully developed plaque occluding more than 75% of the vessel lumen. From mean measurements of 188 of these arteries, the estimated decrease in luminal cross-sectional area and the relative decrease in blood flow in the atherosclerotic vessels were calculated. Results The highest incidence of atherosclerosis found was Grade 3 (third part of the vertebral artery (VA3): 42.0%; fourth part of the vertebral artery (VA4): 35.2%). An estimated decrease in artery luminal cross-sectional area to 6.2% of normal in Grade 5 atherosclerosis was found. Because blood flow is proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius, relative decreases in blood flow in grades 1,5 atherosclerosis from 100% to 0% (with critical closing pressure in vessels), respectively, are likely to occur. Conclusions These data suggest that, as significant numbers of the sample showed marked (Grade 3+) atherosclerosis, concomitant with decreased blood flow in the vertebral arteries, this population is at risk for developing vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Because other Western populations may be similarly at risk, particular care should be taken when considering the use of rotational manipulative therapy techniques in treatments of the cervical spine. Copyright 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Changes in management techniques and patterns of disease recurrence over time in patients with breast carcinoma treated with breast-conserving therapy at a single institution

CANCER, Issue 4 2004
Helen Pass M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND The authors reviewed changes in the initial clinical presentation, management techniques, and patterns of disease recurrence over time (1981,1996) in patients with breast carcinoma treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) at a single institution. The goals of the current study were to determine the frequency and use of optimal local and systemic therapy techniques and to evaluate the impact of these changes on treatment efficacy. METHODS Six hundred seven patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage I or II invasive breast carcinomas treated with BCT at William Beaumont Hospital (Royal Oak, MI) constituted the study population. All patients received at least an excisional biopsy of the primary tumor, an axillary lymph node staging procedure, and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (a median tumor bed dose of 61 Gray [Gy] was administered). All sides were reviewed by one pathologist. Numerous clinicopathologic and treatment-related factors were analyzed to monitor changes that occurred over time. Changes in patterns of disease recurrence and treatment efficacy over time also were analyzed. RESULTS Over the time period analyzed, changes at initial presentation included an increase in the mean age at diagnosis (age 56.1 years vs. 61.4 years; P < 0.001), a decrease in the number of patients with clinically palpable tumors (78% vs. 36%; P < 0.001), a decrease in the mean tumor size (2.2 cm vs. 1.6 cm; P < 0.001), but no change in the percentage of patients with negative lymph nodes (79% vs. 78%; P = 0.83). No differences over time were observed in mean tumor grade (2.0 vs. 1.9; P = 0.2) or the presence of angiolymphatic invasion (27% vs. 26%; P = 0.25). Changes in surgical management and pathologic assessment included the more frequent use of reexcision (46% vs. 81%; P < 0.001), larger mean total volumes of breast tissue specimens excised (115 cm3 vs. 189 cm3; P = 0.001), a larger percentage of patients with final negative surgical margins (74% vs. 97%; P < 0.001), and a small increase in the mean number of lymph nodes excised (13.8 lymph nodes vs. 14.1 lymph nodes; P = 0.01). The only other significant change in the pathologic management of patients over time included a doubling in the mean number of slides examined (10.6 slides vs. 21.1 slides; P < 0.001). Changes in adjuvant local and systemic therapy included an increase in the percentage of patients treated with > 60 Gy to the tumor bed (66% vs. 95%; P < 0.001), a doubling in the mean number of days from the last surgery to the start of RT (24 days vs. 50 days; P < 0.001), and a decrease in the use of regional lymph node RT (24% vs. 8%; P < 0.001). The use of adjuvant tamoxifen increased from 10% to 61% (P < 0.001). Finally, improvements were observed in the 5-year and 12-year actuarial rates of local disease recurrence (8% vs. 1% and 21% vs. 9%, respectively; P = 0.001) and distant metastases (12% vs. 4% and 22% vs. 9%, respectively; P = 0.006). No changes in the mean number of years to ipsilateral (6.5 years vs. 6.4 years; P = 0.59) or distant disease recurrence (4.6 years vs. 3.8 years; P = 0.73) were observed. CONCLUSIONS The impact of screening mammography and substantial changes in surgical, pathologic, RT, and systemic therapy recommendations were observed over time in the study population. These changes were associated with improvements in 5-year and 12-year local and distant control rates and suggested that improvements in outcome can be realized through adherence to best practice guidelines and continuous monitoring of treatment outcome data. Cancer 2004. 2004 American Cancer Society [source]