Their Interaction (their + interaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Service Personnel, Technology, and Their Interaction in Influencing Customer Satisfaction,

Craig M. Froehle
ABSTRACT Managing both the technologies and the personnel needed for providing high-quality, multichannel customer support creates a complex and persistent operational challenge. Adding to this difficulty, it is still unclear how service personnel and these new communication technologies interact to influence the customer's perceptions of the service being provided. Motivated by both practical importance and inconsistent findings in the academic literature, this exploratory research examines the interaction of media richness, represented by three different technology contexts (telephone, e-mail, and online chat), with six customer service representative (CSR) characteristics and their influences on customer satisfaction. Using a large-sample customer survey data set, the article develops a multigroup structural equation model to analyze these interactions. Results suggest that CSR characteristics influence customer service satisfaction similarly across all three technology-mediated contexts. Of the characteristics studied, service representatives contribute to customer satisfaction more when they exhibit the characteristics of thoroughness, knowledgeableness, and preparedness, regardless of the richness of the medium used. Surprisingly, while three other CSR characteristics studied (courtesy, professionalism, and attentiveness) are traditionally believed to be important in face-to-face encounters, they had no significant impact on customer satisfaction in the technology-mediated contexts studied. Implications for both practitioners and researchers are drawn from the results and future research opportunities are discussed. [source]

Drip Irrigation Frequency: The Effects and Their Interaction with Nitrogen Fertilization on Sandy Soil Water Distribution, Maize Yield and Water Use Efficiency Under Egyptian Conditions

S. E. El-Hendawy
Abstract Irrigation frequency is one of the most important factors in drip irrigation scheduling that affects the soil water regime, the water and fertilization use efficiency and the crop yield, although the same quantity of water is applied. Therefore, field experiments were conducted for 2 years in the summer season of 2005 and 2006 on sandy soils to investigate the effects of irrigation frequency and their interaction with nitrogen fertilization on water distribution, grain yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE) of two white grain maize hybrids (Zea mays L.). The experiment was conducted by using a randomized complete block split-split plot design, with four irrigation frequencies (once every 2, 3, 4 and 5 days), two nitrogen levels (190 and 380 kg N ha,1), and two maize hybrids (three-way cross 310 and single cross 10) as the main-plot, split-plot, and split-split plot treatments respectively. The results indicate that drip irrigation frequency did affect soil water content and retained soil water, depending on soil depth. Grain yield with the application of 190 kg N ha,1 was not statistically different from that at 380 kg N ha,1 at the irrigation frequency once every 5 days. However, the application of 190 kg N ha,1 resulted in a significant yield reduction of 25 %, 18 % and 9 % in 2005 and 20 %, 13 % and 6 % in 2006 compared with 380 kg N ha,1 at the irrigation frequencies once every 2, 3 and 4 days respectively. The response function between yield components and irrigation frequency treatments was quadratic in both growing seasons except for 100-grain weight, where the function was linear. WUE increased with increasing irrigation frequency and nitrogen levels, and reached the maximum values at once every 2 and 3 days and at 380 kg N ha,1. In order to improve the WUE and grain yield for drip-irrigated maize in sandy soils, it is recommended that irrigation frequency should be once every 2 or 3 days at the investigated nitrogen levels of 380 kg N ha,1 regardless of maize varieties. However, further optimization with a reduced nitrogen application rate should be aimed at and will have to be investigated. [source]

Characteristics of Sarcoplasmic Proteins and Their Interaction with Surimi and Kamaboko Gel

A. Jafarpour
ABSTRACT:, This study examined the effect of adding common carp sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp- P) on the gel characteristics of threadfin bream surimi and kamaboko while maintaining constant moisture and myofibrillar levels. Based on the temperature sweep test, which is involved in heating of surimi gel from 10 to 80 C to monitor the viscoelastic properties, at temperature range of 40 to 50 C, the decrease level (depth of valley) in storage modulus (G,) thermograph was in proportion to the concentration of added Sp- P. Storage modulus (G,) showed greater elasticity after adding Sp- P compared with the control without Sp- P. Furthermore, the breaking force and distance and consequently gel strength of the resultant kamaboko were improved significantly (P > 0.05). Thus, added Sp- P did not interfere with myofibrillar proteins during sol,gel transition phase but associated with textural quality enhancement of resultant kamaboko; however, addition of Sp- P from the dark muscle of the carp decreased the whiteness of the resultant surimi. Furthermore, according to the SEM micrographs, the gel strength could not be associated with either the number of polygonal structures/mm2 or the area of the polygonal structures in the kamaboko gel microstructure. [source]

GAG Mimetic Libraries: Sulphated Peptide as Heparin-like Glycosaminoglycan Mimics in Their Interaction with FGF-1

Socorro Vzquez-Campos
Abstract Heparin and heparan sulphate (HS) are heterogenous, linear, polysulphated polysaccharides that are important in the regulation of a wide variety of biological processes including blood coagulation, in cell differentiation, adhesion, invasion, migration and development, and in tumor-related cellular events such as growth regulation and metastasis. In general, heparin/HS interacts with proteins mainly through ionic interactions between its negatively charged groups and positively charged groups on the proteins. From a mechanistic or therapeutic standpoint, it is attractive to design less complex charged molecules, other than oligosaccharides, as mimics of heparin. In an attempt to improve the accessibility of heparin mimics, it was assumed, provided that the correct charge topography could be achieved, that sulphated peptides might also act as mimics. Therefore, sulphated peptide combinatorial libraries were generated on solid support to identify novel polyanionic structures that mimic the role of heparin/HS in its binding to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Libraries were synthesised by direct sulphation of the peptide on solid phase or by using O- sulphonated building blocks during peptide synthesis. Quantitative solid-phase O -sulphonation of hydroxy amino acid residues in a peptide chain was effected by sulphur trioxide pyridine (SO3 -Pyr) complex in anhydrous pyridine at 65,C for 4,h. O- Sulphonated building blocks were successfully synthesised in solution and, after stabilisation of the sulphate group by complexion with tetrabutyl ammonium ions, were employed in the synthesis of sulphated peptide libraries, similar to those generated by direct O- sulphonation on solid supports. The libraries were incubated with fluorescent-labelled FGF-1, and analysis and sequence determination of active compounds was carried out using Edman degradation. Selected sulphated peptides from the screening were resynthesised and their affinity for FGF-1 (acidic FGF) was studied in solution competition assays using surface plasmon resonance. These studies showed that sulphated decapeptides do bind to FGF-1 and inhibit its binding to immobilised heparin in the low micromolar concentration range. [source]

A Coupled 3D Discrete-Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Granular Materials and Their Interaction with Solid Structures

Christian Wellmann
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Synthesis of Novel Pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrazole-dicarboxylic Acids and Evaluation of Their Interaction with Glutamate Receptors

Paola Conti
Abstract Chiral pyrazoline amino acids (3aR,4S,6aR)- 1a and (3aR,4S,6aR)- 1b, and (3aS,6S,6aS)- 2a and (3aS,6S,6aS)- 2b, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic and homoglutamic acid, respectively, were prepared via a strategy based on the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a nitrile imine to methyl N -Boc-3,4-didehydro-(S)-prolinate. The new ,amino acids' were tested for activity at ionotropic glutamate receptors. Solely the derivative (3aR,4S,6aR)- 1a, which is structurally related to the previously described 4,5-dihydroisoxazole analogue (S)-CIP-A, turned out to be a potent and selective agonist for the AMPA receptors. The biological activity is due to the interaction with the orthosteric glutamate binding site. [source]

Dissociation of the ,001, Dislocations and Their Interactions with Dislocation Loops in Tetragonal BaTiO3

Shun-Yu Cheng
Dislocations in pressureless-sintered BaTiO3 ceramics have been analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Subjected to effective sintering stresses, dislocations were generated and multiplied in plastically deformed BaTiO3 crystals by the Frank,Read mechanism from both single- and double-ended sources. This is represented by dislocations encompassing a series of square-like borders that shared a common center. All border dislocations exhibited the characteristic scallop shape. True dislocation line directions (u) were determined by trace analysis and Burgers vectors (b) by contrast analysis for the dislocations dissociated from b=,001, into two half-partials following the type (I) reaction ofby climb on {001}. Dislocation interactions between the main dislocations created from plastic deformation and dislocation loops of b=,100, or ,110, forming condensation of intrinsic Schottky vacancies were also found to obey the type (IV) reaction of, the type (V) reactions of. Migrating dislocations and loops interacting mutually in several stages, illustrated schematically, before arriving at the configuration described by types (IV) and (V) were observed and discussed. [source]

Cigarette Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk: Limited Evidence of Genotypic and Exogenous Carcinogenic Factors and Their Interactions

Henry T. Lynch MDArticle first published online: 29 APR 2010
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Intramolecular Effects in Covalently Connected Units , Ring-Type Oriented Chromophores and Their Interactions.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 5 2002
Heinz Langhals
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

Structures of Cytochrome b5 Mutated at the Charged Surface-Residues and Their Interactions with Cytochrome c,

Jlan Wu
Abstract Glu44, Glu48, Ghi56 and Asp60 are the negatively charged residues located at the molecular surface of cytochrome b5. Two mutants of cytochrome b5 were prepared, in which two or all of these four residues were mutated to alanines. The mutations give rise to slightly positive shifts of the redox potentials of cytochrome b5 and obvious decrease of the cytochrome b5 -cytochrome c binding constants and electron transfer rates. The crystal structures of the two mutants were determined at 0.18 nm resolution, showing no alteration in overall structures and exhibiting slight changes in the local conformations around the mutation sites as compared with the wild-type protein. Based on the crystal structure of the quadruple-site mutant, a model for the binding of this mutant with cytochrome c is proposed, which involves the salt bridges from Glu37, Glu38 and heme propionate of cytochrome b5 to three lysines of cytochrome c and can well account for the properties and behaviors of this mutant. [source]