Their Relationship (their + relationship)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An Exploratory Analysis of the Value of the Skills of IT Personnel: Their Relationship to IS Infrastructure and Competitive Advantage

Terry Anthony Byrd
Abstract Determining and assessing the requisite skills of information technology (IT) personnel have become critical as the value of IT has risen in modern organizations. In addition to technical skills traditionally expected of IT personnel, softer skills like managerial, business, and interpersonal skills have been increasingly cited in previous studies as mandatory for these employees. This paper uses a typology of IT personnel skills,technology management skills, business functional skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills,and investigates their relationships to two information systems (IS) success variables, IS infrastructure flexibility and the competitive advantage provided by IS. The study investigates these relationships using the perceptions of chief information officers (CIOs) from mostly Fortune 2000 companies. The contributions of this study are: IT personnel skills do affect IS success, technical skills are viewed as the most important skill set in affecting IS infrastructure flexibility and competitive advantage, and modularity is viewed as more valuable to competitive advantage than integration. Several explanations are offered for the lack of positive relationships between the softer IT personnel skills and the dimensions of IS success used in this study. [source]

The On-Road Difficulties of Older Drivers and Their Relationship with Self-Reported Motor Vehicle Crashes

Joanne M. Wood PhD
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the driving difficulties of older adults using a detailed assessment of driving performance and to link this with self-reported retrospective and prospective crashes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: On-road driving assessment. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred sixty-seven community-living adults aged 70 to 88 randomly recruited through the electoral roll. MEASUREMENTS: Performance on a standardized measure of driving performance. RESULTS: Lane positioning, approach, and blind spot monitoring were the most common error types, and errors occurred most frequently in situations involving merging and maneuvering. Drivers reporting more retrospective or prospective crashes made significantly more driving errors. Driver instructor interventions during self-navigation (where the instructor had to brake or take control of the steering to avoid an accident) were significantly associated with higher retrospective and prospective crashes; every instructor intervention almost doubled prospective crash risk. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that on-road driving assessment provides useful information on older driver difficulties, with the self-directed component providing the most valuable information. [source]

Relative Fitness and Frailty of Elderly Men and Women in Developed Countries and Their Relationship with Mortality

Arnold Mitnitski PhD
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between accumulated health-related problems (deficits), which define a frailty index in older adults, and mortality in population-based and clinical/institutional-based samples. Design: Cross-sectional and cohort studies. Setting: Seven population-based and four clinical/institutional surveys in four developed countries. Participants: Thirty-six thousand four hundred twenty-four people (58.5% women) aged 65 and older. Measurements: A frailty index was constructed as a proportion of all potential deficits (symptoms, signs, laboratory abnormalities, disabilities) expressed in a given individual. Relative frailty is defined as a proportion of deficits greater than average for age. Measures of deficits differed across the countries but included common elements. Results: In each country, community-dwelling elderly people accumulated deficits at about 3% per year. By contrast, people from clinical/institutional samples showed no relationship between frailty and age. Relative fitness/frailty in both sexes was highly correlated (correlation coefficient >0.95, P<.001) with mortality, although women, at any given age, were frailer and had lower mortality. On average, each unit increase in deficits increased by 4% the hazard rate for mortality (95% confidence interval=0.02,0.06). Conclusion: Relative fitness and frailty can be defined in relation to deficit accumulation. In population studies from developed countries, deficit accumulation is robustly associated with mortality and with age. In samples (e.g., clinical/institutional) in which most people are frail, there is no relationship with age, suggesting that there are maximal values of deficit accumulation beyond which survival is unlikely. [source]

Delirium Severity and Psychomotor Types: Their Relationship with Outcomes after Hip Fracture Repair

Edward Marcantonio MD
OBJECTIVES: To validate the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) as a measure of delirium severity in a cohort of patients aged 65 and older; to examine the association between severity of delirium and patient outcomes; and to examine the association between psychomotor variants of delirium and each of those outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective assessment of sample. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-two older patients (mean age ± standard deviation = 79 ± 8) who had undergone acute hip fracture surgery. MEASUREMENTS: We used standardized instruments to assess prefracture activities of daily living (ADLs), ambulatory status, cognition, and living situation. Postoperatively, each patient was interviewed daily. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), and delirium severity was measured using the MDAS. The MDAS was also used to categorize the psychomotor types of delirium into "purely hypoactive" or "any hyperactivity." Telephone or face-to-face interviews were conducted at 1 and 6 months to assess survival, ADL function, ambulatory status, and living situation. RESULTS: Of 122 patients, 40% developed CAM-defined delirium. Delirious patients had higher average MDAS scores than nondelirious patients (11.7 vs 2.4, P <.0001). We used the median of the average MDAS score to classify patients into mild or severe delirium. Severe delirium was generally associated with worse outcomes than was mild delirium, and the associations reached statistical significance for nursing home placement or death at 6 months (52% vs 17%, P = .009). Additionally, patients who did not meet full CAM criteria for delirium experienced worse outcomes if they had some symptoms of delirium than if they had no or few symptoms (nursing home placement or death at 6 months: 27% vs 0%, P = .001). Surprisingly, these patients with subsyndromal delirium who did not fulfill CAM criteria for delirium but demonstrated significant delirium symptoms, had outcomes similar to or worse than those with mild CAM-defined delirium. Pure hypoactive delirium accounted for 71% (34/48) of cases and was less severe than was delirium with any hyperactivity (average MDAS score 10.6 vs 14.8, P = .007). In our cohort, patients with pure hypoactive delirium had better outcomes than did those with any hyperactivity (nursing home placement or death at 1 month: 32% vs 79%, P = .003); this difference persisted after adjusting for severity. CONCLUSION: In this study of delirium in older hip fracture patients, the MDAS, a continuous severity measure, was a useful adjunct to the CAM, a dichotomous diagnostic measure. In patients with CAM-defined delirium, severe delirium was generally associated with worse outcomes than was mild delirium. In patients who did not fulfill CAM criteria, subsyndromal delirium was associated with worse outcomes than having few or no symptoms of delirium. Patients with subsyndromal delirium had outcomes similar to patients with mild delirium, suggesting that a dichotomous approach to diagnosis and management may be inappropriate. Pure hypoactive delirium was more common than delirium with any hyperactive features, tended to be milder, and was associated with better outcomes even after adjusting for severity. Future studies should confirm our preliminary associations and examine whether treatment to reduce the severity of delirium symptoms can improve outcomes after hip fracture repair. [source]

Personality Judgments in Adolescents' Families: The Perceiver, the Target, Their Relationship, and the Family

Susan J. T. Branje
The present study investigated whether personality judgments involve different processes in a family setting than in a nonfamily setting. We used the Social Relations Model to distinguish the effects of perceiver, target, perceiver-target relationship, and family on personality judgments. Family members of families with adolescents judged their own and the other members' Big Five factors. Judgments were found to depend on the relevance of personality factors within the family setting: Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were judged most consistently. Large relationship variance indicated that parents adjust their judgments to the target family member; large perceiver variance indicated that adolescents judge family members' personalities rather similarly. However, a comparison of self- and other-judgments showed adolescents' judgments to be no more related to their self-perceptions than parents' judgments. We concluded that the relevance of personality factors may differ on specific tasks within a setting. [source]

Quantitative Analysis of Inflammatory and Immune Responses in Dogs with Gastritis and Their Relationship to Helicobacter spp.

The present study sought to quantitatively examine mucosal inflammatory and immune responses in dogs with gastritis and the relationship of these responses to infection with Helicobacter. Gastric biopsies from 30 dogs were evaluated for B- and T-lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, and mast cells. Mucosal atrophy, fibrosis, cellularity, and severity of gastritis were graded qualitatively. Messenger-RNA (mRNA) for actin, interleukin-1, (IL-1,), IL-4, IL-8, and IL-10, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-,), and interferon gamma (IFN-,) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined by urease activity, histology, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA for IL-1,, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-,, and IFN-, was detected in most dogs. IL-4 mRNA was detected in only 1 dog. Correlations were observed for IL-1, versus IL-8 and IL-10; IL-8 versus IL-10, IFN-,, and TGF-,; and IL-10 versus IFN-,. Mucosal pathology was related to cytokine mRNA expression (neutrophils to IL-8 and IFN-,, macrophages and lymphocytes to IFN-,, and fibrosis to IL-1,). Gastritis was categorized as lymphoplasmacytic in all dogs, and its histologic severity correlated with atrophy, infiltration with lymphocytes and macrophages, and expression of IL-10 and IFN-,. Of the dogs examined, 76.7% were infected with Helicobacter spp. Infection was associated with increased expression of TGF-, and fibrosis. Circulating anti- Helicobacter immunoglobulin G titers were higher in uninfected than infected dogs. We conclude that lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in dogs is characterized by concurrent activation of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, with increased mRNA expression related to mucosal pathology. No significant associations between Helicobacter infection and proinflammatory cytokine expression, severity of gastritis, or differences in the pathogenicity of different Helicobacter spp. were found. [source]

Attachment to the Nation and International Relations: Dimensions of Identity and Their Relationship to War and Peace

Richard K. Herrmann
Since the rise of mass politics, the role national identities play in international relations has been debated. Do they produce a popular reservoir easily tapped for war or bestow dignity thereby fostering cooperation and a democratic peace? The evidence for either perspective is thin, beset by different conceptions of identity and few efforts to identify its effects independent of situational factors. Using data drawn from new national surveys in Italy and the United States, we advance a three-dimensional conception of national identity, theoretically connecting the dimensions to conflictive and cooperative dispositions as well as to decisions to cooperate with the United Nations in containing Iran's nuclear proliferation and Sudan's humanitarian crisis in Darfur. Attachment to the nation in Italy and the United States is found to associate with less support for militarist options and more support for international cooperation as liberal nationalists expect. This depends, however, on containing culturally exclusive conceptions of the nation and chauvinism. [source]

FMR1 CGG Repeat Patterns and Flanking Haplotypes in Three Asian Populations and Their Relationship With Repeat Instability

Youyou Zhou
Summary Hyper-expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5, untranslated region of the FMR1 gene followed by methylation and silencing is the predominant cause of Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited mental retardation disorder. Most detailed studies of the FMR1 gene have focused on Caucasian populations and patients. We performed a detailed haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the FMR1 gene in a total of 454 unselected normal X chromosomes from three Asian populations, Chinese, Malay and Indian. Compared to Caucasians and African Americans, the diversity of normal FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, patterns and flanking haplotypes were lower in Asians. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between the CGG repeat and flanking FMR1 markers in all three Asian populations, with strong association between specific CGG repeat alleles and flanking marker alleles observed only in the Chinese and Malays. A test for randomness of distribution between FRAXA CGG repeat patterns and flanking FMR1 marker haplotypes also revealed a highly significant non-random distribution between CGG repeat patterns and flanking haplotypes in all three ethnic groups (P < 0.001). Extending previous findings in Caucasians and African Americans we present a novel statistical approach, using data from unselected population samples alone, to show an association between absence of at least one AGG interruption in any position (5,, 3,, or middle) and increased CGG repeat instability. [source]

Satisfaction and Use of Prenatal Care: Their Relationship Among African-American Women in a Large Managed Care Organization

BIRTH, Issue 1 2003
Arden Handler DrPH
ABSTRACT:Background: Although many more mothers of almost all ethnic groups began prenatal care in the first trimester during the last decade, a significant number of low-income and minority women still fail to obtain adequate care in the United States,a failure that may be related to their dissatisfaction with the prenatal care experience. This study sought to examine the relationship between satisfaction with care and subsequent prenatal care utilization among African-American women using prospective methods. Methods: A sample of 125 Medicaid and 275 non-Medicaid African-American adult women seeking care through a large Midwest managed care organization were interviewed before or at 28 weeks' gestation at one of two prenatal care sites. Women were interviewed about personal characteristics, prenatal care experience, and ratings of care (satisfaction). Information about subsequent use of prenatal care was obtained through retrospective medical record review after delivery. Univariate and multivariable analyses examining the relationship between women's satisfaction and prenatal care use were conducted using a dichotomous measure of satisfaction and a continuous measure of utilization. Results: Women were highly satisfied with prenatal care, with an overall mean satisfaction score of 80.3. Non-Medicaid women were significantly (p < 0.05) less satisfied with their prenatal care (mean score, 79.1) than Medicaid women (mean score, 82.8), and the latter had significantly fewer visits on average than the former subsequent to the interview. Analyses showed no significant difference in subsequent utilization according to whether a woman had a high versus low level of satisfaction at the prenatal care interview. Conclusions: This study challenges the assumption that improving a woman's satisfaction with care will lead to an increase in the adequacy of her prenatal care utilization. Since this study was limited to African-American women and is the first prospective study of women's satisfaction with care and prenatal care utilization, the negative findings do not yet settle this area of inquiry. Monitoring women's satisfaction with prenatal care in both managed care and fee-for-service settings and working to improve those aspects of care associated with decreased satisfaction is warranted. (BIRTH 30:1 March 2003) [source]

Ophiolites from the Mianlüe Suture in the Southern Qinling and Their Relationship with the Eastern Paleotethys Evolution

LAI Shaocong
Abstract The Mianlüe suture extends from Derni-Nanping-Pipasi-Kangxian to the Lüeyang-Mianxian area, then traverses the Bashan arcuate structure eastward to the Huashan region, and finally to the Qingshuihe area of the southern Dabie Mountains. From east to west, with a length of over 1500 km, the ophiolitic melangé associations are distributed discontinuously along the suture. The rock assemblages include ophiolite, island-arc and oceanic island rock series, indicating that there existed a suture zone and a vanished paleo-ocean basin. The Mianlüe paleo-ocean basin experienced its main expansion and formation process during the Carboniferous-Permian and closed totally in the Triassic. It belongs to the northern branch of the eastern paleotethys, separated from the northern margin of the Yangtze block under the paleotethys mantle dynamic system. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: A Structural and Theoretical Analysis of Transition Metalloporphodimethenes and Their Relationship with Metalloporphyrins.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 6 2002
Nazzareno Re
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]