Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Thailand

  • central thailand
  • northeast thailand
  • northern thailand
  • peninsular thailand
  • southern thailand

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Proteolytic activities of splenic extract from three tuna species including skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) and tongol tuna (Thunnus tonggol) were studied. Optimal activity of splenic extract from all tuna species was at pH 9.0 and 55C when casein was used as a substrate. Among all species tested, yellowfin tuna showed the highest activity, followed by skipjack tuna and tongol tuna. The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, TLCK and partially inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. E-64, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetic acid, TPCK and pepstatin A showed no inhibition. The effect of NaCl and CaCl2 on proteolytic activity was also investigated. Activities continuously decreased as NaCl concentration increased, and no activity remained in the presence of 30% NaCl. On the other hand, activities increased as CaCl2 concentration increased. The highest activity was obtained in the presence of 1 mM CaCl2. SDS-substrate gel electrophoresis revealed that major proteinases in splenic extract from different tuna species were different in apparent molecular weights and sensitivity to TLCK. Although the major activity bands of all species were strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, varying sensitivity to TLCK probably implied the differences in binding characteristic of enzyme to substrate and/or inhibitors. The results suggest that major proteinases in spleen of all tuna species were trypsin-like serine proteinases. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2010
    ABSTRACT A total of 380 meat and meat products, dairy and dairy products, fresh vegetables, fresh seafood, and ready-to-eat food samples from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand were collected and analyzed for the occurrence of Listeria spp. and of Listeria monocytogenes. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 16.8%, most of them were isolated from raw meat and vegetables. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 18 (4.7%) out of 380 studied samples. Other species isolated were L. innocua (6.6%), L. ivanovii (0.8%), L. seeligeri (0.5%), L. grayi (1.6%) and L. welshimeri (2.6%). The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 64 isolate of Listeria spp. were also examined by the standard disk diffusion method. Listeria spp. were resistant to penicillin (6.3%), chloramphenicol (3.1%) and tetracycline (1.6%), but sensitive to amoxicillin, vancomycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and sulfamethoxazole. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Listeria monocytogenes prevalence in food products in Bangkok has been documented. More studies on the occurrence of L. monocytogenes are needed to establish microbiological criteria of foods in the country. The findings of our study, increases in antibiotic resistance among Listeria spp. will provide useful information for the development of public health policy in the use of antimicrobials in food animal production. [source]


    H.I. Petersen
    Oil is produced from the Suphan Buri, Phitsanulok and Fang Basins onshore central and northern Thailand. Most of the Cenozoic rift-basins onshore Thailand are 2,4 km deep, but the Phitsanulok Basin is the deepest with a basin-fill up to 8 km thick. In this basin, the Sirikit field produces ,18,000,24,000 bbl/day of crude oil. In the Suphan Buri Basin, about 400 bbl/day of crude oil is produced from the U Thong and Sang Kajai fields. Approximately 800 bbl/day of crude oil is produced from the Fang field (Fang Basin), which in reality consists of a number of minor structures including Ban Thi, Pong Nok, San Sai, Nong Yao and Mae Soon. A total of eight oil samples were collected from these structures and from the Sirikit, U Thong and Sang Kajai fields. The oils were subjected to MPLC and HPLC separation and were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-MS-MS). The U Thong oil was investigated in more detail by separating the oil into a number of fractions suited for the analysis of various specific compounds. The Sirikit oil appears to be the most mature, whereas the Suphan Buri oils and the oil from the San Sai structure (Fang Basin) are the least mature. Apart from the San Sai oil, the other oils in the Fang Basin are of similar maturity. The oils contain small amounts of asphaltenes and the asphaltene-free fractions are completely dominated by saturated hydrocarbons (generally >60%). Long-chain n-alkanes extend to at least C40 and the oils are thus highly waxy. In general the oils were generated from freshwater lacustrine source rocks containing a large proportion of algal material, as indicated by the presence of long-chain n-alkanes, low C3122R/C30 hopane ratios, the presence of 28-Nor-spergulane, T26/T25 (tricyclic triterpanes) ratios of 1.07,1.57 and tetracyclic polyprenoid (TTP) ratios close to 1. Occasional saline conditions may have occurred during deposition of the Sirikit, Ban Thi and Pong Nok source rocks. The Fang Basin oils were sourced from two different kitchens, one feeding the Ban Thi and Pong Nok structures and one feeding the Mae Soon, Nong Yao and San Sai structures. The presence ofcadalene, tetracyclic C24 compounds, oleanane, lupane, bicadinane and trace amounts ofnorpimarane or norisopimarane indicate a contribution from higher land plant organic matter to the oils. The terrestrial organic matter may occur disseminated in the lacustrine facies or concentrated in coal seams associated with the lacustrine mudstones. Thermally immature oil shales (lacustrine mudstones) and coals exposed in numerous basins in central and northern Thailand could upon maturation generate oils with a composition comparable to the investigated oils. [source]


    H. I. Petersen
    Oil shales and coals occur in Cenozoic rift basins in central and northern Thailand. Thermally immature outcrops of these rocks may constitute analogues for source rocks which have generated oil in several of these rift basins. A total of 56 oil shale and coal samples were collected from eight different basins and analysed in detail in this study. The samples were analysed for their content of total organic carbon (TOC) and elemental composition. Source rock quality was determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Reflected light microscopy was used to analyse the organic matter (maceral) composition of the rocks, and the thermal maturity was determined by vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. In addition to the 56 samples, VR measurements were carried out in three wells from two oil-producing basins and VR gradients were constructed. Rock-Eval screening data from one of the wells is also presented. The oil shales were deposited in freshwater (to brackish) lakes with a high preservation potential (TOC contents up to 44.18 wt%). They contain abundant lamalginite and principally algal-derived fluorescing amorphous organic matter followed by liptodetrinite and telalginite (Botryococcus-type). Huminite may be present in subordinate amounts. The coals are completely dominated by huminite and were formed in freshwater mires. VR values from 0.38 to 0.47%Ro show that the exposed coals are thermally immature. VR values from the associated oil shales are suppressed by 0.11 to 0.28%Ro. The oil shales have H/C ratios >1.43, and Hydrogen Index (HI) values are generally >400 mg HC/g TOC and may reach 704 mg HC/ gTOC. In general, the coals have H/C ratios between about 0.80 and 0.90, and the HI values vary considerably from approximately 50 to 300 mg HC/gTOC. The HImax of the coals, which represent the true source rock potential, range from ,160 to 310 mg HC/g TOC indicating a potential for oil/gas and oil generation. The steep VR curves from the oil-producing basins reflect high geothermal gradients of ,62C/km and ,92C/km. The depth to the top oil window for the oil shales at a VR of ,0.70%Ro is determined to be between ,1100 m and 1800 m depending on the geothermal gradient. The kerogen composition of the oil shales and the high geothermal gradients result in narrow oil windows, possibly spanning only ,300 to 400 m in the warmest basins. The effective oil window of the coals is estimated to start from ,0.82 to 0.98%Ro and burial depths of ,1300 to 1400 m (,92C/km) and ,2100 to 2300 m (,62C/km) are necessary for efficient oil expulsion to occur. [source]


    S. Y. Zheng
    One problem with the inversion of transient well test data is that it can yield a non-unique solution. The uncertainty resulting from this type of approach can only be resolved by considering information from another source such as geology. Geological information will help to define the interpretation model which will ensure the correct analysis of the well test data. The results of well test analyses are of little value to reservoir characterisation and modelling unless they can be explained from a geological point of view. This last step is what we refer to here as geological interpretation. Other sources of information which can help with well test analyses come from seismic surveys and petrophysics. Modern well test interpretation therefore consists of two major steps: analysis of the well test data; and interpretation of the results. In detail, this should include the following: 1definition of an interpretation model , this requires the integration of geological, seismic and petrophysical data with transient pressure data 2analysis of the well test data based on the interpretation model defined 3geological interpretation of the results, which is necessary in order to explain or give meaning to the results. In this paper, we present a case study from a fluvial gas reservoir in the Gulf of Thailand which demonstrates these procedures. In the context of a defined geological environment, a transient pressure test has been fully analysed. Newly-developed software based on the finite element method has been used to forward model the test scenarios. This allowed the results of seismic and petrophysical analyses to be integrated into the well test model. This case study illustrates the integrated use of geological, petrophysical, well test and seismic attribute data in defining a reservoir model which respects both the reservoir geometry at some distance from the well location and also the reservoir's heterogeneity. We focus on a particular well in the Pattani Basin at which conventional well test analyses have been conducted. By considering the results of these analyses, forward modelling was carried out in which the drainage area was "cut" out of the structural map defined by seismic interpretation; also, the formation's internal heterogeneity was modelled according to well logs and petrophysical analyses. Finally, analytical and simulation results were compared with the transient pressure data. We conclude that the integration of geological, seismic, petrophysical and well test data greatly reduced uncertainties in well test interpretation. The consistency of the results and the fact that they satisfied all the relevant disciplines meant that much more confidence could be given to their interpretation. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Abstract:, Early Ordovician conodont faunas of the Thung Song Formation on Tarutao Island, southern peninsular Thailand, consist of 14 known species belonging to 17 genera, and eight undescribed species. Utahconus tarutaoensis and Filodontus tenuis are new species. Three conodont zones: the Rossodus manitouensis Zone, the Utahconus tarutaoensis Zone and the Filodontus tenuis Zone, in ascending order, are defined in the study sections. These are coeval with the interval from the Rossodus manitouensis Zone to the Acodus deltatus - Oneotodus costatus Zone of the standard zonation in the North American Midcontinent. Based on the conodonts studied here and fossils previously reported from Tarutao Island, the Thung Song Formation is early Tremadocian to middle Arenig (Ibexian) in age. This formation is lithostratigraphically subdivided into the S1 to S5 members, and our study sections consist of the S1 to S3 members. These strata accumulated on a shelf in the Early Ordovician. The depositional environments of the limestones making up the S1 and S3 members were in deeper-shelf conditions. Limestone and shale of the S2 member formed in a shallow-water, high-energy environment. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Abstract:, The discovery of a new elasmobranch assemblage from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand allows expansion of the faunal list and refinement of our knowledge of the dental morphological features of some previously described taxa. The root morphology of Thaiodus is now known and a more complete description of the dentition of the genus Heteroptychodus, known formerly by a single tooth from Japan, is given. A new genus and species, Acrorhizodus khoratensis, characterized by teeth of very special morphology is described. Besides these taxa, some teeth of a genus probably close to Hybodus, but with more bulbous teeth, are present. Owing to the sedimentological characters of the deposits and the associated fauna (dinosaurs), it is probable that this elasmobranch fauna lived in a freshwater or brackish environment. The simultaneous occurrence of teeth of Heteroptychodus in Thailand and Japan favours the existence of a large continental area in south-east Asia during the Early Cretaceous. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2010
    We investigated the sandstone used in the construction of the Khmer monuments situated upon and around the Khorat Plateau in north-east Thailand in order to clarify the provenance. The sandstones of the 22 investigated Khmer monuments can be classified into three groups. The sandstone of Group 1 is lithic and is derived mainly from the Khok Kruat Formation. This group includes the sandstone used at Phimai, Phnom Wan, Muang Khaek etc. The sandstone of Group 2 is siliceous and can be subdivided into three further groups. The sandstone of Group 2 is considered to have been derived from the Phu Phan, Phra Wihan or Sao Khua Formations. The sandstone used at Muang Tam, Phnom Rung, Sdok Kok Thom, Preah Vihear (Khao Phra Wihan), Narai Jaeng Waeng etc. belongs to Group 2. The sandstone of Group 3 is feldspathic and is correlated with the grey to yellowish-brown sandstone that is commonly used in the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. This sandstone is used at Wat Phu and Hong Nang Sida in Laos. The above results reveal that the choice of sandstone used for the Khmer monuments, including the Angkor monuments, was dictated by the surrounding geology. [source]

    Cogon-thatched Cottages and Iron Sheet-roofed Houses: Development in a Yao Mountain Village in Northern Thailand

    Assistant Professor Li Jian
    First page of article [source]

    Effect of gold nanoparticle on the microscopic morphology of white blood cell

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    V. Wiwanitkit
    Background:, In medicine, there is limited knowledge on the toxicity of nanoparticles. In medicine, there has been limited knowledge on the effect of nanoparticles on the white blood cell. Objective:, To evaluate the effect of gold nanoparticle on the microscopic morphology of white blood cell. Setting:, Chulalongkorn Univesity, Bangkok, Thailand. Method:, This study was performed as an experimental study. Mixture of gold nanoparticle solution and blood sample was prepared and analysed. Result:, This work revealed that after mixing the blood sample with gold nanoparticle solution, accumulation of gold nanoparticle in the white blood cell was observed. Conclusion:, The effect of gold nanoparticle on the white blood cell can be detected and this knowledge can be used in cytotoxic drug treatment. [source]

    ,The Perfect Business': Human Trafficking and Lao,Thai Cross-Border Migration

    Sverre Molland
    ABSTRACT Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as ,trafficking in persons'. The notion of a,market,where traffickers prey on the ,supply' of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the ,demand' for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such,economism,by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao,Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation. [source]

    Thailand Beyond the Crisis edited by Peter Warr

    Karel Jansen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Border Practices, Boundaries, and the Control of Resource Access: A Case from China, Thailand and Burma

    Janet C. Sturgeon
    This article traces border practices along boundaries that China and Thailand share with Burma. It portrays a spectrum of small border polities, from principalities on the fringes of Southeast Asian kingdoms, through Nationalist troops in Burma following their defeat in China, to ,drug lords' and ,rebel armies'. The focus here is on Akha village heads who have worked their connections in multiple directions, including into Burma, to position themselves as patrons controlling local resource access. With state appointment as border guardians, village heads become chiefs of new kinds of small border entities, protecting the border for the homeland while enabling certain illicit information, people, and goods to cross. In regions with a history of complex patronage relations, state efforts to control peripheral people, resources, and territories have in fact produced small border chiefs, with practices similar to those of frontier princes in the past. [source]

    Agro-Food Preferences in the EU's GSP Scheme: An Analysis of Changes Between 2004 and 2006

    Federica DeMaria
    This article examines the extent to which the 2006 revisions to the EU's Generalised System of Preferences improved market-access opportunities for developing-country agro-food exports. It shows that they resulted in only a slight increase in the percentage preferential margin, but that there has been a significant increase in the value of preferential trade and of the preferential margin enjoyed by exporters. This was accompanied by changes in the ranking of beneficiaries. Countries such as China, Brazil, Argentina, India and South Africa maintained their significant shares of GSP agro-food exports, but other countries such as Thailand and Vietnam have now emerged as major GSP beneficiaries. [source]

    Trade Linkages in Shrimp Exports: Japan, Thailand and Vietnam

    Masahiro Kagawa
    Considerable attention has been devoted to the social and environmental consequences of shrimp farming in the tropics, but relatively little has been given to the relationships involved in international trade in processed shrimp. Based on extensive field research, this article addresses this gap in the literature by examining the nature of the linkages between Japan, a major importer, and two major exporting countries, Thailand and Vietnam, underlying which are informal agreements rather than formal contractual relationships. It examines the rationale and operation of such informal agreements in the context of a dynamic market characterised by an international division of labour between Thailand (with an advanced food products industry) and Vietnam (just emerging into the world market). [source]

    Using Evidence to Improve Reproductive Health Quality along the Thailand-Burma Border

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2004
    Tara M. Sullivan
    The Mae Tao Clinic, located on the Thailand-Burma border, has provided health services for illegal migrant workers in Thailand and internally displaced people from Burma since 1989. In 2001, the clinic launched a project with the primary aim of improving reproductive health services and the secondary aim of building clinic capacity in monitoring and evaluation (M&E). This paper first presents the project's methods and key results. The team used observation of antenatal care and family-planning sessions and client exit interviews at baseline and follow-up, approximately 13 months apart, to assess performance on six elements of quality of care. Findings indicated that improving programme readiness contributed to some improvement in the quality of services, though inconsistencies in findings across the methods require further research. The paper then identifies lessons learned from introducing M&E in a resource-constrained setting. One key lesson was that a participatory approach to M&E increased people's feelings of ownership of the project and motivated staff to collect and use data for programme decision-making to improve quality. [source]

    Prevalence of illicit drug use in Asia and the Pacific

    Abstract This paper reports on the prevalence of drug use in Asia and the Pacific. It is based on the report "Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific", commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. Review of existing estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs from published and unpublished literature and information from key informants and regional institutions was undertaken for the period 1998-2004. Estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs were conducted for 12 Asian and six Pacific Island countries. The estimated prevalence of those using illicit drugs ranges from less than 0.01% to 4.6%. Countries with estimated prevalence rates higher than 2% are Cambodia, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos and Malaysia. China, Myanmar and Vietnam have estimated prevalence rates ranging between less than 0.01% and 2%. Data to estimate prevalence rates was not available for Pacific Island countries and Brunei. Estimates of the prevalence of drug use are critical to policy development, planning responses and measuring the coverage of programs. However, reliable estimates of the numbers of people using illicit drugs are rare in Asia, particularly the Pacific. [source]

    The drug situation in Thailand: the role of government and the police

    Abstract Thailand has long dealt with the drug problem and has used several strategies to control it, including promulgating and amending drug laws, implementing drug suppression and prevention policies, cooperating with international organizations and, more recently, developing treatment facilities. Although Thailand has recently received positive results regarding reducing the opium cultivation area in the Golden Triangle and in arresting some major drug-trafficking individuals, three important issues still remain: (1) the continuation of using Thailand's advanced transportation system for the movement of illicit drug activities, (2) the rapid increase of amphetamine use among teenagers and (3) the Thai police officers' lack of concern about the drug problem and insufficient knowledge about drug laws. The article concludes that the Thai government must emphasize drug prevention strategies and the interception of illicit transported drugs and motivate its police officers to more fully enforce drug laws. In addition, more research is needed to measure the effectiveness of the drug prevention strategies and treatment programs. [source]

    Seismic microzonation of the greater Bangkok area using microtremor observations

    Rabin Tuladhar
    Abstract Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, is located at a remote distance from seismic sources. However, it has a substantial risk from these distant earthquakes due to the ability of the underlying soft clay to amplify ground motions. It is therefore imperative to conduct a detailed seismic hazard assessment of the area. Seismic microzonation of big cities, like Bangkok, provides a basis for site-specific hazard analysis, which can assist in systematic earthquake mitigation programs. In this study, a seismic microzonation map for the greater Bangkok area is constructed using microtremor observations. Microtremor observations were carried out at more than 150 sites in the greater Bangkok area. The predominant periods of the ground were determined from the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio technique. A microzonation map was then developed for the greater Bangkok area based on the observations. Moreover, the transfer functions were calculated for the soil profile at eight sites, using the computer program SHAKE91, to validate the results from the microtremor analysis. The areas near the Gulf of Thailand, underlaid by a thick soft clay layer, were found to have long natural periods ranging from 0.8s to 1.2s. However, the areas outside the lower central plain have shorter predominant periods of less than 0.4s. The study shows that there is a great possibility of long-period ground vibration in Bangkok, especially in the areas near the Gulf of Thailand. This may have severe effects on long-period structures, such as high-rise buildings and long-span bridges. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Caste-specific N and C isotope ratios in fungus-growing termites with special reference to uric acid preservation and their nutritional interpretation

    I. Tayasu
    Abstract 1. Nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios and uric acid concentrations in fungus-growing termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae), sampled in Cameroon and Thailand, were determined in order to compare castes that are known to differ in behaviour and feeding habits. 2. Nitrogen isotope ratios (,15N) were either not significantly changed or lower in workers compared with the diet (the fungus combs), whereas carbon isotope ratios (,13C) were higher in worker termites than in the fungus combs. 3. In old workers, ,15N values were unexpectedly low and correlated negatively with whole-body uric acid concentrations. This indicates that older workers retain uric acid, which has a low ,15N value, to conserve nitrogen within the colony and, furthermore, that older colony members may ultimately be consumed by younger conspecifics. [source]

    Recovering from Crisis: The Case of Thailand's Spatial Fix

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Jim Glassman
    Abstract: Although the Asian economic crisis has been the subject of numerous analyses, the varied and uneven processes by which different Asian countries have recovered from the crisis have received comparatively less attention. This article focuses on the process of recovery in Thailand. While the crisis and recovery both have international dimensions that go beyond individual nation-states, the case of Thailand can be used to analyze some of the forces that are at work in both the national and international contexts. Thailand's process of recovery can be analyzed by noting tensions and overlaps among different forms of spatial fix,those involving investment in Bangkok' built environment, those involving the geographic decentralization of investment to lower-cost production sites, and those involving the effort to expand exports. Each of these spatial fixes involves different accumulation strategies and, therefore, political coalitions. This situation suggests the centrality of social struggles over the appropriation of surplus to both crisis and recovery. [source]

    Night watchman, extractive, or developmental states?

    Some evidence from late colonial south-east Asia
    The article examines aspects of government policy in different parts of colonial south-east Asia, and in nominally independent Siam (Thailand) in the first four decades of the twentieth century. The emphasis is on taxation and expenditure policies, and their implications for the development of infrastructure and also for the welfare of indigenous populations. Attention is also given to the impact of government regulation of both factor and product markets. On the basis of the empirical evidence, the article argues that the traditional view of the colonial state as a ,night watchman' was not applicable to most parts of south-east Asia after 1900. Governments were increasingly involved in implementing policies that today would be considered developmental, including building infrastructure and improving access to secular education and modern health care for the indigenous populations. But given the resources that they had, or had the potential to mobilize, more could have been achieved. [source]

    Factors associated with incarceration and incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users participating in an HIV vaccine trial in Bangkok, Thailand, 1999,2003

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    Pravan Suntharasamai
    ABSTRACT Aims To determine if incarceration was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and identify risk factors for incarceration among injection drug users (IDUs) participating in an HIV vaccine trial in Bangkok. Design The AIDSVAX B/E HIV vaccine trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A proportional hazards model was used to evaluate demographic characteristics, risk behavior and incarceration as predictors of HIV infection and generalized estimation equation logistic regression analysis to investigate demographic characteristics and risk behaviors for predictors of incarceration. Setting The trial was conducted in Bangkok Metropolitan Administration drug-treatment clinics, 1999,2003. Participants A total of 2546 HIV-uninfected IDUs enrolled in the trial. Measurements HIV testing was performed and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess risk behavior and incarceration at baseline and every 6 months for a total of 36 months. Findings HIV incidence was 3.4 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0,3.9] and did not differ among vaccine and placebo recipients. In multivariable analysis, being in jail (P < 0.04), injecting (P < 0.0001), injecting daily (P < 0.0001) and sharing needles (P = 0.02) were associated with HIV infection and methadone maintenance was protective (P = 0.0006). Predictors of incarceration in multivariable analysis included: male sex (P = 0.04), younger age (P < 0.0001), less education (P = 0.001) and being in jail (P < 0.0001) or prison (P < 0.0001) before enrollment. Conclusions Among IDUs in the AIDSVAX B/E trial, incarceration in jail was associated with incident HIV infection. IDUs in Thailand remain at high risk of HIV infection and additional prevention tools are needed urgently. HIV prevention services, including methadone, should be made available to IDUs. [source]

    A novel host shift and invaded range of a seed predator, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), of an invasive weed, Leucaena leucocephala

    Midori TUDA
    Abstract An endophagous seed predator, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), utilizes Neotropical Leucaena (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). One of its hosts, Leucaena leucocephala, is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree that serves as a multipurpose beneficial plant but eventually becomes an aggressive invader where it was introduced. Herein, we report A. macrophthalmus invasion of the Far East, South Asian tropics and subtropics (Japanese Pacific Islands, Taiwan, Southern China, Northern Thailand and Southern India). Of other field-collected mimosoid legumes, an introduced tree, Falcataria moluccana, in Taiwan was found to be used by the seed predator. Conversely, our published work review revealed that the seed predator had retained high host specificity to Leucaena species in its native and introduced regions. Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus was able to utilize aphagously postharvest mature seeds for oviposition and larval development, which is a trait of post-dispersal seed predators. We confirmed that A. macrophthalmus that was reared on L. leucocephala was able to utilize F. moluccana as well. Although the relatively high host specificity of the oligophagous beetle is suitable for controlling the weedy L. leucocephala, the potential host range expansion confirmed by this study must be cautioned. [source]

    A new genus, Thailepidonia gen. nov., based on T. yoshiyasui sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from Thailand

    Kyu-Tek PARK
    Abstract A new genus, Thailepidonia gen. nov. of the family Lecithoceridae, is described based on a new species, T. yoshiyasui sp. nov. from Thailand. [source]

    Genetic and environmental interactions on oral cancer in Southern Thailand

    Suparp Kietthubthew
    Abstract Many countries are interested in understanding the relationship between genetic susceptibility and their prevalent environmental cancers for disease prevention. In Thailand we conducted a population-based case-control study of 53 matched pairs to assess the risk of oral cancer in relation to genetic polymorphism of the glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in cigarette smokers, alcohol drinkers, and betel quid chewers. Interaction of the genes with other potential risk factors such as local bean consumption were also elucidated. Homozygous deletion of GSTM1 has a frequency of 56.6% (n = 30 over 53) among the patients and 30.2% (16/53) among the controls. This gene is associated with a 2.6-fold higher risk for development of oral cancer (95% CI 1.04,6.5). Among the null GSTM1 individuals, those who smoke, consume alcohol, and/or chew betel quid have a significantly increased risk for oral cancer with an odd ratio (OR) = 4.0 (95% CI = 1.2,13.7), OR = 7.2 (95% CI = 1.5,33.8), and OR = 4.4 (95% CI = 1.1,17.8), respectively. Interactions between any two of the lifestyle habits for oral cancer risk, however, are not found. The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype is 34.0% (18/53) among the patients and 47.2% (25/53) among our controls. There is no association between the GSTT1 null allele and oral cancer risk. In conclusion, our study provides data to indicate that individuals who have homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene have increased risk for oral cancer. The risk increases further when these individuals are exposed to environmental toxicants such as chemicals in cigarette smoke, alcohol, and betel quid. These baseline data can be applied to a larger population-based study, both to verify the observation and to conduct mechanistic investigations. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 37:111,116, 2001 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    ISO 14000 IT software transfer from Europe to Thailand: Issues to be addressed

    Edward J. Lusk
    First page of article [source]

    Hb Woodville, a rare , -globin variant, caused by codon 6 mutation of the ,1 gene

    Vip Viprakasit
    Abstract:, Since 1995, the national programme for the prevention and control of severe thalassaemia has been implemented in Thailand. This programme is composed of the population screening in pregnant women and couples by osmotic fragility, HbE screening and the confirmation test using haemoglobin analyses by electrophoresis or chromatography. Thereafter, several hitherto unidentified haemoglobins (Hbs) with structural defects are increasingly described and these variants are now easily studied using DNA technology. In this study, the authors describe the haematology and molecular analyses in a 28-yr-old healthy female who was identified as having an exceptionally ,high HbA2' from haemoglobin analysis. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that observed atypical ,HbA2' was, in fact, a rare innocuous , -globin variant, called Hb Woodville [alpha 2 6(A4); Asp , Tyr]. For the first time, this abnormal Hb species is characterised at the molecular level. [source]

    Clinical and hematological features of codon 17, A-T mutation of ,-thalassemia in Thai patients,

    Vichai Laosombat
    Abstract: Forty-one patients with codon 17, A-T mutation of ,-thalassemia, which is commonly found in Thailand, were studied to determine whether it is possible to predict phenotypic severity from genetic factors. The clinical phenotype of homozygotes for codon 17, A-T and compound heterozygotes for codon 17, A-T and ,+ -thalassemia may be used to predict a severe phenotype with TM. However, the clinical phenotype of compound heterozygotes for codon 17, A-T and ,+ -thalassemia or Hb E were variable and could not be accurately predicted. The association of ,-thalassemia2 and milder disease was and was not evident in patients with codon 17, A-T and Hb E. The association between Hb CS gene or the presence of XmnI- G, polymorphism and a mild clinical phenotype is not apparent, indicating the involvement of other ameliorating determinants or genetic modifications. [source]

    Periodontal microbiota and clinical periodontal status in a rural sample in southern Thailand

    P. N. Papapanou
    We sought to determine (i) the association of subgingival bacterial profiles to clinical periodontal status in a population with limited access to dental care in Thailand, and (ii) the external validity of our earlier findings from a similar study in rural China. We examined 356 subjects, 30,39 yr old and 50,59 yr old, with respect to clinical periodontal status and subgingival plaque at maximally 14 sites per subject. Checkerboard hybridizations were used to analyse a total of 4343 samples. The prevalence of the 27 species investigated ranged between 87.2% and 100%. Discriminant analysis based on microbial profiles classified correctly 67.5% of all deep (, 5 mm) and 64.2% of all shallow sites, and 67.4% of all subjects with and 69.3% of all subjects without , 3 deep pockets. High colonization by ,red complex' bacteria was four times as likely (95% Confidence Limits (CL) 2.5,6.6) in subjects with ,,10 sites with attachment loss of ,,5 mm, and 4.3 times as likely (95% CL 2.6,7.1) in subjects with , 30 such sites. The data confirmed (i) the ubiquitous prevalence of the bacteria investigated in subjects with no regular access to dental care; and (ii) the high odds for periodontal pathology conferred by increased levels of specific periodontal bacteria. [source]