Their Relation (their + relation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Two Dimensions of Attachment to God and Their Relation to Affect, Religiosity, and Personality Constructs

Wade Rowatt
In this study we sought to address several limitations of previous research on attachment theory and religion by (1) developing a dimensional attachment to God scale, and (2) demonstrating that dimensions of attachment to God are predictive of measures of affect and personality after controlling for social desirability and other related dimensions of religiosity. Questionnaire measures of these constructs were completed by a sample of university students and community adults (total n= 374). Consistent with prior research on adult romantic attachment, two dimensions of attachment to God were identified: avoidance and anxiety. After statistically controlling for social desirability, intrinsic religiousness, doctrinal orthodoxy, and loving God image, anxious attachment to God remained a significant predictor of neuroticism, negative affect, and (inversely) positive affect; avoidant attachment to God remained a significant inverse predictor of religious symbolic immortality and agreeableness. These findings are evidence that correlations between attachment to God and measures of personality and affect are not merely byproducts of confounding effects of socially desirable responding or other dimensions of religiosity. [source]

Prevalence of Noncarious Cervical Lesions and Their Relation to Occlusal Aspects: A Clinical Study

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess noncarious cervical lesions in young patients and to establish a possible relation with occlusal aspects. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight dental students (28 males; 20 females) between the ages of 16 and 24 years, were investigated to verify the presence of noncarious cervical lesions and their relation to some occlusal aspects. The assessment involved a questionnaire, clinical examinations, and model analysis. Results: The results indicated that the lower first molars (21.3%), the upper first molars (16.0%), the upper first premolars (12.8%), the lower first premolars (11.7%), and the lower second premolars (11.7%) were the teeth most affected by the lesions. Age was a significant factor with respect to the presence of lesions; the students with noncarious cervical lesions were older than the students who showed no lesions. Among the 79 teeth exhibiting lesions, 62 (78.5%) showed wear facets. In the group with lesions, the mean, per subject, was 15.0 teeth with wear facets, whereas in the group without lesions the mean was 10.8 teeth with wear facets per subject, suggesting that occlusal stress has some effect on lesion development. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Noncarious cervical lesions are characterized by loss of tooth structure on the cervical area of the tooth and can result in esthetic problems for the patient, as well as discomfort due to the hyper-sensibility that often occurs at the location of the lesion. The results obtained reinforce the multifactorial theory, shared by several authors, for the etiology of such lesions. However, as the limitations of each etiologic agent begin to be understood, there will be a decrease in the possibility of misleading interpretations of the result of present or future investigations. [source]

General and Specific Traits of Personality and Their Relation to Sleep and Academic Performance

Elizabeth K. Gray
ABSTRACT Few studies have examined the links between personality variables and sleep and their combined effect on specific real-world outcomes. Participants in this study completed numerous personality, sleep, and performance measures; we examined the associations among these measures. Personality was assessed using the Five-Factor Model. The personality trait of Conscientiousness (especially its facet of Achievement Striving) was a substantial predictor of academic performance. Analyses of the sleep variables revealed three distinct constructs: quantity, quality, and schedule. Sleep quantity showed few interesting correlates. In contrast, sleep quality was associated with greater well-being and improved psychological functioning, whereas sleep schedule (i.e., average rising and retiring times) was significantly related to Conscientiousness, such that conscientious individuals maintain earlier schedules. [source]

Subgroups of Attributional Profiles in Students with Learning Difficulties and Their Relation to Self-Concept and Academic Goals

José Carlos Núñez
The aim of this article was fourfold: first, to determine whether there are significant differences between students with (N= 173) and without learning disabilities (LD; N= 172) in the dimensions of self-concept, causal attributions, and academic goals. Second, to determine whether students with LD present a uniform attributional profile or whether there are subgroups of attributional profiles among students with LD. Third, to explore differences between these profiles on the dimensions of self-concept, academic goals, perception of competence-incompetence, persistence when faced with failure, peer relationships, and academic achievement. Fourth, to determine whether there are significant differences in the dimensions of self-concept and academic goals between NLD students and the different LD subgroups. The results indicate the existence of two very distinct attributional profiles in students with LD (Helplessness Profile and Adaptive Profile). The implications of these data with regard to theory and research, as well as educational practice, are discussed. [source]

Dyadic Characteristics of Individual Attributes: Attachment, Neuroticism, and Their Relation to Marital Quality and Closeness

Adital Ben-Ari PhD
The present article focuses on couple types based on 2 personality traits, attachment security and neuroticism, as they relate to 2 facets of the marital relationship,a global evaluation of relationship quality and dyadic closeness,distance. The sample consisted of 248 married couples who completed measures of attachment anxiety and avoidance, neuroticism, and marital quality, as well as levels of closeness reported over 7 consecutive days. Cluster analyses yielded 3 types of dyadic attachment configurations (secure, fearful avoidant, and insecure-mixed) and 4 types of dyadic neuroticism (low couple neuroticism, high couple neuroticism, wife neuroticism, and husband neuroticism). Significant differences were found among attachment and neuroticism dyadic types in marital quality. The findings are discussed in terms of the viability of dyadic types based on individual traits, implying that attachment security yields itself to dyadic conceptualization more than neuroticism. [source]

Male Body Size and Mating Success and Their Relation to Larval Host Plant History in the Moth Rothschildia lebeau in Costa Rican Dry Forest

BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2010
Salvatore J. Agosta
ABSTRACT The moth Rothschildia lebeau uses three tree species as its primary larval hosts in the tropical dry forest of northwestern Costa Rica. These hosts were shown previously to have different relative effects on caterpillar performance, resulting in an apparent host-related life history trade-off between large adult body size on the one hand but low offspring survival on the other. To further assess the potential ecological and evolutionary importance of this trade-off, an observational field study of the relationship between male body size and mating success was conducted. Across mating trials, larger males had a higher probability of being observed mating. Independent of the effect of size, the amount of wing damage an individual had sustained (a measure of relative age) was negatively correlated with the probability a male was observed mating. Within mating trials, the mated male tended to be larger than the average unmated male, but there was no difference in wing damage. Overall, results of this study were consistent with a positive effect of male body size on mating success, consistent with the idea that larval host plant history and its effects on adult body size matters in terms of adult male fitness. However, all sized males were observed mating over the course of the study, and the size advantage did not appear to be particularly strong. Abstract in Spanish is available at [source]

Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: Their Relations with Classroom Problem Behavior and Peer Status

Jeff Kiesner
It has been suggested that early antisocial behavior plays a causal role in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence through pervasive failures in social competence and social acceptance (Patterson & Capaldi, 1990). The present study was conducted to test this hypothesis by examining longitudinal data from a sample of 215 Italian middle school students. Analyses revealed that Time 1 (T1) problem behavior predicted both Time 2 (T2) peer status and T2 depressive symptoms, even after controlling for T1 peer status and depressive symptoms, respectively. Moreover, T1 peer status predicted depressive symptoms at T2, even after controlling for prior levels of depressive symptoms. However, analyses did not support the hypothesis that peer rejection mediates the effects of problem behavior on depression. [source]