Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Baseline

  • at baseline
  • comparing baseline
  • mean baseline
  • stable baseline
  • v baseline
  • vs. baseline

  • Terms modified by Baseline

  • baseline activity
  • baseline age
  • baseline anxiety
  • baseline assessment
  • baseline bmd
  • baseline bmi
  • baseline characteristic
  • baseline clinical
  • baseline clinical characteristic
  • baseline concentration
  • baseline condition
  • baseline control
  • baseline correction
  • baseline covariate
  • baseline creatinine
  • baseline data
  • baseline demographic
  • baseline depressive symptom
  • baseline design
  • baseline diameter
  • baseline difference
  • baseline drift
  • baseline estimate
  • baseline evaluation
  • baseline examination
  • baseline expression
  • baseline factor
  • baseline function
  • baseline hazard
  • baseline hazard function
  • baseline hba1c
  • baseline heart rate
  • baseline hr
  • baseline image
  • baseline information
  • baseline interview
  • baseline knowledge
  • baseline leptin level
  • baseline level
  • baseline measure
  • baseline measurement
  • baseline observation
  • baseline only
  • baseline pain
  • baseline parameter
  • baseline patient
  • baseline patient characteristic
  • baseline period
  • baseline phase
  • baseline predictor
  • baseline prevalence
  • baseline profile
  • baseline quality
  • baseline questionnaire
  • baseline rate
  • baseline response
  • baseline risk
  • baseline risk factor
  • baseline sample
  • baseline scenario
  • baseline score
  • baseline separation
  • baseline series
  • baseline serum
  • baseline severity
  • baseline state
  • baseline status
  • baseline study
  • baseline survey
  • baseline symptom
  • baseline understanding
  • baseline v
  • baseline value
  • baseline variable
  • baseline viral load
  • baseline visit
  • baseline weight

  • Selected Abstracts


    Francesc Formiga MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Pleistocene Diversity as a Biological "Baseline"

    Bill Willers
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Initiating insulin therapy in elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes: efficacy and safety of lispro mix 25 vs. basal insulin combined with oral glucose-lowering agents

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2009
    B. H. R. Wolffenbuttel
    Abstract Aims, To compare starter insulins in the elderly subgroup of the DURABLE trial 24-week initiation phase. Methods, In a post-hoc analysis of the , 65 years subgroup enrolled in the DURABLE trial, we compared the safety and efficacy of lispro mix 25 (LM25: lispro 25%/insulin lispro protamine suspension 75%), n = 258, vs. glargine, n = 222, added to oral glucose-lowering agents. Results, Baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was similar (LM25 8.7 1.2, glargine 8.8 1.1%, P = 0.612). At 24-weeks, LM25 patients had lower HbA1c (7.0 0.9 vs. 7.3 0.9%, P < 0.001), greater HbA1c reduction (,1.7 1.2 vs. ,1.5 1.1%, P < 0.001), and more patients reaching HbA1c < 7.0% (55.6 vs. 41.0%, P = 0.005). LM25 patients were on more insulin (0.40 0.19 vs. 0.33 0.19 u/kg/day, P < 0.001) and experienced more weight gain (3.6 3.6 vs. 1.8 3.2 kg, P < 0.001). Additionally, LM25-treated patients reported a higher mean overall hypoglycaemia rate than glargine patients (40.8 47.6 vs. 31.1 48.5 episodes/patient/year, P = 0.037), while nocturnal hypoglycaemia rates were similar. Over 24 weeks, incidence of severe hypoglycaemia was higher for LM25 (4.3% vs. 0.9%, P = 0.018); however, by 24-week endpoint incidence was similar (0.8% vs. 0.0%P = 0.125). Conclusions, In this elderly subgroup post-hoc analysis, LM25 demonstrated a lower endpoint HbA1c and a higher % of patients reaching HbA1c target of < 7.0%, but with more weight gain and higher rates of hypoglycaemia compared to glargine. [source]

    Association of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Morphology and Aortic Root Dimensions: A Substudy of the Aortic Stenosis Progression Observation Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) Study

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010
    Davinder S. Jassal M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
    Background: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the leading cause of aortic stenosis in patients younger than the age of 50. A classification scheme of BAVs is based upon leaflet orientation: Type I (fusion of right and left coronary cusps) and Type II (fusion of right and noncoronary cusps). The correlation between BAV leaflet orientation and aortic root pathology however remains ill defined. Objective: The objective was to describe a potential relationship between BAV leaflet morphology and aortic root measurements in the ASTRONOMER study, a multicenter study to assess the effect of rosuvastatin on the progression of AS. Methods: BAV morphology was classified as Type I or Type II orientation based on the parasternal short-axis view. Echo measurements including left ventricular and aortic root dimensions were obtained. Results: The study population included 89 patients (56 11 years; 44 males). There were 63 patients with Type I and 26 patients with Type II BAV. Baseline demographics, hemodynamics, and left heart dimensions were similar between both groups. Patients with Type I BAV had larger aortic annulus and ascending root dimensions compared to those patients with Type II BAV (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis due to a BAV, the presence of Type I valve orientation was associated with significantly greater aortic root parameters compared to Type II valve orientation. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY 2010;27:174-179) [source]

    Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    James D. Sargent
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11,15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be emphasized in programs aimed at preventing onset, and both exposures should be emphasized in programs aimed at experimental smokers. [source]

    Evolution of Academic Emergency Medicine over a Decade (1991-2001)

    E. John Gallagher MD
    Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that emergency medicine (EM) has made significant, quantifiable progress within U.S. academic medicine over the past ten years, 1991-2001. Methods: Baseline (7/1/1991) and comparison (7/1/2001) data sets contained all Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited schools, Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine (AACEM)-recognized academic departments of EM, Residency Review Committee (RRC)-accredited EM residencies, and Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)-designated academic medical centers. The increase over ten years in the two primary variables of academic departmental status, and EM residencies located at academic medical centers, was examined in the aggregate, then stratified by medical schools grouped by academic rank. Differences over time are expressed as simple proportions, bounded by 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Between 1991 and 2001, the proportion of academic departments of EM at medical schools increased from 18% to 48% (95% CI for difference of 30%= 19% to 41%). The proportion of EM residencies at academic medical centers increased from 42% to 66% (95% CI for a difference of 24%= 11% to 36%). The largest increment of 37% (95% CI = 22% to 52%) in academic departments of EM, and of 36% (95% CI = 20% to 52%) in EM residencies located at academic medical centers, occurred within medical schools whose academic rank was above the median. Conclusions: A quantitatively and statistically significant increase in academic departments of EM within medical schools and EM residency programs at academic medical centers has occurred over the past decade. Half of all medical schools now have academic departments of EM, and two-thirds of academic medical centers house EM residency programs. This has taken place largely within institutions whose academic ranking places them among the top half of all U.S. medical schools. [source]

    Asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease

    M. M. Lewis
    Background:, A recent case report suggested the presence of asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement associated with motor asymmetry in Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study explored these associations further. Methods:, Magnetic resonance imaging (3T) scans were obtained on 17 PD and 15 healthy control subjects at baseline and 12,43 months later. Baseline and longitudinal lateral ventricular volumetric changes were compared between contralateral and ipsilateral ventricles in PD subjects relative to symptom onset side and in controls relative to their dominant hand. Correlations between changes in ventricular volume and United Parkinson's disease rating scale motor scores (UPDRS-III) whilst on medication were determined. Results:, The lateral ventricle contralateral to symptom onset side displayed a faster rate of enlargement compared to the ipsilateral (P = 0.004) in PD subjects, with no such asymmetry detected (P = 0.312) in controls. There was a positive correlation between ventricular enlargement and worsening motor function assessed by UPDRS-III scores (r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Discussion:, There is asymmetrical lateral ventricular enlargement that is associated with PD motor asymmetry and progression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanism(s), as well as the potential of using volumetric measurements as a marker for PD progression. [source]

    Relationship of health-related quality of life to treatment adherence and sustained response in chronic hepatitis C patients

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    David Bernstein
    Interferon therapy may exacerbate health-related quality of life (HRQL) deficits associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) early in the course of therapy. Treatment with polyethylene glycol,modified interferon (peginterferon) alfa-2a (40 kd) provides improved sustained response over interferon alfa-2a, but its effect on HRQL is unknown. The objective of this study was to (1) evaluate the effect of sustained virologic response on HRQL in patients with HCV and (2) determine whether impairment of HRQL during treatment contributes to early treatment discontinuation. Data consisted of a pooled secondary analysis of patients (n = 1,441) across 3 international, multicenter, open-label, randomized studies that compared peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kd) with interferon alfa-2a. ANCOVA was used to examine the effect of sustained virologic response on HRQL. Repeated-measures mixed-models ANCOVA was used to compare Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and SF-36 scores during treatment by treatment group. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between changes at baseline in on-treatment HRQL and early treatment discontinuation. Sustained virologic response was associated with marked improvements from baseline to end of follow-up in all subjects, including patients with cirrhosis. During treatment, patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kd) had statistically significantly better scores on both the SF-36 and FSS. Baseline to 24-week changes in fatigue and SF-36 mental and physical summary scores significantly predicted treatment discontinuation. In conclusion, sustained virologic response is associated with improvements in quality of life in patients with or without advanced liver disease. This parameter may be an important consideration in maximizing treatment adherence. [source]

    Hippocampal volume and antidepressant response in geriatric depression

    Ming-Hong Hsieh
    Abstract Background Biological markers of treatment response may include structural brain changes seen on neuroimaging. While most imaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular disease, evidence is growing that the hippocampus may play a role in depression, particularly geriatric depression. Method We studied 60 depressed elderly patients enrolled in a longitudinal study who were treated with antidepressant medications using a treatment guideline-based approach. Baseline and 12-week Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were obtained via interview with a geriatric psychiatrist. All subjects had a baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. MRI scans were processed using standard protocols to determine total cerebral volume and right and left hippocampal volumes. Hippocampal volumes were standardized for total cerebral volume. MADRS scores less than 10 were used to define remission. Results When the group with the lowest quartile of standardized hippocampal volumes was compared to those above the first quartile, those with small right and total hippocampal volumes were less likely to achieve remission. In a subsequent logistic regression model controlling for age small standardized right hippocampal volumes remained significantly associated with remission. Conclusion Further studies with larger sample are needed to determine if left-right hippocampal volume differences do exist in depression, and basic neuroscience studies will need to elucidate the role of the hippocampus in geriatric depression. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Prednisone Prevents Inducible Atrial Flutter in the Canine Sterile Pericarditis Model

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) are common following cardiac surgery and are associated with significant morbidity. We tested the hypothesis that suppression of the inflammatory response with steroids would significantly modify the inducibility of postoperative AF/AFL in the canine sterile pericarditis model. Methods: Twenty-three dogs were studied daily from creation of pericarditis to the fourth postoperative day: 11 dogs were treated with oral prednisone (PRED) starting 2 days preoperatively until the end of the study; 12 dogs were controls (CON). EP testing was performed daily using epicardial electrodes placed at initial surgery. High-resolution (404 sites) epicardial mapping was performed during the terminal study. Baseline and daily CRP levels were obtained in all dogs. Results: Sustained AFL was absent in PRED (0%) versus CON dogs (91%; P < 0.001); AF induced in the early postoperative course in PRED dogs was of very short CL (mean 66 ms). Tissue inflammation was significantly attenuated in PRED dogs. Thresholds were lower in PRED versus CON dogs, significantly so on postoperative day (POD) 3. There was a trend toward lower ERPs in the PRED group at all CLs. CRP levels were markedly reduced in PRED versus CON dogs (peak CRP 78 7 mg/L vs 231 21 mg/L, P < 0.001), and returned to baseline in PRED dogs by POD 4, correlating with a virtual absence of sustained arrhythmia. During open chest mapping studies on POD 4, PRED dogs showed only nonsustained AF/AFL. Conclusions: Prednisone eliminated postoperative AFL, affected all EP parameters studied, and attenuated the inflammatory response associated with pericarditis. [source]

    Clustering of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Heart Failure Patients Implanted with a Biventricular Cardioverter Defibrillator

    Background: Temporal patterns of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT/VF) have been studied only in patients who have received implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for secondary prevention of sudden death, and mainly in ischemic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate VT/VF recurrence patterns in heart failure (HF) patients with biventricular ICD and to stratify results according to HF etiology and ICD indication. Methods and Results: We studied 421 patients (91% male, 66 9 years). HF etiology was ischemic in 292 patients and nonischemic in 129. ICD indication was for primary prevention in 227 patients and secondary prevention in 194. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 26 7%, QRS duration 168 32 msec, and NYHA class 2.9 0.6. In a follow-up of 19 11 months, 1,838 VT/VF in 110 patients were appropriately detected. In 59 patients who had ,4 episodes, we tried to determine whether VT/VF occurred randomly or rather tended to cluster by fitting the frequency distribution of tachycardia interdetection intervals with exponential functions: VT/VF clusters were observed in 46 patients (78% of the subgroup of patients with ,4 episodes and 11% of the overall population). On multivariate logistic analysis, VT/VF clusters were significantly (P < 0.01) associated with ICD indication for secondary prevention (odds ratio [OR]= 3.12; confidence interval [CI]= 1.56,6.92), nonischemic HF etiology (OR = 4.34; CI = 2.02,9.32), monomorphic VT (OR = 4.96; CI = 2.28,10.8), and LVEF < 25% (OR = 3.34; CI = 1.54,7.23). Cardiovascular hospitalizations and deaths occurred more frequently in cluster (21/46 [46%]) than in noncluster patients (63/375 (17%), P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In HF patients with biventricular ICDs, VT/VF clusters may be regarded as the epiphenomenon of HF deterioration or as a marker of suboptimal response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. [source]

    Mechanical non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis: a double-blind randomized longitudinal clinical study.

    I: clinical results
    Abstract Background: Peri-implantitis is a frequent finding in patients with dental implants. The present study compared two non-surgical mechanical debridement methods of peri-implantitis. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven subjects (mean age 61.5; S.D12.4), with one implant each, demonstrating peri-implantitis were randomized, and those treated either with titanium hand-instruments or with an ultrasonic device were enrolled. Data were obtained before treatment, and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Parametric and non-parametric statistics were used. Results: Thirty-one subjects completed the study. The mean bone loss at implants in both groups was 1.5 mm (SD 1.2 mm). No group differences for plaque or gingival indices were found at any time point. Baseline and 6-month mean probing pocket depths (PPD) at implants were 5.1 and 4.9 mm (p=0.30) in both groups. Plaque scores at treated implants decreased from 73% to 53% (p<0.01). Bleeding scores also decreased (p<0.01), with no group differences. No differences in the total bacterial counts were found over time. Higher total bacterial counts were found immediately after treatment (p<0.01) and at 1 week for ultrasonic-treated implants (p<0.05). Conclusions: No group differences were found in the treatment outcomes. While plaque and bleeding scores improved, no effects on PPD were identified. [source]

    Effectiveness of an integrated, trauma-informed approach to treating women with co-occurring disorders and histories of trauma: The Los Angeles site experience

    Margaret Gatz
    Effectiveness of an integrated trauma-informed approach to treating women with co-occurring disorders and histories of trauma was evaluated. Baseline and 12-month assessments were completed by 136 intervention- and 177 comparison-group women. The intervention group received Seeking Safety, a trauma-specific group treatment focusing on safety and coping skills, in the context of integrated substance abuse and mental health services. The comparison group received similar services but not trauma-specific group treatment. Intervention women showed significantly better treatment retention over three months and greater improvement on posttraumatic stress symptoms and coping skills. On most outcomes, those who completed treatment improved more than those who discontinued. Improvements on symptoms of distress and drug problem severity were partially mediated by gains in coping skills. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 35: 863,878, 2007. [source]

    Impact of Thienopyridine Administration Prior to Primary Stenting in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    The impact of thienopyridine administration prior to primary stenting in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been well studied. We therefore examined the database from the prospective, multicenter, controlled CADILLAC trial in which 1,036 patients were randomized to bare metal stenting with or without abciximab to determine whether patients who received a thienopyridine prior to bare metal stenting in AMI had superior clinical outcomes. Per operator discretion, 659 patients (63.6%; Th+) received either a 500 mg ticlopidine loading dose (n = 623) or a 300 mg clopidogrel loading dose (n = 40), while 377 patients (36.4%; Th-) received no thienopyridine prior to stent implantation. Baseline and procedural characteristics of the two groups, including abciximab use (52.5% vs 52.8%, P = 0.93) were well matched. Th+ compared to Th- patients had lower rates of core lab assessed TIMI 0/1 flow postprocedure (0.8% vs 2.7%, P = 0.01). Th+ compared to Th- patients also had significantly reduced in-hospital and 30-day rates of ischemic target vessel revascularization (TVR) (1.1% vs 3.2%, P = 0.01 and 1.5% vs 3.8%, P = 0.02, respectively) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (2.7% vs 5.8%, P = 0.01 and 4.0% vs 6.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), results that remained significant after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, in this large prospective, controlled trial, patients receiving a thienopyridine prior to primary stenting in AMI were less likely to have TIMI 0/1 flow postprocedure and experienced reduced in-hospital and 30-day rates of ischemic TVR and MACE compared to those not administered a thienopyridine prior to stent implantation. [source]

    Increased Dosage during Intracoronary Irradiation Due to Overlapped Source Stepping Shows No Long-Term Adverse Changes in Vessel Morphology

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate if overdosage during intracoronary irradiation due to overlapped source stepping may result in long-term morphologic changes in vessel anatomy. Methods: Baseline angiograms of patients with in-stent restenosis undergoing coronary reintervention followed by intracoronary irradiation with source stepping were analyzed. Overlapping was considered present for the segment with overlapped reference isodose length (RIL) (RIL = segment with ,90% of reference dose at 1 mm vessel wall depth). Baseline and 6-months follow-up volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis were performed for the overlapped segment and for proximal and distal segments of equal length. Results: Overlapping was found in six patients (three patients: 32P treatment; three patients: 90Sr/Y treatment); final analysis was performed in four patients. Comparison of the baseline and follow-up IVUS volumetric parameters revealed no significant change in lumen or vessel volumes at segments of overlaps in comparison to proximal and distal reference segments. Conclusion: Increased dosage due to overlapping during source stepping is not associated with morphologic changes in vessel anatomy at follow-up. (J Interven Cardiol 2004;17:143,149) [source]

    Determinants of Serum Creatinine Trajectory in Acute Contrast Nephropathy

    The aim of this study was to describe the trajectory of creatinine (Cr) rise and its determinants after exposure to radiocontrast media. Included were 98 subjects who underwent cardiac catheterization and were randomized to forced diuresis with IV crystalloid, furosemide, mannitol (if pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was<20 mmHg), and low dose dopamine versus intravenous crystalloid and matching placebos. Baseline and postcatheterization serum Cr levels were analyzed in a longitudinal fashion, allowing for differences in the time between blood draws, to determine the different critical trajectories of serum Cr. The mean age, baseline serum Cr, and Cr clearance (CrCl) were 69.3 10.8 years, 2.5 0.9 mg/dL, and 31.4 12.1 mL/min, respectively. The clinically driven postprocedural observation time was 5.5 5.1 days (range 19 hours and one Cr value to 25.7 days and 18 values). The mean maximum Cr was 3.3 1.4, range 1.7,8.7 mg/dL). Longitudinal models support baseline Cr clearance predictions for the change in Cr at 24 hours, time as the determinant of Cr trajectory, and requisite monitoring. For any given individual, a rise in Cr of , 0.5 mg/dL in the first 24 hours after contrast exposure predicted a favorable outcome. Baseline renal function is the major determinant of the rate of rise, height, and duration of Cr trajectory after contrast exposure. Length of observation and frequency of laboratory measures can be anticipated from these models. [source]

    Baseline Computed Tomography Changes and Clinical Outcome After Thrombolysis With Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Jorge E. Mendizabal MD
    ABSTRACT Objective. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only therapy of proven value for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Controversy exists with regard to the prognostic significance of early computed tomography (CT) changes in patients receiving rt-PA for AIS. The authors retrospectively reviewed all cases of AIS who received intravenous rt-PA for AIS in University of South Alabama hospitals between January 1996 and May 1999. A neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical outcomes, reviewed all baseline CT scans for the presence of the following signs: hyperdense middle cerebral artery (HMCA), loss of gray-white differentiation (LGWD), insular ribbon sign (IRS), parenchymal hypodensity (PH), and sulcal effacement (SE). Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was recorded 90 days after thrombolysis, and clinical outcome was dichotomized as favorable (0,1) or unfavorable (2,6). The authors performed both univariate and multivariate analyses to investigate the relationship between early CT signs, baseline clinical variables, and functional outcome as measured by the 90-day mRS scores. Any one early CT finding was detected in 23 (64%) patients. The frequency of specific findings were as follows: SE in 13 patients (36%), LGWD in 12 patients (33%), PH in 9 patients (25%), HMCA in 4 patients (11%), and IRS in 3 patients (8%) patients. There was no statistically significant association between the occurrence of these imaging findings and subsequent functional outcome after thrombolysis. The data suggest that the presence of subtle acute CT changes in AIS patients is not predictive of clinical outcome following administration of rt-PA as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke protocol. [source]

    The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Yoga During Pregnancy on Maternal Psychological and Physical Distress

    Amy E. Beddoe
    ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the feasibility and level of acceptability of a mindful yoga intervention provided during pregnancy and to gather preliminary data on the efficacy of the intervention in reducing distress. Design: Baseline and post-treatment measures examined state and trait anxiety, perceived stress, pain, and morning salivary cortisol in a single treatment group. Postintervention data also included participant evaluation of the intervention. Setting: The 7 weeks mindfulness-based yoga group intervention combined elements of Iyengar yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction. Participants: Sixteen healthy pregnant nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies between 12 and 32 weeks gestation at the time of enrollment. Methods: Outcomes were evaluated from pre- to postintervention and between second and third trimesters with repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc nonparametric tests. Results: Women practicing mindful yoga in their second trimester reported significant reductions in physical pain from baseline to postintervention compared with women in the third trimester whose pain increased. Women in their third trimester showed greater reductions in perceived stress and trait anxiety. Conclusions: Preliminary evidence supports yoga's potential efficacy in these areas, particularly if started early in the pregnancy. [source]

    Co-Bedding Versus Single-Bedding Premature Multiple-Gestation Infants in Incubators

    CNAA associate professor, Jacqueline Fowler Byers PhD
    Objective: To compare the physiological stability and behavioral effects of co-bedding with those of single-bedding premature multiple-gestation infants in incubators as well as the psychological effects on their parents. Design: Prospective, randomized, repeated measure. Participants: Convenience sample of 16 infants and 8 parents in the co-bedded group, and 21 infants and 11 parents in the control group. Interventions: Infants in the study group were co-bedded in incubators. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline and posttesting for parental state anxiety, maternal attachment, and parental satisfaction measures; infant sleep-wake synchronicity; physiological measures; and stress cue measures during baseline and activity. Main Results: Repeated measures 5 (time) 2 (group) analysis of variance found significant differences in infant daily weight, feeding amount, and high-activity heart rate. There was no difference in parental state anxiety, maternal attachment, and parental satisfaction scores by group, except for higher baseline parental satisfaction scores in the co-bedded group. Conclusions: This research demonstrated the safety of co-bedding multiple-gestation infants in incubators but did not find any significant clinical improvement in infant or parental outcomes with co-bedding. Neonatal intensive-care unit providers should educate staff and parents about the potential benefits of co-bedding and consider developing policies and procedures for co-bedding in both incubators and cribs. Co-bedding of multiple-gestation infants may be provided as an adjunctive developmental care strategy if parents desire this intervention. [source]

    Effects of a mandibular advancement device on the upper airway morphology: a cephalometric analysis

    M. H. J. DOFF
    Summary, The aims of this study were to assess changes in the upper airway morphology associated with an oral appliance in situ in patients suffering from the obstructive sleep apnoea,hypopnoea syndrome and to relate these changes to treatment response. Changes in upper airway morphology as a result of an oral appliance were assessed in 52 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea,hypopnoea syndrome by means of cephalometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms were taken at baseline and after 2,3 months of treatment. Baseline and follow-up cephalograms were traced twice and cephalometric variables were compared. The predictive value of changes in upper airway morphology for the treatment response was evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Oral appliance therapy resulted in an increased posterior airway space at the level of the second vertebra, the uvular tip and the base of the tongue. The increase of the posterior airway space at the level of the second vertebra and the uvular tip were the best predictors for relative improvement of the apnoea,hypopnoea index. However, the predictive value for treatment response of these cephalometric upper airway changes should be interpreted with caution. [source]

    Longitudinal quantitative evaluation of lesion size change in femoral head osteonecrosis using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and image registration

    Masaki Takao
    Abstract It remains controversial whether some lesions of femoral head osteonecrosis regress during the natural course of the disease. With image registration, accurately matched image sets of the same subject can be acquired at different times. We applied image registration to evaluate lesion size change and assessed accuracy and usefulness compared to volume measurements and a conventional method. We also investigated whether lesions regress with this technique and with volume measurements. Baseline and 1 year minimum follow-up scans were conducted on 25 patients (31 hips) without radiological evidence of collapse. A three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient recalled echo sequence was used in the coronal direction (slice thickness,=,2 mm; slice pitch,=,1 mm). Size change was evaluated on all contiguous pairs of matched images after image registration. As a conventional method, coronal images (slice thickness,=,5 mm) were reconstructed, and size change was evaluated on the five representative coronal slices. Evaluation with the conventional method identified eight lesions with apparent reduction; assessments using image registration and volume measurements identified three lesions, all within a year of initial steroid treatment and remaining at ARCO stage I at follow up. Evaluation of lesion size change using image registration was comparable to volume measurements. Inaccurate estimation of lesion size change due to mismatching of slice planes can be excluded. We demonstrated that some early lesions detected less than a year after initial steroid treatment can show size reduction with image registration as well as with volume measurements. 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1231,1239, 2006 [source]

    Polymorphisms of the IL-1 Gene Complex Are Associated With Alcohol Dependence in Spanish Caucasians: Data From an Association Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
    Pilar A. Saiz
    Background:, There is growing evidence for involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 4 functionally relevant polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes were associated with alcohol dependence and with measures of clinical severity and treatment outcome. Methods:, Two hundred alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and 420 healthy controls from the same Spanish Caucasian population were genotyped using standard methods. Baseline and 6-month assessments included alcohol intake, addiction severity, and biomarkers of alcohol intake. Results:, Alcohol-dependent patients showed an excess of IL-1,,889 C/T [50.8% vs. 39.3%, ,2 (df) = 7.30 (2), uncorrected p = 0.026, corrected p = 0.104] and IL-1RA (86 bp)n A1/A1 genotypes [64.8% vs. 50.8%, ,2 (df) = 12.65 (3), corrected p = 0.020]. The A1/A1 excess was associated with alcohol dependence only in men [69.9% vs. 49.5%, ,2 (df) = 15.72 (2), corrected p < 0.001]. Six-month clinical and hematological outcome measures did not vary by genotype of the 4 polymorphisms. Haplotype analysis revealed an excess of the IL-1,,889 C/IL-1, +3953 C/IL-1RA A2 haplotype in the control group compared with AD patients [20.0% vs. 14.1%, ,2 (df) = 7.25 (1), p = 0.007; odds ratio (OR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46,0.89] and in the abstainers after 6 months of treatment compared with nonabstinent patients [14.7% vs. 6.2%, ,2 (df) = 5.65 (1), p = 0.017; OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.15,5.62]. Conclusions:, Our findings provide further tentative evidence of the role of IL-1 in alcohol dependence as well as evidence that the nature of the associations may be direct, gender-specific, or involve haplotype effects. However, findings from single association studies constitute tentative knowledge and must be interpreted carefully and precise replication is required. [source]

    Working and Episodic Memory in HIV Infection, Alcoholism, and Their Comorbidity: Baseline and 1-Year Follow-Up Examinations

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2009
    Rosemary Fama
    Background:, Selective memory deficits occur in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and those with chronic alcoholism, but the potential compounded effect of these conditions is seldom considered, despite the high prevalence of alcohol use disorders in HIV infection. Methods:, Here, we examined component processes of working and episodic memory in HIV infection and chronic alcoholism (ALC) in 4 subject groups (HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls) at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Accuracy scores, response times, and rate of information processing were assessed with subtests of the computerized neuropsychological test battery, the MicroCog. Results:, Although individuals with either HIV infection or alcoholism generally performed at normal levels, individuals comorbid with HIV infection and alcoholism were impaired relative to controls and to the single diagnosis groups on selective memory processes. Immediate episodic memory was impaired, whereas working memory remained intact. Ability to retain information over time was not impaired in the clinical groups. Little performance change between groups was detected over 1 year. Results could not be explained by amount of alcohol consumed over a lifetime, CD4 cell count, AIDS diagnosis, or HAART medication. Conclusions:, This study provides behavioral support for adverse synergism of HIV infection and chronic alcoholism on brain function and is consistent with neuroimaging reports of compromised hippocampal and associated memory structures related to episodic memory processes in these 2 conditions. [source]

    Dilated intercellular space in chronic laryngitis and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: at baseline and post-lansoprazole therapy

    M. F. Vaezi
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 916,924 Summary Background, Dilation of intercellular spaces is reported to be an early morphological marker in gastro-oesophageal reflux. It remains unknown if this marker is useful in diagnosing reflux-related chronic laryngitis. Aim, To determine histopathology and electron microscopic changes in oesophageal and laryngeal epithelium in chronic laryngitis. Methods, In this prospective blinded study, we enrolled 53 participants: 15 controls, 20 patients with GERD and 18 patients with chronic laryngitis. The latter two groups were subsequently treated with lansoprazole 30 mg bid for 12-weeks. Baseline and postacid suppressive therapy biopsies were obtained from distal oesophagus and laryngeal postcricoid areas. Biopsy specimens were evaluated for histopathology and dilated intercellular space changes. Results, There was no significant increase in oesophageal or laryngeal epithelium intercellular spaces among GERD or laryngitis patients compared with controls at baseline or postacid suppressive therapy. Only patients with GERD had significantly (P = 0.03) higher proportion of moderate-to-severe oesophageal spongiosis and basal cell hyperplasia, which normalized postacid suppressive therapy. Conclusions, There was no increase in the width of intercellular spaces in the oesophagus or larynx in GERD or chronic laryngitis at baseline or postacid suppressive therapy. Our findings question the uniform presence of dilated intercellular space in patients with GERD. [source]

    Sural Nerve Pathology In Asymptomatic Minimally Neuropathic Diabetic Patients

    Ra Malik
    12 diabetic patients aged 47.5 9.4 yr., duration of diabetes (14.6 10.3 yr.) and 15 control subjects were studied. In diabetic patients neuropathy symptom score =0, neuropathy deficit score = 4.5 + 0.7/30, vibration = 12.0 + 1.8 V, thermal perception (2.0 + 0.8C), heart rate variation during deep breathing (17.8 + 2.3), 30:15 ratio (1.31 + 0.07) was normal. Baseline (n=12) and repeat neurophysiology (n=10) performed 8.7 + 0.6 years after sural nerve biopsy demonstrated normal values at baseline, with progression of neuropathy (peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (ms,1) (42.3 + 2.9 v 39.4 +2.0), sural nerve conduction velocity (45.4 + 3.7 v 43.6 + 1.7). Myelinated fibre density, fibre and axonal area and g-ratio were not significantly reduced. Teased fibre studies showed paranodal abnormalities (p < 0.001), segmental demyelination (P < 0.01) with remyelination (P < 0.01) without axonal degeneration. Unassociated Schwann cell profile density (p < 0.04) and axon density (P < 0.001) were increased and axon diameter was decreased (P < 0.007) with a shift of the size frequency distribution to the left (skewness- 0.89 v 0.64, P < 0.03) suggestive of unmyelinated axonal atrophy/regeneration. Endoneurial capillary basement membrane thickening (P < 0.006), endothelial cell hyperplasia (P < 0.004) and luminal narrowing (P < 0.007) occurred. Current measures of neuropathy are too insensitive to detect significant nerve fibre pathology. The presence of microangiopathy provides support for a microvascular basis of diabetic neuropathy. [source]

    Thrombin generation time is a novel parameter for monitoring enoxaparin therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease

    D. F. BROPHY
    Summary.,Background:,Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who receive enoxaparin are at increased risk for adverse bleeding episodes. This phenomenon appears to occur despite judicious monitoring of antifactor Xa (aFXa) activity. Better monitoring parameters are needed to quantify the anticoagulant effects of enoxaparin in the ESRD population. Objectives:,The objective of this study was to determine the utility of using thrombin generation time (TGT), platelet contractile force (PCF) and clot elastic modulus (CEM) to monitor the degree of anticoagulation in ESRD subjects, and to compare these results to aFXa activity, the current gold-standard monitoring parameter. Methods:,Eight healthy volunteers without renal dysfunction and eight ESRD subjects were enrolled into this study. Subjects received a single dose of enoxaparin 1 mg kg,1 subcutaneously, and blood samples were obtained for the determination of aFXa activity, TGT, PCF and CEM at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 h postdose. Results:,Baseline, 4, 8, and 12-h aFXa activity concentrations were not different between groups. However, the corresponding TGT at 8 and 12 h was significantly prolonged in the ESRD group (P = 0.04, and P = 0.008, respectively). The 4-h peak TGT trended toward significance (P = 0.06). There were no differences in PCF or CEM across time. Conclusions:,These data suggest that the parameter aFXa activity is a poor predictor of the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin in patients with ESRD. Thrombin generation time appears to be more sensitive to the antithrombotic effects of enoxaparin in this population. Further large-scale trials are needed to corroborate these data. [source]

    Interferon and ribavirin therapy does not select for resistance mutations in hepatitis C virus polymerase

    C. L. Ward
    Summary., Ribavirin has a minor and transient effect on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and has been suggested to select a novel mutation, F415Y, in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of subtype 1a viruses. Twenty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C (subtyped by INNO LiPA as 1a, 17; 1b, 11; 1a/1b, 1) who were nonresponders to interferon-based therapies were identified retrospectively and screened at Baseline, week 24 of treatment, and 24 weeks post-treatment. Selection of resistance mutations, including at amino acid position 415 of the polymerase, was investigated. Using clonal sequencing and pyrosequencing of the NS5B gene, we screened for the F415Y resistance mutation among patients who received combination therapy with ribavirin and interferon ,. Of the 15 subtype 1a patients treated with interferon plus ribavirin, only one had the F415Y change at week 24, and an F/Y mixture was still present 24 weeks after therapy. Four additional patients in this group had the F415Y change 24 weeks post-therapy. The NS5B genes were sequenced in order to identify amino acid changes associated with ribavirin therapy, but no evidence was found that ribavirin selects for particular amino acids in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Ribavirin, a weak inhibitor of HCV replication, does not select for resistance mutations in the sequence of the HCV RNA polymerase. [source]

    Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in a human model of visceral hypersensitivity

    Summary Background Substance P acting via the neurokinin-1 receptor is involved in the development of hyperalgesia, although studies using neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RA) in human somatic pain have been disappointing. Aim To evaluate whether Substance P is involved in the development of human visceral pain/hyperalgesia using a selective NK-1RA. Methods Using a validated human model of acid-induced oesophageal allodynia, pain thresholds to electrical stimulation (mA) were measured in the proximal oesophagus and the foot (somatic control), pre- and for 4 h postdistal oesophageal acid in 14 healthy subjects, using a double-blind, randomized, two-period, crossover study. Measurements were taken on the third day of dosing with either an oral NK-1RA or matching placebo, with 2 weeks washout between periods. Results Baseline pain threshold did not differ between treatments (proximal oesophagus 37 7.4 mA NK-1RA vs. 38 10.1 placebo P = 0.81, foot 40 15 mA NK-1RA vs. 38 14 placebo P = 0.68). NK-1RA did not attenuate the reduction in pain threshold in the proximal oesophagus postacid infusion (AUC,394 279 NK-1RA vs. ,262 397 placebo P = 0.54). Conclusions The lack of effect of NK-1RA on oesophageal pain threshold in our model does not support a role for Substance P in the development of acid-induced oesophageal allodynia. [source]

    Predictors of a sustained virological response in patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C

    Rita Raafat Gad
    Abstract Objectives: To determine the clinical, biological, virological and histological predictive factors associated with a sustained virological response (SVR) to combined interferon therapy among Egyptian patients infected by genotype 4 hepatitis C virus (HCV). Patients and Methods: Individual data from 250 patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C, treated with different regimens of combined interferon, were analysed. The primary end point was SVR defined as undetectable HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to select the independent prognostic parameters associated with SVR. Results: A sustained virological response was achieved among 137/250 (54.8%) patients. Baseline factors independently and negatively associated with SVR were serum ,-fetoprotein (AFP) level (above 0.3 upper limit of normal) [odds ratio (OR)=0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2,0.8], severe fibrosis (Metavir score >F2) (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2,0.8), presence of steatosis (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.3,0.97) and standard interferon treatment (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2,0.8). Conclusions: Among genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C patients, severe fibrosis, severe steatosis, treatment with standard interferon and a high serum AFP level were all negatively associated with SVR. Pretreatment serum AFP level should be considered in the routine assessment of factors predictive of a treatment response. [source]

    The natural history of parallel transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunts using uncovered stent: the role of host-related factors

    Ahmed Helmy
    Abstract: Objectives: Parallel shunts (PS) are used in the management of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) insufficiency, a major limitation of the technique. This study describes the natural history of PS, and uses them as a model to assess the role of host factors in the development of primary shunt insufficiency. Methods: Out of 338 patients with TIPS, 40 (11.8%) patients required insertion of a PS. Baseline and follow-up data of these patients were collected. Regular shunt surveillance involved biannual clinic visits and transjugular portography. Results: The non-PS group (group 1; n=298) and the PS group (group 2; n=40) had similar baseline demographic and disease characteristics. Index shunts of both groups and the PS produced a significant portal pressure gradient drop (P<0.001), which was less in the index shunts of Group 2 (P<0.02 for both). PS had similar cumulative shunt patency rates to those of the index shunts of Group 1, and both were greater than those of index shunts in Group 2 (P<0.001 for both). The intervention rate (number of interventions/number of check portograms 100) was similar for PS and the index shunts of Group 1 (38.7% and 43% respectively), but was significantly higher in the index shunts of Group 2 (85.6%; P<0.01 for both). In Group 1 and Group 2, 144 patients (48.3%) and 21 patients (52.5%) died during follow-up after a median period of 23.4 and 8.9 months respectively. Conclusions: These findings do not support the hypothesis that shunt insufficiency is related to host factors. [source]