Therapeutic Factors (therapeutic + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Therapeutic factors in dysphoric disorders

Larry E. Beutler
The working group on the treatment of dysphoric disorders focused on ways to integrate variables and qualities that optimize treatment effects for this clinical population. The variables examined represent three aspects or domains of the treatment context that effect positive change. These included aspects of the patient and therapist (participant factors), those relating to the development and role of the therapeutic relationship (relationship factors), and those that defined the application of formal interventions that are implemented by the therapist (techniques factors). The treatment literature on dysphoric populations was reviewed and a variety of relationships was identified, which then were translated into principles that are thought to enhance treatment effects. The principles representing the three domains of this review are then collected, in this article, into a set of cohesive suggestions for treating patients whose problems are characterized by major or minor depression, alone or as a comorbid condition. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 639,647, 2006. [source]

Therapeutic factors in treating anxiety disorders

Michelle G. Newman
This article is a condensation of several chapters from Principles of Therapeutic Change That Work edited by L.G. Castonguay and L.E. Beutler. The authors present the work of M.G. Newman, W.B. Stiles, A. Janeck, and S.R. Woody (2006), who outline an integrative model for effective psychotherapy of anxiety disorders. The authors also summarize, review, and extend several chapters on the current knowledge about therapeutic technique factors (S.R. Woody & T.H. Ollendick, 2006), participant factors (M.G. Newman, P. Crits-Christoph, M.B. Connelly Gibbons, & T.M. Erickson, 2006), and relationship factors (W.B. Stiles & B.E. Wolfe, 2006), which are related to anxiety disorder treatment outcome. The authors then place these factors and their practice implications within a common framework. Their integration is based on (a) the concept of appropriate responsiveness, and (b) a distinction between actions and achievements. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 649,659, 2006. [source]

Hope in psychiatry: a review of the literature

B. Schrank
Objective:, Hope has long been considered an important therapeutic factor in medicine, nursing and mental health and recently received attention as a central component of recovery. However, conceptual clarity, applicability and the predictive value of hope remain unclear. This review aims to define hope, review current approaches to assessment, and outline research evidence linking hope with effectiveness. Method:, We conducted a comprehensive review of publications on the conceptualisation and measurement of hope, and on its use as a predictive variable specifically in mental health patients. Results:, Forty-nine definitions of hope were identified, which were grouped into seven emergent dimensions. Thirty-two measurement tools were identified, although few have been used in research involving mental health patients. Eleven studies investigated hope as a predictive variable for differing outcomes, with inconclusive results. Conclusion:, Many conceptual frameworks for hope have been proposed, but empirical evidence on its predictive power in mental health is lacking. [source]

Proton MRS of early post-natal mouse brain modifications in vivo

Pierre Larvaron
Abstract NMR provides a non-invasive tool for the phenotypic characterisation of mouse models. The aim of the present study was to apply reliable in vivo MRS techniques for non-invasive investigations of brain development in normal and transgenic mice, by monitoring metabolite concentrations in different brain regions. The conditions of anaesthesia, immobilisation and respiratory monitoring were optimized to carry out in vivo MRS studies in young mice. All the experiments were performed in normal mice, at 9.4,T, applying a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence (TR,=,2000,ms; TE,=,130,ms). We obtained reproducible in vivo1H NMR spectra of wild-type mouse brains as early as post-natal day 5, which allowed us to follow brain maturation variations from post-natal days 5 to 21. The survival rate of animals was between 66 and 90% at post-natal days 5 and 21, respectively. Developmental changes of metabolite concentrations were measured in three brain regions: the thalamus, a region rich in cell bodies, the olfactory bulb, rich in fibre tracts actively myelinated during brain maturation, and the cerebellum. The voxel size varied from 2 to 8 L according to the size of the brain structure analysed. The absolute concentrations of the total creatine, taurine, total choline, N -acetylaspartate and of the glutamate/glutamine pool were determined from 1H NMR spectra obtained in the different brain regions at post-natal day 5, 10, 15 and 21. Variations observed during brain development were in accordance with those previously reported in mice using ex vivo MRS studies, and also in rats and humans in vivo. Possibilities of longitudinal MRS analysis in maturing mice brains provide new perspectives to characterise better the tremendous number of transgenic mutant mice generated with the aim of decrypting the complexity of brain development and neurodegenerative diseases but also to follow the impact of environmental and therapeutic factors. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Novel classification based on immunohistochemistry combined with hierarchical clustering analysis in non-functioning neuroendocrine tumor patients

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2010
Shinya Iida
Somatostatin analogues ameliorated many symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NET), but their antitumor activities are limited especially in non-functioning cases. An overactivation of signaling pathways under receptor tyrosine-kinase (RTK) has been recently demonstrated in some NET patients, but its details have remained largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized therapeutic factors and evaluated the data to study the clinical significance of the molecules in non-functioning Japanese gastrointestinal NET. Fifty-two NET cases were available for examination in this study and expression of somatostatin receptor (sstr) 1, 2A, 2B, 3 and 5, activated form of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eukaryotic initiation factor 4-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), ribosomal protein s6 (S6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We then studied the correlation among the immunohistochemical results of the individual cases using hierarchical clustering analysis. Results of clustering analysis demonstrated that NET cases were basically classified into Cluster I and II. Cluster I was associated with higher expression of sstr1, 2B and 3 and Cluster II was characterized by an activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and IGF-1R and higher proliferative status. Cluster II was further classified into Cluster IIa and IIb. Cluster IIa was associated with higher expression of sstr1 and 5 and higher proliferative status and Cluster IIb was characterized by ERK activation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of immunoreactivity of the therapeutic factors can classify NET cases into three distinctive groups and the medical treatment may be determined according to this novel classification method for non-functioning NET patients. (Cancer Sci 2010; 00: 000,000) [source]