Their Role (their + role)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Professional Employer Organizations and Their Role in Small and Medium Enterprises: The Impact of HR Outsourcing

ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2003
Brian S. Klaas
While effective HR services and programs can help firms gain competitive advantage, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) often lack the internal resources required to develop and deliver these services and programs. As a result, SMEs increasingly are outsourcing HR activities to professional employer organizations (PEOs). Questions remain, however, about the conditions under which SMEs will benefit from outsourcing HR to a PEO, as well as about the type of benefits that are potentially available. The very nature of many HR activities raises questions about the risks associated with market governance and a PEO's ability to ensure service quality for SMEs. In order for these questions to be addressed, it is necessary to understand the process by which PEO utilization affects SME outcomes. In this article, we use transaction cost economics, social exchange theory, and the strategic HR literature to develop a framework for understanding the factors and conditions likely to affect whether and how an SME will benefit from using a PEO. [source]


Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Pt Nanocubes by a Noncovalent Functionalization Method and Their Role in Oxygen Reduction,

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 13 2008
Wen Yang
Combined with polymer wrapping and layer-by-layer techniques, a noncovalent functionalization method is developed todisperse Pt nanocubes (NCs) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By adjusting therelative ratio of Pt NCs to CNTs, nanotubes with different Pt NC loadings are produced. The composites exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction. [source]


Vitamins: Their Role in the Human Body

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Charles Brennan Associate Professor
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Basic Electrophysiology of the Pulmonary Veins and Their Role in Atrial Fibrillation:

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
Perpetuators, Perplexers, Precipitators
First page of article [source]


Studies on Energetic Compounds Part,27: Kinetics and Mechanism of Thermolysis of Bis(Ethylenediamine)Metal Nitrates and Their Role in the Burning Rate of Solid Propellants

PROPELLANTS, EXPLOSIVES, PYROTECHNICS, Issue 5 2003
Gurdip Singh
Abstract Four bis(ethylenediamine)metal(II) nitrate (BEMN) complexes, i.e. [M(EDA)2](NO3)2, where M=Cu, Co, Ni and Zn, have been prepared and characterized. Thermolysis of these complexes induced by heat and drop-weight impact has been investigated by TG-DTG, DTA, explosion delay (DE), explosion temperature (TE) and impact sensitivity measurement. The kinetics of early thermolysis reaction prior to fast decomposition have been evaluated. Contracting area (CA, n=2) and contracting cube (CC, n=3) equations were found to give the best fits in isothermal TG data among all tested nine mechanism-based kinetic models. The values of activation energy (Ea), TE, DE and activation energy for explosion (E*) have been found to be quite lower for the copper complex as compared to cobalt, nickel and zinc complexes. A mechanism of thermolysis has also been proposed. All these complexes were found to be insensitive towards impact of 2,kg weight up to the height of 110,cm. These complexes were used as energetic burning rate modifiers in the combustion of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite solid propellants. A two-fold increase in burning rate was observed with copper and cobalt complexes at low concentration (2% by wt.). The in situ freshly formed metal oxides with large number of active sites in their crystallites seem to be better additives for combustion of propellants. [source]


REVIEW ARTICLE: Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Pregnancy

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
Anne Leber
Citation Leber A, Teles A, Zenclussen AC. Regulatory T cells and their role in pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Regulatory T cells emerge in the last years as key players in allowing fetal survival within the maternal uterus. They were shown to be a unique subpopulation of T cells expanding during human and murine pregnancy. The importance of Treg for a normal pregnancy situation was proven by studies showing that their absence impairs murine pregnancy while the adoptive transfer of Treg prevents fetal rejection. In humans, pregnancy pathologies are associated with lower Treg frequencies while therapies that improve pregnancy outcome are able to boost their number. Functional studies have shown that Treg can regulate immune cell responses directly at the fetal,maternal interface either by interacting with other cells or by inducing the expression of immune regulatory molecules. This article revises relevant literature on regulatory T cells in human and murine pregnancy. [source]


Astrocyte Activation and Apoptosis: Their Roles in the Neuropathology of HIV Infection

BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Farideh Sabri
Astrogliosis is a common neuropathological finding in the brains of HIV infected individuals; both activation and apoptosis of astrocytes are seen. This review aims to discuss the Fas pathway in the context of proliferation and apoptosis of astrocytes during HIV infection, and as a result of astrogliosis, the dysregulation of astrocyte-neuron networks. The presence of molecules reflecting astrocyte activation, which are derived from the sol-ubilization of receptor/ligand from the surface of proliferating astrocytes, in the cerebrospinal fluid may be used to evaluate the degree of brain cell activation during HAART therapy. A better understanding of the molecular pathway(s) leading to increase activation and apoptosis of astrocytes, in parallel with studies conducted to unravel the molecules involved in T-cell apoptosis during HIV infection, may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for controlling HIV replication and tissue damage. [source]