Their Use (their + use)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Selected Abstracts

Carbon Ceramic Electrodes Modified with Laccase from Trametes hirsuta: Fabrication, Characterization and Their Use for Phenolic Compounds Detection

Behzad Haghighi
Abstract Fungal laccase (Lc) from the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta was immobilized on top of a carbon ceramic electrode using physical absorption. Direct, unmediated heterogeneous electron transfer between Lc and the carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) under aerobic conditions was shown. The bioelectrocatalytic reduction of oxygen on Lc-CCE started at about 430,mV vs. Ag|AgCl|KClsat at pH,3.5 and moved with about 57,mV in the cathodic region per pH unit. The Lc-modified CCE was then used as a biosensing detection element in a single line flow injection system for the amperometric determination of a variety of phenolic substrates of the enzyme. The experimental conditions were studied and optimized for catechol serving as a model compound. Statistical aspects were applied and the sensor characteristics and Michaelis-Menten constants of the investigated phenolic compounds were calculated and compared with those obtained for solid graphite electrodes modified with Trametes hirsuta laccase. The results showed that the CCE based biosensor in comparison with the solid graphite based biosensor offers a lower detection limit, a wider linear dynamic range, and excellent operational stability with no sensor passivation, indicating that the sol,gel lattice improves the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor. [source]

16-Electron (Arene)ruthenium Complexes with Superbasic Bis(imidazolin-2-imine) Ligands and Their Use in Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation

Thomas Glöge
Abstract The ligands N,N, -bis(1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazolin-2-ylidene)-1,2-ethanediamine (BLMe) and N,N, -bis(1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene)-1,2-ethanediamine(BLiPr) react with [(,5 -C5Me5)RuCl]4 to afford cationic 16-electron half-sandwich complexes [(,5 -C5Me5)Ru(BLR)]+ (R = Me, 3; R = iPr, 4), which resist coordination of the chloride counterion because of the strong electron-donating ability of the diimine ligands. Upon reaction with [(,6 -C6H6)RuCl2]2 or [(,6 -C10H14)RuCl2]2, these ligands stabilize dicationic 16-electron benzene and cymene complexes of the type [(,6 -C6H6)Ru(BLR)]2+ (R = Me, 5; R = iPr, 6) and [(,6 -C10H14)Ru(BLR)]2+ (R = Me, 7; R = iPr, 8). The X-ray crystal structure of [5]Cl2 reveals the absence of any direct Ru,Cl interaction, whereas a long Ru,Cl bond, supported by two CH···Cl hydrogen bonds, is observed for [(6)Cl]Cl in the solid state. Treatment of the dichlorides of 6 and 8 with NaBF4 affords [6](BF4)2 and [8](BF4)2, which are composed of individual dications and tetrafluoroborate ions with no direct Ru,F interaction. All complexes catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone in boiling 2-propanol. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

Large-Scale Synthesis of Water Dispersible Ceria Nanocrystals by a Simple Sol,Gel Process and Their Use as a Chemical Mechanical Planarization Slurry

Taekyung Yu
Abstract Ceria nanocrystals with a cube shape were synthesized from the hydrolytic sol,gel reaction of cerium salt in the presence of oleylamine. The overall synthetic process is very simple and readily applicable to the large-scale synthesis of tens of grams of product in a single reaction in air. These ceria nanocrystals are readily dispersible in aqueous media without the addition of any extra dispersing agent. The aqueous dispersion of the ceria nanocrystals was successfully used as a chemical mechanical polishing slurry, and it exhibited high removal selectivity between silicon oxide and silicon nitride at pH 7.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

The Oriented Self-Assembly of Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles into Monodisperse Microspheres and Their Use as Substrates in the Formation of Fe3O4 Nanorods

Guangcheng Xi
Abstract We describe a facile solvothermal route for the large-scale preparation of ferromagnetic Fe3O4 sub-micrometer spheres and nanorods by using FeCl3 as the iron source, oleic acid as the surfactant, and ethylene glycol as the reducing agent and solvent. The as-synthesized Fe3O4 microspheres are composed of a mess of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm and have nearly monodisperse diameters that can be controlled in the range 100,410 nm. HRTEM images and SAED patterns show that these microspheres present a "single-crystalline" nature, which can be attributed to the highly oriented assembly of the small Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Interestingly, by using the pre-synthesized Fe3O4 microspheres as the growth substrate, single-crystalline Fe3O4 nanorods can be formed on the surfaces of the microspheres. These nanorods are about 7,20 nm in diameter and 120,400 nm in length, and have smooth surfaces. The formation mechanisms of the Fe3O4 microspheres and nanorods have been investigated and discussed. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the as-synthesized microspheres and nanorods have also been investigated and the magnetization saturation values are 74.6 and 92.3 emu/g, respectively.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

Monophosphanylcalix[6]arene Ligands: Synthesis Characterization, Complexation, and Their Use in Catalysis

Yasushi Obora
Abstract Novel phosphanylcalix[6]arenes having mono- O -diphenylphosphanylmethyl (3) and mono- O -(4-diphenylphosphanylphenyl)methyl substituents (5) have been synthesized. The structures of these monophosphanylcalix[6]arenes were determined by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystal structure analysis. The X-ray structure reveals that 3 adopts a flattened 1,2,3-alternate conformation in the crystalline state, while the NMR spectra show that 3 and 5 have a cone conformation in solution. Structure optimization and energy calculations for 3 and 5 at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ-CONFLEX5/MMFF94s level of theory show that the cone conformation is slightly more stable than the 1,2,3-alternate conformation by 0.36 kcal,mol,1 for 3 and 0.96 kcal,mol,1 for 5. Complexation of 3 with [PtCl2(COD)] and [Rh(COD)2]BF4 gives cis -coordinated [PtCl2(3)2] and [Rh(COD)(3)2]BF4, respectively. The X-ray analysis of [PtCl2(3)2] shows that 3 adopts a cone conformation upon complexation. Combination of 3 and 5 with [Rh(COD)2]BF4 provides an active catalyst for the hydroformylation of a variety of terminal alkenes.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

Radical Reduction of Epoxides Using a Titanocene(III)/Water System: Synthesis of ,-Deuterated Alcohols and Their Use as Internal Standards in Food Analysis

Tania Jiménez
Abstract We describe a comprehensive study into the Cp2TiCl-mediated reductive epoxide ring opening using either water as a hydrogen source or deuterium oxide as a deuterium source. The remarkable chemical profile of this reaction allows access to alcohols with anti-Markovnikov regiochemistry from different epoxides. The use of D2O as a deuterium source leads to an efficient synthesis of ,-deuterated alcohols, including a deuterated sample of tyrosol, a bioactive compound contained in the leaves of the olive, which was successfully applied as an internal standard in food analysis. [source]

Enantiopure (9-Anthryl)(2-piperidyl)- and (9-Anthryl)(2-pyridyl)methanols , Their Use as Chiral Modifiers for Heterogeneous Hydrogenation of Keto Esters over Pt/Al2O3

Arlette Solladié-Cavallo
Abstract A route toward the synthesis of the erythro isomer of (9-anthryl)(2-piperidyl)methanol is presented as well as resolution and assignment of the structure (through NMR). The use of both the erythro and threo enantiopure isomers of this new amino alcohol, and its precursor [(9-anthryl)(2-pyridyl)methanol], as chiral modifiers for the Pt/Al2O3 hydrogenation of ethyl lactate showed that the erythro isomer is not necessarily the most efficient chiral modifier. This is probably because of the 9-anthryl group. The enantioselectivities that this compound provides are not, as one would expect, higher than those observed with the naphthyl group.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

Fabrication of Density Gradients of Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles and Their Use in Guiding Neurite Outgrowth

Xiaoran Li
Abstract A new method for generating both continuous and discrete density gradients in microparticles of biodegradable polymers via an electrospray technique is reported. The gradients are generated by spatially varying the deposition time of electrosprayed microparticles. The substrate coated with a density gradient of microparticles has varying surface roughness, offering a unique system for studying the effect of physical cues on neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. An optimal surface roughness for promoting neuron adhesion and neurite extension in vitro is obtained. Furthermore, this capability of approach is extended to generate a gradient of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin by encapsulating it in the polymer microparticles in situ during electrospray. Taken together, this new class of substrates with gradients of microparticle density can potentially be used in various biomedical applications such as neural tissue engineering. [source]

Research Techniques and Their Use in Managing Non,profit Organisations , An Illustration of DEA Analysis in NPO Environments

Jarmo Vakkuri
This article examines nonprofit organisations from the managerial viewpoint. The objective is to study the applicability of efficiency information in managing NPOs. For this purpose important conceptual and methodological aspects are addressed. An efficiency measurement technique (DEA) is then analysed as a case in point, and its main characteristics critically reviewed. DEA applications in four NPO environments are examined. The aim is to pinpoint possibilities and limitations in using DEA,based efficiency information in the management process of NPOs. The article argues in favour of a more profound comprehension of the use of efficiency information and the application of research techniques. [source]

Metastable Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires and Their Use in Fabricating High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors

Kai Xiao
Abstract This paper describes a simple, vapor-phase route for the synthesis of metastable , -phase copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) single-crystal nanowires through control of the growth temperature. The influence of the growth temperature on the crystal structures, morphology, and size of the CuPc nanostructures is explored using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). , -CuPc nanowires are successfully incorporated as active semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). Single nanowire devices exhibit carrier mobilities and current on/off ratios as high as 0.4,cm2 V,1 s,1 and >104, respectively. [source]

Archetype Cationic Iridium Complexes and Their Use in Solid-State Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells

Rubén D. Costa
Abstract The archetype ionic transition-metal complexes (iTMCs) [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)][PF6] and [Ir(ppy)2(phen)][PF6], where Hppy,=,2-phenylpyridine, bpy,=,2,2,-bipyridine, and phen,=,1,10-phenanthroline, are used as the primary active components in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). Solution and solid-state photophysical properties are reported for both complexes and are interpreted with the help of density functional theory calculations. LEC devices based on these archetype complexes exhibit long turn-on times (70 and 160,h, respectively) and low external quantum efficiencies (,2%) when the complex is used as a pure film. The long turn-on times are attributed to the low mobility of the counterions. The performance of the devices dramatically improves when small amounts of ionic liquids (ILs) are added to the Ir-iTMC: the turn-on time improves drastically (from hours to minutes) and the device current and power efficiency increase by almost one order of magnitude. However, the improvement of the turn-on time is unfortunately accompanied by a decrease in the stability of the device from 700 h to a few hours. After a careful study of the Ir-iTMC:IL molar ratios, an optimum between turn-on time and stability is found at a ratio of 4:1. The performance of the optimized devices using these rather simple complexes is among the best reported to date. This holds great promise for devices that use specially-designed iTMCs and demonstrates the prospect for LECs as low-cost light sources. [source]

Synthesis of Some Novel Thioxanthenone-Fused Azacrown Ethers, and Their Use as New Catalysts in the Efficient, Mild, and Regioselective Conversion of Epoxides to , -Hydroxy Thiocyanates with Ammonium Thiocyanate

Hashem Sharghi
Abstract The regioselective ring-opening reactions of some epoxides with ammonium thiocyanate in the presence of a series of new 9H -thioxanthen-9-one-fused azacrown ethers, i.e., 7,11 (Scheme,1), and also of dibenzo[18]crown-6 (12), Kryptofix®22 (13), and benzo[15]crown-5 (14) were studied (Tables 1 and 2). The epoxides were subjected to cleavage by NH4SCN in the presence of these catalysts under mild conditions in various aprotic solvents. Reagents and conditions were identified for the synthesis of individual , -hydroxy thiocyanates in high yield and with more than 90% regioselectivity. The results can be discussed in terms of a four-step mechanism (Scheme,2): 1) formation of a complex between catalyst and NH4SCN, 2) release of SCN, from the complex, 3) reaction of the released SCN, at the sterically less hindered site of the epoxide, and 4) regeneration of the catalyst. The major advantages of this method are the high regioselectivity, the simple regeneration of the catalyst, the reuse of it through several cycles without a decrease of activity, and the ease of workup of the reaction mixtures. [source]

High Aspect-Ratio Cylindrical Nanopore Arrays and Their Use for Templating Titania Nanoposts,

O.-H. Park
Well-defined arrays of titania nanoposts are generated by using high aspect-ratio cylindrical nanopore templates. The simple and controllable fabrication scheme of the nanoporous templates makes them very attractive for creating well-defined nanostructures out of a variety of functional materials. The arrays of titania nanoposts can find a variety of applications such as photonic crystals, photocatalysts, and photovoltaics. [source]

Fabrication of Polyimide-Blend Thin Films Containing Uniformly Oriented Silver Nanorods and Their Use as Flexible, Linear Polarizers

S. Matsuda
Fully aromatic polyimide films containing uniformly oriented Ag nanorods (see Figure) have been prepared by a simple method consisting of thermal curing and uniaxial drawing of submicrometer-scale phase-separated polyimide-blend films containing dissolved AgNO3. The films exhibit outstanding optical dichroism, over 20,dB (see inset), in the near-IR region due to the high aspect ratio of the nanorods and the high transparency of the matrix. [source]

An Internet-Based Survey of Icelandic Nurses on Their Use of and Attitudes Toward NANDA, NIC, and NOC

Gyda Bjornsdottir
PURPOSE To gain understanding of how Icelandic nurses can be supported during a mandated change to the use of NANDA and NIC in clinical documentation practices. METHODS All members of the Icelandic Nurses Association of working age were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. Each nurse was assigned a unique password mailed to his/her home along with information on how to access the survey Web site. Each nurse could submit answers only once. On submission, data were automatically coded and saved in a database under encrypted numerical identifiers. FINDINGS A total of 463 nurses (18% response rate) participated by submitting answers. The sample was representative of the population in terms of demographic characteristics. Information resources most valued when planning nursing care included text-based progress notes (77%), nursing care plans (52%), doctor's orders (49%), verbal information (48%), and documented nursing diagnoses (37%). Of the participants, 58% said NANDA was used in their workplace; 28% said no standardized nursing documentation was used; 19% reported using NIC always or sometimes when documenting nursing interventions; and 20% never used NIC. NOC use was reported only by researchers. Of the sample, 86% reported that it is important or necessary for nurses to standardize documentation practices; 30% found NANDA useful in education; 56% found it useful for clinical work; 17% for research; and 7% found it not useful at all. Nine percent believed that NANDA diagnoses were not descriptive enough of patients' problems, and 23% found their wording problematic. No statistically significant differences were found between reported use of or attitudes toward NANDA and NIC when comparing nurses who use electronic patient record systems that support NANDA and NIC documentation and those who use paper documentation only. DISCUSSION The sample may have been somewhat biased toward computer use and classification system use for standardized and computerized documentation. However, results indicate that although Icelandic nurses give free-text progress notes and verbal information a higher priority than nursing diagnoses as an information resource for care planning, they have a positive attitude toward NANDA. NANDA and NIC are still used inconsistently in clinical practice, and 28% of participants claimed not to use any form of standardized documentation. CONCLUSIONS In an effort to standardize clinical documentation among nurses, Icelandic health authorities must follow their documentation mandates with educational and technologic support to facilitate the use of NANDA, NIC, and (after its translation) NOC in nursing documentation practices. Electronic patient record system developers must find ways to further facilitate standardized nursing documentation because currently there seems to be no difference between users and nonusers in terms of how they use NANDA and NIC in their documentation practices. [source]

Virtual Experiments and Their Use in Teaching Experimental Design

Paul L. Darius
Summary The ability to design experiments in an appropriate and efficient way is an important skill, but students typically have little opportunity to get that experience. Most textbooks introduce standard general-purpose designs, and then proceed with the analysis of data already collected. In this paper we explore a tool for gaining design experience: computer-based virtual experiments. These are software environments which mimic a real situation of interest and invite the user to collect data to answer a research question. Two prototype environments are described. The first one is suitable for a course that deals with screening or response surface designs, the second one allows experimenting with block and row-column designs. They are parts of a collection we developed called ENV2EXP, and can be freely used over the web. We also describe our experience in using them in several courses over the last few years. [source]

Formation of Poly(propylene)-Based Biocomposite Films and Their Use in the Attachment of Methylene Blue

Jesica A. Cavallo
Abstract Biocomposite PP -g- PAAc-CS films based on PP were generated and utilized as support of methylene blue, a thiazidic dye. Using a photograft polymerization of acrylic acid, the PP film was functionalized with carboxyl groups (PP -g- PAAc), which attached chitosan by electrostatic bond. A longer poly(acrylic acid) chain or a higher CS immobilization temperature led to a higher chain interpenetration and crosslinking reaction. Immobilized MB confirmed to possess redox activity from its reaction with ascorbic acid, where the dye decomposition rate () increases together with the chain interpenetration, then decreasing with the increase in the crosslinking degree. [source]

Synthesis of Fluorinated Hyperbranched Polymers and Their Use as Additives in Cationic Photopolymerization

Marco Sangermano
Abstract Summary: A fluorine containing hyperbranched polymer was synthesized by modifying an aromatic-aliphatic hyperbranched polyester with a semifluorinated alcohol via a Mitsunobu reaction and was subsequently used as an additive in cationic photopolymerization of an epoxy resin. The remaining OH groups of the fluorinated hyperbranched polymer interact with the polymeric carbocation through a chain-transfer mechanism inducing an increase in the final epoxy conversion. The fluorinated HBP induces modification of bulk and surface properties, with an increase in Tg and surface hydrophobicity already reached at very low concentration. The HBFP additive can, therefore, protect the coatings from aggressive solvents, increases hardness, and allows the preparation of a low energy surface coating. Synthesis of fluorinated hyperbranched polyester. [source]

DNA Microarrays: Their Use and Misuse

Xinmin Li
DNA microarray represents one of the major advances in functional genomics. Its ability to study expression of several thousands of genes or even all genes in the entire genome in a single experiment has changed the way in which we address basic biomedical questions. Numerous publications have shown its utility in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, novel gene identification, and understanding complex biological systems. However, there are substantive technical issues associated with the use of this technology that limit the interpretation of microarray data. In this review, we first give an overview of DNA microarray technology and then focus on uncertainty areas of microarray technology that include making microarrays, isolation of RNA and labeling, hybridization and scanning, and data analysis. The center theme of this review is to improve microarray reproducibility by addressing common technical problems. Finally, we briefly summarize microarray's applications in biomedical research. [source]

Ratiometric Singlet Oxygen Nano-optodes and Their Use for Monitoring Photodynamic Therapy Nanoplatforms

Youfu Cao
ABSTRACT Ratiometric photonic explorers for bioanalysis with biologically localized embedding (PEBBLE) nanoprobes have been developed for singlet oxygen, using organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles as the matrix. A crucial aspect of these ratiometric singlet-oxygen fluorescent probes is their minute size. The ORMOSIL nanoparticles are prepared via a sol-gel,based process and the average diameter of the resultant particles is about 160 nm. These sensors incorporate the singlet-oxygen,sensitive 9,10-dimethyl anthracene as an indicator dye and a singlet-oxygen,insensitive dye, octaethylporphine, as a reference dye for ratiometric fluorescence-based analysis. We have found experimentally that these nanoprobes have much better sensitivity than does the conventional singlet-oxygen,free dye probe, anthracene-9, 10-dipropionic acid disodium salt. The much longer lifetime of singlet oxygen in the ORMOSIL matrix, compared to aqueous solutions, in addition to the relatively high singlet oxygen solubility because of the highly permeable structure and the hydrophobic nature of the outer shell of the ORMOSIL nanoparticles, results in an excellent overall response to singlet oxygen. These nanoprobes have been used to monitor the singlet oxygen produced by "dynamic nanoplatforms" that were developed for photodynamic therapy. The singlet oxygen nanoprobes could potentially be used to quantify the singlet oxygen produced by macrophages. [source]

Multiplexed Analysis of Hg2+ and Ag+ Ions by Nucleic Acid Functionalized CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots and Their Use for Logic Gate Operations,

Ronit Freeman
Eine logische Analyse: Mit Nucleinsäuren funktionalisierte CdSe/ZnS-Quantenpunkte werden für den optischen selektiven Parallelnachweis von Hg2+ - und Ag+ -Ionen und für die Aktivierung von Logikgattern mithilfe dieser Ionen als Eingabesignale verwendet. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Modular Synthesis of the ClickFerrophos Ligand Family and Their Use in Rhodium- and Ruthenium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 9 2010
Hiroshi Oki
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Tandem Isomerization-Mannich Reactions from Allylic Alcohols and Their Use for the Preparation of Four Diastereoisomers of 1-Amino-2-methyl-1-phenyloctan-3-ol (VII).

CHEMINFORM, Issue 7 2010
Hai T. Cao
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Preparation of Disubstituted Phenyl Propargyl Alcohols, Their Use in Oxathiolene Oxide Synthesis, and Evaluation of the Oxathiolene Oxide Products as Anticarcinogenic Enzyme Inducers.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 35 2009
Maben Ying
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Synthesis of N-Allylideneamines and Their Use for the Double Nucleophilic Addition of Ketene Silyl (Thio)acetals and Trimethylsilyl Cyanide.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 4 2009
Isao Mizota
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Synthesis of Bulky Arylphosphanes by Rhodium-Catalyzed Formal [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition Reactions and Their Use as Ligands.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 52 2008
Takayuki Kobatake
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Synthesis and Properties of 1-Methylthiopropargylammonium Salts and Their Use as Key Precursors to Sulfur-Containing Enediynes.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 18 2008
Toshiaki Murai
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

Efficient Synthesis of Halo Indanones via Chlorosulfonic Acid Mediated Friedel,Crafts Cyclization of Aryl Propionic Acids and Their Use in Alkylation Reactions.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 21 2007
Anil K. Sharma
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

A Novel Category of Ionic Liquids Based on Diacetone Acrylamide Cation and Their Use as Esterification Catalysts.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 9 2007
Qing-Hai Cai
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

Synthesis of New Bulky Isocyanide Ligands and Their Use for Rh-Catalyzed Hydrosilylation.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 4 2007
Hajime Ito
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]