Their Association (their + association)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Demographic Factors and Their Association with Outcomes in Pediatric Submersion Injury

Lois K. Lee MD
Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of serious pediatric submersion injuries and to identify factors associated with an increased risk of death or chronic disability. Methods: A retrospective database review of 1994,2000 Massachusetts death and hospital discharge data characterized demographic factors; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), or ICD-10 injury codes; and outcomes for state residents 0,19 years of age identified with unintentional submersion injuries. The authors performed logistic regression analysis to correlate outcomes with risk and demographic factors. Results: The database included 267 cases of serious submersion injury, defined as those requiring hospitalization or leading to death. Of these 267 patients, 125 (47%) drowned, 118 (44%) were discharged home, 13 (5%) were discharged home with intravenous therapy or with availability of a home health aide, and 11 (4%) were discharged to an intermediate care/chronic care facility. The authors observed a trend of improved outcome in successively younger age groups (p < 0.0001). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor outcome for males compared with females (odds ratio [OR]: 2.52; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.31 to 4.84) and for African Americans compared with whites (OR: 3.47; 95% CI = 1.24 to 9.75), and a decreased likelihood of poor outcome for Hispanics compared with whites (OR: 0.056; 95% CI = 0.013 to 0.24). Conclusions: After serious pediatric submersion injuries, the overall outcome appears largely bimodal, with children primarily discharged home or dying. The observations that better outcomes occurred among younger age groups, females, and Hispanic children, with worse outcomes in African American children, suggest that injury prevention for submersion injuries should consider differences in age, gender, and race/ethnicity. [source]

Developmental Trajectories of Impulsivity and Their Association With Alcohol Use and Related Outcomes During Emerging and Young Adulthood I

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
Andrew K. Littlefield
Background:, Research has documented normative patterns of personality change during emerging and young adulthood that reflect decreases in traits associated with substance use, such as impulsivity. However, evidence suggests variability in these developmental changes. Methods:, This study examined trajectories of impulsivity and their association with substance use and related problems from ages 18 to 35. Analyses were based on data collected from a cohort of college students (N = 489), at high and low risk for AUDs, first assessed as freshmen at a large, public university. Results:, Mixture modeling identified five trajectory groups that differed in baseline levels of impulsivity and developmental patterns of change. Notably, the trajectory group that exhibited the sharpest declines in impulsivity tended to display accelerated decreases in alcohol involvement from ages 18 to 25 compared to the other impulsivity groups. Conclusion:, Findings highlight the developmental nature of impulsivity across emerging and young adulthood and provide an empirical framework to identify key covariates of individual changes of impulsivity. [source]

Prevalence of Alcohol-Related Problems in an Elderly Population and Their Association With Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2010
Marcos A. Lopes
Background:, Studies investigating the association between alcohol use and cognitive disorders in the elderly population have produced divergent results. Moreover, the role of alcohol in cognitive dysfunction is not clear. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of alcohol-related problems in an elderly population from Brazil and to investigate their association with cognitive and functional impairment (CFI) and dementia. Methods:, A community-based cross-sectional study was performed. A sample of 1,145 elderly people was examined in 2 phases. Several instruments were utilized in the first phase: the CAGE questionnaire was used to identify potential cases of alcohol-related problems, and a screening test for dementia was used to estimate CFI. The CAMDEX interview (Cambridge Examination) and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) criteria were used for the clinical diagnosis of dementia in the second phase. Results:, "Heavy alcohol use" (CAGE , 2) was found in 92 subjects (prevalence: 8.2%). It was associated with gender (males, p < 0.001), low education (only in females, p = 0.002), and low socioeconomic level (p = 0.001, in females; p = 0.002, in males). The Mini Mental State Examination exhibited a nonlinear relationship with alcohol-related problems in females; "mild,moderate alcohol use" (CAGE < 2) presented the highest score. A significant association between alcohol-related problems and cognitive dysfunction was found only in females. "Heavy alcohol use" was associated with higher CFI and dementia rates compared to "mild,moderate alcohol use" (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). "Mild,moderate alcohol use" had a tendency of association with lower CFI and dementia rates when compared to "no alcohol use" (p = 0.063 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion:, Our findings suggest that alcohol use does not have a linear relationship with cognitive decline. [source]

Response to "Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses and Their Association with Cocaine-Induced Psychosis in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects"

Lisa J. Merlo PhD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses and Their Association with Cocaine-Induced Psychosis in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects

Yi-Lang Tang MD
Comorbidity between drug abuse and mental illness is very common, but the association of such comorbidity with specific responses to drugs of abuse remains obscure. The current study examined the relationship between the presence of non-psychotic Axis I psychiatric diagnoses and the frequency and severity of cocaine-induced psychosis. We interviewed 243 unrelated cocaine-dependent adults [37% European American (EA), 52.3% African American (AA); 58.8% male] using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) to establish DSM-IV diagnoses, and two instruments for the identification of cocaine-induced paranoia, the Cocaine Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP). Comorbid substance use and psychiatric disorders were common in this cocaine-dependent sample. Ninety percent of subjects met criteria for substance use disorders other than cocaine dependence; common non-substance-use disorders included antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), adult ASPD, major depression, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comorbid opioid dependence was more common in EA subjects than in AA participants. After correction for multiple comparisons, a lifetime diagnosis of ADHD was associated with the categorical presence of CIP (p = 0.007), as well as significantly more severe CIP symptoms. Comorbid substance use and psychiatric disorders are very common among individuals with cocaine dependence. Comorbid ADHD increases the odds of an individual endorsing CIP, suggesting some common basis for these phenomena. [source]