Th2-type Response (th2-type + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Early treatment during a primary malaria infection modifies the development of cross immunity

M. Legorreta-Herrera
SUMMARY We have used a murine model to study the kinetics of cross-protection when a primary infection is halted at different times. We analysed how parasitaemia is modified during a second infection with the homologous parasite, a heterologous parasite, or a mixture of the two. In addition, possible mechanisms involved in cross-protection were analysed. Results show that treatment with pyrimethamine on day 5 during a primary infection with P. chabaudi AS (non-lethal), prevents the generation of cross-protection to a new challenge with lethal P. yoelii 17XL. In contrast, when treatment is on day 7, mice survive a P. yoelii infection. Differences between both groups suggest that in order for ,preimmune' mice to survive a lethal challenge, a predominantly TH2-type response is required, with a higher mRNA expression level of IL-4 and IL-10, and a lower mRNA expression of IFN-,. This work shows that an early treatment of a malaria infection produced by a non-lethal parasite drives the immune response towards a loss of cross-protection to further infections, in particular with more virulent parasites. This finding should be taken into account for the development of effective malaria vaccines. [source]

CCL17 transgenic mice show an enhanced Th2-type response to both allergic and non-allergic stimuli

Yuichiro Tsunemi Dr.
Abstract CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). To study the effect of CCL17 produced by keratinocytes (KC) during inflammation, we created transgenic (Tg) mice in which CCL17 is overexpressed in KC. Th2-type contact hypersensitivity (CHS) was enhanced and Th1-type CHS was suppressed in these mice. Increased numbers of CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4+ cells and mast cells infiltrated in Tg mice. Levels of IL-4 mRNA were higher and those of IFN-, mRNA were lower in both acute and chronic CHS. Higher levels of serum IgE were observed after CHS. Numbers of CCR4+ cells among PBMC were increased in Tg mice challenged acutely on the trunk. Chronic irritation with croton oil induced dermatitis and an elevation of serum IgE levels. Tg mice showed enhanced ear swelling after tape stripping. CCL17 was thought to modify the inflammation caused by sensitizing reagents as well as irritant reagents by attracting CCR4+ cells into the lesional skin and creating a Th2-dominant condition. AD-like conditions such as increased number of mast cells and elevated levels of serum IgE were observed. Thus, CCL17 may participate in the pathogenesis of skin diseases such as AD by regulating both allergic and irritant inflammation. [source]

Immune response modifiers , mode of action

Meinhard Schiller
Abstract:, The innate immune system governs the interconnecting pathways of microbial recognition, inflammation, microbial clearance, and cell death. A family of evolutionarily conserved receptors, known as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is crucial in early host defense against invading pathogens. Upon TLR stimulation, nuclear factor-,B activation and the interferon (IFN)-regulatory factor 3 pathway initiate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-,, and production of type I IFNs (IFN-, and IFN-,), respectively. The innate immunity thereby offers diverse targets for highly selective therapeutics, such as small molecular synthetic compounds that modify innate immune responses. The notion that activation of the innate immune system is a prerequisite for the induction of acquired immunity raised interest in these immune response modifiers as potential therapeutics for viral infections and various tumors. A scenario of dermal events following skin cancer treatment with imiquimod presumably comprises (i) an initial low amount of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages and dermal dendritic cells (DCs), thereby (ii) attracting an increasing number type I IFN-producing plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) from the blood; (iii) Langerhans cells migrate into draining lymph nodes, leading to an increased presentation of tumor antigen in the draining lymph node, and (iv) consequently an increased generation of tumor-specific T cells and finally (v) an accumulation of tumoricidal effector cells in the treated skin area. The induction of predominately T helper (Th)1-type cytokine profiles by TLR agonists such as imiquimod might have further benefits by shifting the dominant Th2-type response in atopic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis to a more potent Th1 response. [source]

Cytokine cascade in dengue hemorrhagic fever: implications for pathogenesis

U.C. Chaturvedi
Abstract Dengue virus produces a mild acute febrile illness, dengue fever (DF) and a severe illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The characteristic feature of DHF is increased capillary permeability leading to extensive plasma leakage in serous cavities resulting in shock. The pathogenesis of DHF is not fully understood. This paper presents a cascade of cytokines, that in our view, may lead to DHF. The main feature is the early generation of a unique cytokine, human cytotoxic factor (hCF) that initiates a series of events leading to a shift from Th1-type response in mild illness to a Th2-type response resulting in severe DHF. The shift from Th1 to Th2 is regulated by the relative levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10 and between IL-12 and transforming growth factor-,, which showed an inverse relationship in patients with DF. [source]

During Pregnancy, in the Context of a Th2-Type Cytokine Profile, Serum IL-6 Levels Might Condition the Quality of the Synthesized Antibodies

PROBLEM: In recent years, the central role of cytokines in the immune response has been widely studied. It is considered that a T helper (Th)1-type cytokine profile is associated with the rejection phenomenon, whereas a Th2-type cytokine profile is associated with immunological tolerance. In pregnancy, the enhanced Th2/Th1 ratio seems to be necessary to fetal protection. Taking into account that a Th2-type response means antibody production by B cells, and that these antibodies could induce degradation of the paternal antigens, we investigated the quality of the antibodies produced during pregnancy and their regulation. METHOD OF STUDY: Review of previous data. RESULTS: The regulation of protective antibodies by IL-6 in a dose-dependent fashion is proposed as a hypothesis. CONCLUSION: Cytokines play a central role in the success (or failure) of pregnancy. However, the quality of the synthesized antibodies is also a regulatory key. The preferential synthesis of asymmetric immunoglobulin G antibodies during pregnancy could be one of the several pathways that lead to a successful pregnancy [source]

Epicutaneous immunization converts subsequent and established antigen-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) to Th2-type responses

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Jessica Strid
Summary Epicutaneous immunization is a potential novel technique for topical vaccine delivery. It targets the immunologically rich milieu of the skin while having the advantage of being a non-invasive immunization procedure. By disrupting the stratum corneum of the epidermis a natural adjuvant effect can be achieved through activation of resident Langerhans cells. This negates the normal need for co-application of noxious adjuvants. Epicutaneous immunization on barrier-disrupted skin induces potent antigen-specific systemic immunity with a strong T helper type 2 (Th2) bias. We show here that epicutaneous immunization enhances the vigour of a subsequent T-cell response to the same antigen. The induced systemic Th2 response prevents the development of Th1 responses induced through injection of antigen in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Prior epicutaneous immunization results in reduced production of antigen-specific interferon-, and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and enhanced interleukin-4, IgG1 and IgE responses to immunization with CFA. Moreover, epicutaneous immunization converts an established Th1 response to a Th2 response, as demonstrated by the specific reduction of interferon-, and IgG2a and the enhancement of interleukin-4 and IgE. This Th2 dominance of epicutaneous immunization may have direct therapeutic application as an immune-modulating procedure in Th1-dominant diseases such as autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and multiple sclerosis. [source]