Baseline Age (baseline + age)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Original Article: A prospective study of uric acid by glucose tolerance status and survival: the Rancho Bernardo Study

C. K. Kramer
Abstract., Kramer CK, von Mühlen D, Jassal SK, Barrett-Connor E (University of California, La Jolla, CA; and Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil). A prospective study of uric acid by glucose tolerance status and survival: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Intern Med 2010. Objectives., Little is known about uric acid (UA) levels and mortality in the context of glycaemia. We examined whether serum UA levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality differentially in older adults by glucose tolerance status. Design and methods., Between 1984 and 1987, 2342 community-dwelling men and women had an oral glucose tolerance test, UA measurement, and assessment of traditional CVD risk factors. We defined glucose tolerance status as normoglycaemia (NG), pre-diabetes (pre-DM), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety per cent were followed for vital status up to 23 years. Death certificates were coded using the Ninth International Classification of Diseases. Results., Baseline age was 69.5 years; 44.4% were men. At baseline 939 had NG, 957 pre-DM, and 446 T2DM. The mean UA by glucose tolerance status was 327.1, 362.8, and 374.7 ,mol L,1. During follow-up, there were 1318 deaths 46.8% attributed to CVD. In Cox-regression analysis, each 119 ,mol L,1 (2 mg dL,1) increment in UA levels predicted an increased hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause deaths independent of age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol, physical activity, diuretic use and estimated glomerular filtration rate in all groups (NG: HR 1.25 95% CI 1.06,1.47, P =0.005; pre-DM: HR 1.20 95% CI 1.06,1.37, P = 0.04; T2DM: HR 1.20 95% CI 1.01,1.47, P = 0.04). After adjusting for CVD risk factors, the UA association with CVD mortality was significant only in the pre-DM and T2DM groups. Conclusion., All-cause mortality was independently associated with UA in all groups, but UA predicted CVD mortality only in those with abnormal glucose tolerance. [source]

Projections of US prevalence of arthritis and associated activity limitations

Jennifer M. Hootman
Objective To update the projected prevalence of self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations among US adults ages 18 years and older from 2005 through 2030. Methods Baseline age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of arthritis and activity limitation, using the latest surveillance case definitions, were estimated from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey, which is an annual, cross-sectional, population-based health interview survey of ,31,000 adults. These estimates were used to calculate projected arthritis prevalence and activity limitations for 2005,2030 using future population projections obtained from the US Census Bureau. Results The prevalence of self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis is projected to increase from 47.8 million in 2005 to nearly 67 million by 2030 (25% of the adult population). By 2030, 25 million (9.3% of the adult population) are projected to report arthritis-attributable activity limitations. In 2030, >50% of arthritis cases will be among adults older than age 65 years. However, working-age adults (45,64 years) will account for almost one-third of cases. Conclusion By 2030, the number of US adults with arthritis and its associated activity limitation is expected to increase substantially, resulting in a large impact on individuals, the health care system, and society in general. The growing epidemic of obesity may also significantly contribute to the future burden of arthritis. Improving access and availability of current clinical and public health interventions aimed at improving quality of life among persons with arthritis through lifestyle changes and disease self-management may help lessen the long-term impact. [source]

The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population.

A 5-year follow-up
Karlsson B, Sigström R, Waern M, Östling S, Gustafson D, Skoog I. The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population. A 5-year follow-up. Objective:, To examine the prognosis and incidence of social fears and phobia in an elderly population sample followed for 5 years. Method:, A general population sample (N = 612) of non-demented men (baseline age 70) and women (baseline age 70 and 78,86) was investigated in 2000,2001 and in 2005,2006 with semi-structured psychiatric examinations including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Social phobia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results:, Among nine individuals with DSM-IV social phobia in 2000, 5 (55.6%) had no social fears in 2005, and 1 (11.1%) still met the criteria for DSM-IV social phobia. Among individuals without DSM-IV social phobia in 2000 (N = 603), 12 (2.0%) had DSM-IV social phobia in 2005. Conclusion:, These findings challenge the notion that social phobia is a chronic disorder with rare occurrence in old age. [source]

Consequences of youth tobacco use: a review of prospective behavioural studies

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2006
M. Mathers
ABSTRACT Background Cigarette smoking represents a significant health problem and tobacco has been identified as causing more preventable diseases and premature deaths than any other drug. Although health consequences from smoking have been documented, there has been a surprising lack of research into behavioural consequences. Aims To review what is known of the long-term relationship between patterns of tobacco use prior to age 18 years and behavioural consequences in adulthood. Method A literature search of electronic abstraction services from 1980 to September 2005 was conducted. To be included in the review, studies had to have large, representative samples, be longitudinal studies with baseline age under 18 years and follow-up age 18 years or older and clarify effects due to attrition, leaving 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers evaluated each paper. Findings Adolescent tobacco use predicts a range of early adult social and health problems. Surprisingly few studies met the inclusion criteria. The limited evidence available suggests that adolescent tobacco smoking increases the likelihood of early adult tobacco use and the initiation of alcohol use or the development of alcohol-related problems. The link between adolescent tobacco use and subsequent cannabis use was not resolved convincingly from the studies summarized. The effects of tobacco use on later illicit drug use tended to fall away when adjusting for underlying risk factors. Existing studies of the effects of tobacco use on later mental health have many limitations. Nevertheless, a finding that youth tobacco use may predict subsequent mental health problems deserves further investigation. The possible effects of tobacco use on academic/social problems and sleep problems also warrant further investigation. Conclusion This review highlights links between youth tobacco use and subsequent behavioural and mental health problems. It provides health care professionals with evidence of the possible harmful effects of youth tobacco smoking on later social, emotional, and behavioural well-being. [source]

Changes in psychopathology and symptom severity in bulimia nervosa between 1993 and 2003

Amanda S. Vaught BA
Abstract Objective: This study investigated changes in symptom severity and the psychopathology of patients with bulimia nervosa between 1993 and 2003. Method: Pretreatment data of patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, collected between 1993 and 1997 from two multisite studies (N = 263), and from 2001 to 2003 from a third multisite study (N = 233) were compared for differences in psychopathology, eating disorder symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results: There was a significant increase in baseline age between the cohorts (1993M = 28.7 ± 7.9, 2001M = 30.3 ± 8.7, p = 0.036) together with a decrease in personality disorders and in several aspects of eating disorder psychopathology. After controlling for age however, significant pretreatment differences were found only in the restraint subscale on the EDE. Conclusion: Results suggest that the presentation of individuals with bulimia nervosa has changed between 1993 and 2003, in that participants were older and demonstrated less dietary restraint. Hence, comparisons between samples and treatment trials over time must be made with caution. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

The structure of common mental disorders: A replication study in a community sample of adolescents and young adults

Katja Beesdo-baum
Abstract Previous research suggests that patterns of comorbidity of common mental disorders among adults are best reflected by a hierarchical three-factor structure with two correlated factors (,anxious-misery' and ,fear') summarized in a second-order ,internalizing' factor and one ,externalizing' factor. This three-factor structure has not been examined yet in a sample of adolescents and young adults. A representative sample of 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14,24) were prospectively followed over 10 years. Mental disorders were assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) by using the standardized Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Ten mental disorders (major depressive episode, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, antisocial personality) were fitted to a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis models using: (1) 12-month data, and (2) lifetime data from a person-year data set. The three-factor model showed good fit to the observed data in our sample both when 12-month diagnoses and lifetime-to-date diagnoses from a person-year data file were used; yet the higher-order ,internalizing' factor summarizing ,anxious misery' and ,fear' had to be omitted. The three-factor model could be replicated in a sample of adolescents and young adults with the exception that the second-order ,internalizing' factor was not consistent with the data. Further research is necessary to provide more complete insight into the structure of mental disorders by examining the stability of the structure of mental disorders in different developmental stages (ages) and by using a more extensive set of mental disorders. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cohort study for the effect of chronic noise exposure on blood pressure among male workers in Busan, Korea

Ji Ho Lee MD
Abstract Objective It has not yet been established whether exposure to chronic noise induces an increase in blood pressure or an increase in the development of hypertension. Therefore, a cohort study was performed to identify the effects of chronic noise exposure on blood pressure. Methods Five hundred thirty male workers at a metal manufacturing factory in Busan, Korea, were enrolled in the study. They were monitored with an annual health check-ups for nine consecutive years from 1991 to 1999. The subjects were divided into four groups which were determined by noise level categories (NLCs) according to the exposure of noise intensity; NLC-I: office workers who were exposed to <60 dBA at work; NLC-II: worksite technical supporters or inspectors who were intermittently exposed to noise and were not using hearing protection devices; NLC-III: worksite workers exposed to a noise below 85 dBA (TWA) and used one type of hearing protection device, earplug or earmuff; NLC-IV: worksite workers who were exposed to a noise level of 85 dBA or higher in average and used both earplug and earmuff. Results After controlling the possible confounders, such as baseline age, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, family history of hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), or diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and changes in body mass index (BMI), we determined that the mean values for the SBP over the duration of this study were 3.8, 2.0, and 1.7 mmHg higher in groups NLC-IV, NLC-III, and NLC-II, respectively, in comparison to that of the NLC-I group. There was no significant difference in DBP among the groups. Conclusion This study suggests that chronic noise exposure increases SBP independently, among male workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:509,517, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Meniscal tear in knees without surgery and the development of radiographic osteoarthritis among middle-aged and elderly persons: The multicenter osteoarthritis study,

Martin Englund
Objective Although partial meniscectomy is a risk factor for the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA), there is a lack of evidence that meniscal damage that is not treated with surgery would also lead to OA, suggesting that surgery itself may cause joint damage. Furthermore, meniscal damage is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between meniscal damage in knees without surgery and the development of radiographic tibiofemoral OA. Methods We conducted a prospective case,control study nested within the observational Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, which included a sample of men and women ages 50,79 years at high risk of knee OA who were recruited from the community. Patients who had no baseline radiographic knee OA but in whom tibiofemoral OA developed during the 30-month followup period were cases (n = 121). Control subjects (n = 294) were drawn randomly from the same source population as cases but had no knee OA after 30 months of followup. Individuals whose knees had previously undergone surgery were excluded. Meniscal damage was defined as the presence of any medial or lateral meniscal tearing, maceration, or destruction. Results Meniscal damage at baseline was more common in case knees than in control knees (54% versus 18%; P < 0.001). The model comparing any meniscal damage with no meniscal damage (adjusted for baseline age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, and mechanical knee alignment) yielded an odds ratio of 5.7 (95% confidence interval 3.4,9.4). Conclusion In knees without surgery, meniscal damage is a potent risk factor for the development of radiographic OA. These results highlight the need for better understanding, prevention, and treatment of meniscal damage. [source]

Meta-analysis of blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood and implications for the design of intervention trials

AM Toschke
Abstract Aim:, Blood pressure (BP) is related with cardiovascular disease. BP tracking in childhood and its implication for intervention trials are unknown. Methods:, A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to estimate BP tracking. Results:, In 29 independent studies on 27 820 subjects, follow-up length and baseline age were associated with systolic BP tracking (both p < 0.05), while gender, BP measurement method and study place were not (p = 0.215, p = 0.185 and p = 0.391). The overall adjusted systolic BP correlation coefficient was 0.44 between 10 and 11 years and decreased to 0.37 between 10 and 20 years. Comparison of BP changes before and after intervention need a 26% increased sample size for a 10-year follow-up of 10 year olds, while trials comparing BP values at study end only require smaller sample sizes. Conclusion:, Blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood affects trials assessing long-term effects on BP and was low-to-moderate. Therefore, regular BP controls are also needed in children with normal BP measurements possibly identifying hypertensive children earlier. A slight short-term intervention effect on BP may not have any long-term effects because of low BP tracking and its decrease by age. [source]