Therapy Response (therapy + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: are we doing enough?

T. Read
Abstract Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of response to therapy. For optimal antiretroviral therapy response, individuals need to take more than 95% of their prescribed medication. The most widely used method for measuring adherence is self-report of the number of missed doses and this should be done at every clinic visit. There are several well-recognized predictors of poor adherence, such as illicit drug use, depression, limited knowledge or ambivalence about starting treatment. Adherence can be improved by addressing these issues or through other means such as pill boxes or electronic reminders. (Intern Med J 2003; 33: 254,256) [source]

PELP1: A novel therapeutic target for hormonal cancers

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 3 2010
Dimple Chakravarty
Abstract Recent studies implicate that the estrogen receptor (ER) coregulator proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein (PELP) 1 as playing critical roles in ER-genomic, ER-nongenomic, and ER-signaling cross talk with growth factor signaling pathways. PELP1 expression is deregulated in hormonal cancers and recent studies further elucidated the molecular mechanisms by which PELP1 regulates hormone therapy response. Although PELP1 is important for normal functions of the ER, the possibility to target ER-PELP1 axis appears to be an effective strategy for preventing hormonal carcinogenesis and therapy resistance. Thus, PELP1 may be useful as prognostic marker for hormonal cancers and PELP1 signaling may be useful to generate targeted therapeutics to overcome hormonal therapy resistance. 2009 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 62(3): 163,169, 2010 [source]

Relapse to prior therapy is the most important factor for the retreatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

Abdurrahman Sagir
Abstract Background: Treatment options for hepatitis C have developed rapidly in the past decade. The current treatment of choice is a combination of pegylated-interferon-, (PEG-IFN-,) and ribavirin. With the development of more therapy options, patients who failed in prior therapy hope to clear hepatitis C virus by undergoing a more effective retreatment regime. In this report, we investigated response rates to combination therapy [standard IFN-, or PEG-IFN-, and ribavirin] in patients who relapsed or failed in prior therapy. Methods: Ninety-three patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients failed to previous IFN-, monotherapy (n=55) or to a combination of standard IFN-, and ribavirin (n=38). Fifty-nine patients were nonresponders and 34 were relapsers. Thirty-five patients were retreated with standard IFN-, plus ribavirin and 58 received PEG-IFN-, combination therapy. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR) was induced in 31% of all patients. The highest SVR rate (58%) was observed in relapsers to standard IFN-, combination therapy who were retreated with PEG-IFN-, combination therapy. The SVR rate in relapsers to standard IFN-, monotherapy who received a standard IFN-, combination therapy was 50%. Relapsers responded in a significantly higher proportion to retreatment than nonresponders (56% vs. 17%, P<0.001). Relapse to previous therapy was identified as an independent predictor for therapy response. The lowest SVR rate was observed in nonresponders to standard IFN-, combination therapy who were retreated with PEG-IFN-, combination therapy (1/26; 4%). Conclusions: In relapsers, retreatment with the most effective therapy regime to date a combination of PEG-IFN-, and ribavirin, is promising. However, retreatment with PEG-IFN-, combination therapy in nonresponders to standard IFN combination therapy is not effective. [source]

Early detection of radiation therapy response in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts by in vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

Seung-Cheol Lee
Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the capability of 1H MRS and MRI methods for detecting early response to radiation therapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Studies were performed on the WSU-DLCL2 xenograft model in nude mice of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common form of NHL. Radiation treatment was applied as a single 15,Gy dose to the tumor. Tumor lactate, lipids, total choline, T2 and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured before treatment and at 24,h and 72,h after radiation. A Hadamard-encoded slice-selective multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy sequence was used for detecting lactate (Lac) while a stimulated echo acquisition mode sequence was used for detection of total choline (tCho) and lipids. T2 - and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences were used for measuring T2 and ADC. Within 24,h after radiation, significant changes were observed in the normalized integrated resonance intensities of Lac and the methylenes of lipids. Lac/H2O decreased by 38,,15% (p,=,0.03), and lipid (1.3,ppm, CH2)/H2O increased by 57,,14% (p,=,0.01). At 72,h after radiation, tCho/H2O decreased by 45,,14% (p,=,0.01), and lipid (2.8,ppm, polyunsaturated fatty acid)/H2O increased by 970,,36% (p,=,0.001). ADC increased by 14,,2% (p,=,0.003), and T2 did not change significantly. Tumor growth delay and regression were observed thereafter. This study enabled comparison of the relative sensitivities of various 1H MRS and MRI indices to radiation and suggests that 1H MRS/MRI measurements detect early responses to radiation that precede tumor volume changes. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of an educational programme for caregivers of people aging with multiple sclerosis

Marcia Finlayson
Abstract This article describes a three-phase project to identify and develop an occupational therapy response to the challenges experienced by caregivers of middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). In Phase 1 302 caregivers of middle-aged and older adults with MS were interviewed by telephone to identify the care-giving challenges they experienced. A total of eight challenges were identified, with the four most prevalent ones including finding and using formal support services, managing the emotional aspects of caregiving, doing the physical aspects of care-giving and dealing with informal supports. In Phase 2 a comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify existing caregiver education programmes that could be used to address these challenges. None of the 21 programmes that were located addressed all of the challenges identified through the Phase 1 interviews. In response, a new five-session psycho-educational group programme entitled ,Meeting the Challenges of MS' was developed in Phase 3. The programme was empirically grounded in Phase 1 findings, and drew on theory to guide group process and sequencing. The findings from Phases 1 and 2 and the resulting programme cannot be generalized to caregivers of younger adults with MS, although the steps taken to develop this programme have the potential for replication with other populations served by occupational therapists. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Is leptin a predictive factor in the end of therapy response in chronic hepatitis B?

Mukadder Ayle Selimo}lu
Abstract, Background:,The purpose of this study was to determine the leptin levels in children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and to evaluate the effect of serum leptin levels on the end of therapy response (ETR). It is known that leptin stimulates T-cell immunity and so T-cell mediated immune response is critical in the outcome of chronic HBV infection. Methods:,Leptin levels in children with chronic HBV infection were investigated and its effects on the ETR in 24 children who were treated with interferon-, and lamivudine combination therapy were evaluated. Results:,The mean leptin level of the patients was higher than that of healthy children (P = 0.034). Of the patients, seven (29.2%) had ETR. The mean hepatic activity index and portal inflammation score were higher, the HBV DNA was lower, and the leptin level was similar in children with ETR when compared to others (P = 0.017, P = 0.04, P = 0.007, P = 0.34, respectively). HBV DNA and the fibrosis score were positively correlated (P = 0.016). Conclusion:,Although the higher leptin value observed in children with ETR was not statistically significant, because of close interactions between leptin, cytokines and lymphocytes, it is thought that leptin should be investigated as a predictive factor of ETR in further studies. [source]

Alpha interferon and lamivudine combination therapy for chronic hepatitis B in children

Mukadder Ay, e Selimo
Abstract Background: Lamivudine is a new alternative therapeutic agent for chronic hepatitis B, in which alpha interferon (IFN-,) monotherapy is not successful enough. Published reports have revealed no satisfactory data on IFN-, and lamivudine combination therapy in children. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Children with chronic hepatitis B were given either IFN-, and lamuvidine (group 1, n = 47) or IFN-, alone (group 2, n = 30). Alpha interferon was administered as 5 million U/m2 s.c., thrice a week for 6 months and lamivudine 4 mg/kg per day p.o., maximum 100 mg, for 1 year. Clinical examination was performed; blood cell counts and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and amylase were studied at each visit. At the third, sixth and twelfth month, serological markers were determined. Results: End of therapy response was achieved in 19 (40.4%) patients in group 1 and in 14 (46.7%) children in group 2 (P > 0.05). In group 1, pretreatment serum ALT and hepatic activity index (HAI) were statistically higher in children who responded to therapy (P < 0.005). In group 2, mean serum ALT was higher and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was lower in responders. Sustained response rate was 40.4 versus 43.3% in two groups. Conclusion: The response rate of IFN-, and lamivudine combination therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B was similar to that of IFN-, monotherapy. High ALT level and HAI, rather than low HBV-DNA level were found to be important predictors of response. [source]

bcl-2-specific siRNAs restore Gemcitabine sensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells

Kinya Okamoto
Abstract Gemcitabine has been shown to ameliorate disease related symptoms and to prolong overall survival in pancreatic cancer.Yet, resistance to Gemcitabine is commonly observed in this tumour entity and has been linked to increased expression of anti-apoptotic bcl-2. We therefore investigated if and to what extend silencing of bcl-2 by specific siRNAs (siBCL2) might enhance Gemcitabine effects in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. siBCL2 was transfected into the pancreatic cancer cell line YAP C alone and 72 hrs before co-incubation with different concentrations of Gemcitabine. Total protein and RNA were extracted for Western-blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pancreatic cancer xenografts in male nude mice were treated intraperitoneally with siBCL2 alone, Gemcitabine and control siRNA or Gemcitabine and siBCL2 for 21 days. Combination of both methods lead to a synergistic induction of apoptosis at otherwise ineffective concentrations of Gemcitabine. Tumour growth suppression was also potentiated by the combined treatment with siBCL2 and Gemcitabine in vivo and lead to increased TUNEL positivity. In contrast, non-transformed human foreskin fibroblasts showed only minor responses to this treatment. Our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated silencing of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 enhances chemotherapy sensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and might lead to improved therapy responses in advanced stages of this disease. [source]