Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Tendon

  • Achille tendon
  • deep digital flexor tendon
  • digital flexor tendon
  • extensor tendon
  • flexor tendon
  • muscle tendon
  • patellar tendon
  • rat Achille tendon

  • Terms modified by Tendon

  • tendon cell
  • tendon homeostasi
  • tendon injury
  • tendon insertion
  • tendon lesion
  • tendon reflex
  • tendon repair
  • tendon rupture
  • tendon sheath
  • tendon stiffness
  • tendon tissue
  • tendon transfer

  • Selected Abstracts

    Pathogenesis, detection and treatment of Achilles tendon xanthomas

    S. G. Tsouli
    Abstract Tendon xanthomatosis often accompanies familial hypercholesterolaemia, but it can also occur in other pathologic states. Achilles tendons are the most common sites of tendon xanthomas. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) derived from the circulation accumulates into tendons. The next steps leading to the formation of Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX) are the transformation of LDL into oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and the active uptake of oxLDL by macrophages within the tendons. Although physical examination may reveal Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX), there are several imaging methods for their detection. It is worth mentioning that ultrasonography is the method of choice in everyday clinical practice. Although several treatments for Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX) have been proposed (LDL apheresis, statins, etc.), they target mostly in the treatment of the basic metabolic disorder of lipid metabolism, which is the main cause of these lesions. In this review we describe the formation, detection, differential diagnosis and treatment of ATX as well as the relationship between tendon xanthomas and atheroma. [source]

    Magnetic resonance imaging of ankle tendons and ligaments: Part I , Anatomy

    A Kong
    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent technique for imaging the tendons and the ligaments of the ankle. Owing to the advantage of detailed demonstration of soft-tissue structures and capability for multiplanar demonstration of the ankle ligaments and tendons, MRI has been increasingly used in the evaluation of the ligamentous and the tendon injuries of the ankle. Knowledge of normal anatomy and of MRI appearances are essential to recognize pathological appearances. In this pictorial essay, the first of a three part series, we review the normal MRI appearances of the ankle tendons and ligaments. The anterior, lateral and medial tendon groups, the Achilles tendon and the lateral, the syndesmotic and the medial ligament groups are described and illustrated. Anatomy of the sinus tarsi is also described. Tendon and ligament pathology will be illustrated in the second part of the series, and imaging approach to ankle injuries will be outlined in the final part of this series. [source]

    Study of order and dynamic processes in tendon by NMR and MRI

    G. Navon PhD
    Abstract Tendons are composed of a parallel arrangement of densely packed collagen fibrils that results in unique biomechanical properties of strength and flexibility. In the present review we discuss several advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) techniques that have allowed us to better understand the biophysical properties of tendons and ligaments. The methods include multiple quantum and T2 filtering combined with NMR and MRI techniques. It is shown in detail how these techniques can be used to extract a number of useful parameters: 1) the 1H- 1H and 1H- 2H dipolar interactions; 2) the proton exchange rates between water and collagen, and between water molecules; 3) the distribution of fibril orientations; and 4) the anisotropy of diffusion. It is shown that relaxation data as a function of angular dependence can be obtained in vivo using mobile NMR sensors. Finally, this article describes how double quantum filtered (DQF) MRI can be used to image and monitor the healing process in injured tendons. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mechanobiological response of tendon stem cells: Implications of tendon homeostasis and pathogenesis of tendinopathy

    Jianying Zhang
    Abstract Tendons are constantly subjected to mechanical loading in vivo. Recently, stem cells were identified in human, mouse, and rabbit tendons, but the mechanobiological responses of tendon stem cells (TSCs) are still undefined. Using an in vitro system capable of mimicking in vivo loading conditions, it was determined that mechanical stretching increased TSC proliferation in a stretching magnitude-dependent manner. Moreover, low mechanical stretching at 4% ("clamp-to-clamp" engineering strain) promoted differentiation of TSCs into tenocytes, whereas large stretching at 8% induced differentiation of some TSCs into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages, as indicated by upregulated expression of marker genes for adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Thus, low mechanical stretching may be beneficial to tendons by enabling differentiation of TSCs into tenocytes to maintain tendon homeostasis. However, large mechanical loading may be detrimental, as it directs differentiation of TSCs into non-tenocytes in tendons, thus resulting in lipid accumulation, mucoid formation, and tissue calcification, which are typical features of tendinopathy at later stages. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:639,643, 2010 [source]

    Temporal expression of growth factors and matrix molecules in healing tendon lesions

    Linda A. Dahlgren
    Abstract Overuse tendon injuries are common among elite and recreational athletes. Tendon healing may be enhanced at the cellular level through the use of exogenous growth factors; however, little is known about the endogenous expression of growth factors in healing tendon. This study describes the temporal expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-,1 (TGF-,1), and collagen types I and III in healing tendon lesions. Collagenase-induced lesions were created in the tensile region of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of both forelimbs of 14 horses. Tendons were harvested from euthanatized horses 1, 2, 4, 8 or 24 weeks following injury. Gene expression was evaluated using Northern blot analysis (collagen types I and III), real time PCR (IGF-I and TGF-,1), and in situ hybridization. Protein content was assayed by dye-binding assay (collagen types I and III), radioimmunoassay (IGF-I), ELISA (TGF-,1), and immunohistochemistry. Samples were also processed for differential collagen typing. DNA and glycosaminoglycan content, and routine H&E staining. Microscopically, lesions progressed from an amorphous, acellular lesion soon after injury to scar tissue filled with collagen fibers and mature fibroblasts organized along lines of tension. Early lesions were characterized by immediate increases in expression of growth factors and collagen. Message levels for TGF-,1 peaked early in the wound healing process (1 week), while IGF-I peaked later (4 weeks), as the regenerative phase of healing was progressing. In the first 2 weeks after lesion induction, tissue levels of IGF-I protein actually decreased approximately 40% compared to normal tendon. By 4 weeks, these levels had exceeded those of normal tendon and remained elevated through 8 weeks. Message expression for collagen types I and III increased by 1 week following injury and remained elevated throughout the course of the study. Collagen type I represented the major type of collagen in healing tendon at all time points of the study. Based on these results, IGF-I, administered exogenously during the first 2 weeks following injury, may provide a therapeutic advantage by bolstering low endogenous tissue levels and enhancing the metabolic response of individual tendon fibroblasts. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Calcaneal Tendon Regions Exhibit Different MMP-2 Activation After Vertical Jumping and Treadmill Running

    Olga Cristina De Mello Malheiro
    Abstract Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9 was found in calcaneal tendon after physical training. However, little attention has been given to the distinct biomechanical and tissue structure of the calcaneal tendon's proximal and distal regions. Herein, we evaluated the effect of two types of physical activities on tendon morphology and matrix metalloproteinase activities in the proximal and distal regions of rat calcaneal tendon, separately. Adult male Wistar rats from control, water-adapted, vertical-jumping, and treadmill-running groups were sacrificed after 1 or 4 days of physical exercise, 6 hr after the end of that day's exercise session. Tendons were processed for histology, morphometry, and gelatin zymography. Tendons from adapted and trained animals showed active secretory cells and increased thickness, cellularity, and blood vessel volume fraction of peritendinous sheath, but without inflammatory process. In the proximal region, both pro- and active MMP-2 were increased after vertical jumping, but only pro-MMP-2 was increased after treadmill running. In contrast, in the distal region, both exercise types increased the activity of pro- and active MMP-2, especially treadmill running, which increased the active MMP-2 by about 11- and eightfold, respectively, after 1 and 4 days of training. No activity of MMP-9 was observed in either tendon region in this study. In conclusion, distal and proximal regions of calcaneal tendon exhibit differential intensities of tissue remodeling after treadmill running or vertical jumping and MMP-2, in the absence of inflammation, plays a major role in this adaptive response. Anat Rec, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ultrasonographic Morphometric Measurements of Digital Flexor Tendons and Ligaments of the Palmar Metacarpal Region in Haflinger Horses

    S. Boehart
    With 2 figures and 3 tables Summary The aim of the study was to determine morphometric values of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendon, the inferior check ligament and the suspensory ligament in the palmar metacarpal region of sound Haflinger horses using ultrasonography and to assess the influence of different factors on them. The findings were compared with the literature. A total of 30 sound Haflinger mares aged 4,20 years were used. Transverse ultrasound images were obtained with an 8,10 linear MHz transducer and the cross-sectional area, the circumference and the dorsopalmar and lateromedial width were determined for each structure at six regions of interest (ROI) in both forelimbs. The coefficient of variation was <3%. The structures were compared between each other and the values of each structure at the ROIs. Age, height at the withers, body mass index, diameter of the Os metacarpale III and the circumference of the mid-metacarpal region showed significant influences on some of the parameters. Reference values for the tendons and ligaments in the palmar metacarpal region in sound Haflinger mares were obtained and the influence of different factors was tested. Description of the dimensional relationship between the structures and comparison of the data with the literature provide knowledge required for adequate veterinary care. [source]

    Bemessung von Umlenkstellen externer Spannglieder: Finite-Element-Untersuchungen und Bemessungsverfahren

    Josef Hegger Prof. Dr.-Ing.
    Die sorgfältige Bemessung und Konstruktion von Verankerungs- und Umlenkstellen ist Voraussetzung für sichere und dauerhafte Brückenbauwerke mit externer Vorspannung. Für die Bemessung von Umlenkstellen liegen allerdings nur wenige wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse vor. Nachfolgend wird über Untersuchungen zur Beanspruchung von Umlenkkonstruktionen berichtet. Dabei ist auch die Beanspruchung des umgebenden Hohlkastenquerschnitts Gegenstand der Betrachtung. Anhand von Finite-Element-Untersuchungen wird ein einfaches Bemessungsmodell für Umlenkeckkonsolen hergeleitet. The Design of Deviators for External Tendons Thoroughly designed anchorage and deviation points are a basic requirement for reliable and durable bridge structures with external prestressing. In the past only little research has been made in the field of deviation of external tendons. Therefore investigations on the behaviour of deviation constructions have been carried out. Additionally the behaviour of the entire hollow-box-section is investigated. With calculations based on the finite-element-method an easy design procedure for deviation constructions is being derived. [source]

    Morphology and Histology of Lattice-like Ossified Epaxial Tendons in Psittacosaurus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia)

    Chang-Fu ZHOU
    Abstract: Epaxial tendons play an important role in the study of the musculoskeletal system and locomotory style of dinosaurs. Although the ossified epaxial tendon lattice is fairly well known in Iguanodontoidea, only recently has knowledge of this complex been extended to ceratopsians. This study concerns the gross morphology and microstructure of the tendon lattice in Psittacosaurus, a basal ceratopsian. As in the neoceratopsian Chasmosaurus, the ossified tendons of Psittacosaurus form a three-layered, lattice-like structure. The microstructure of the tendons in large psittacosaur individuals retains an early stage of ossification, as in juvenile birds and nestling hadrosaurs, suggesting a slow developmental rate of ossification of the tendons in psittacosaur ontogeny. Comparative study indicates that a lattice-like arrangement of three-layered epaxial tendons is widely distributed in Cerapoda. This pattern also extends to Ankylosauria, implying a similar pattern of the epaxial muscles through the ornithischian clade. In addition, comparison with crocodiles implies that the different morphology of ossified tendons in dinosaurs may be associated with adaptive aspects of their paleobiology, not simply a side effect of skeletal ossification. In contrast to the short tendons in quadrupedal Chasmosaurus and Protoceratops, the elongated tendons in Psittacosaurus may be related to the bipedal locomotion characteristic of this taxon. [source]

    Soleus T reflex modulation in response to spinal and tendinous adaptations to unilateral lower limb suspension in humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2008
    O. R. Seynnes
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate the influence of tendinous and synaptic changes induced by unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on the tendon tap reflex. Methods:, Eight young men underwent a 23-day period of ULLS. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), torque and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the plantar flexor muscles (normalized to the M wave), Achilles tendon,aponeurosis mechanical properties, soleus (SOL) H and T reflexes and associated peak twitch torques were measured at baseline, after 14 and 23 days of ULLS, and 1 week after resuming ambulatory activity. Results:, Significant decreases in muscle CSA (,9%), in maximal voluntary torque (,10%) and in the associated SOL EMG activity (,16%) were found after ULLS (P < 0.05). In addition to a 36% (P < 0.01) decrease in tendon,aponeurosis stiffness, normalized H reflex increased by 35% (P < 0.05). An increase in the slope (28%, P < 0.05) and intercept (85%, P < 0.05) of the T reflex recruitment curve pointed to an increase in the gain and to a decrease in the sensitivity of this reflex, possibly resulting from the decrease in the tendon,aponeurosis stiffness at low forces. Following ULLS, changes in tendinous stiffness correlated with changes in neuromuscular efficiency (peak twitch torque to reflex ratio) at higher tendon tap forces. Conclusion:, These findings point out the dual and antagonistic influences of spinal and tendinous adaptations upon the tendon tap reflex in humans under conditions of chronic unloading. These observations have potential implications for the sensitivity of the short-latency Ia stretch response involved in rapid compensatory contractions to unexpected postural perturbations. [source]

    Effects of transient muscle contractions and stretching on the tendon structures in vivo

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    K. KUBO
    ABSTRACT This study compared the effects of static stretching (ST) and repeated muscle contractions (CON) on the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures in vivo. Eight male subjects performed ST (passively flexed to 35 of dorsiflexion) for 5 min and 50 repetitions of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 3 s each with 3 s relaxation. Before and after each task, the elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was directly measured by ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to MVC, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between the estimated muscle force (Fm) and tendon elongation (L) during the ascending phase was applied to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness of the tendon structures. The percentage of the area within the Fm,L loop to the area beneath the curve during the ascending phase was calculated as an index representing hysteresis. The ST protocol significantly decreased the stiffness (,8%) and hysteresis (29%)., respectively. In contrast, the CON protocol significantly decreased the stiffness, but not the hysteresis. These results suggested that the stretching and repeated contractions would make the tendon structures more complaint, and further decreased the hysteresis of the tendon structures. [source]

    In vivo determination of muscle viscoelasticity in the human leg

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2001
    S. Fukashiro
    The purpose of this study was to examine the methodological validity of the free vibration technique for determining individual viscoelastic characteristics of the human triceps surae muscle-tendon complex (MTC) in vivo. Six subjects sat with first phalangeal joint of the forefoot on the edge of a force-plate. The special frame on the knee was loaded with weight (0,40 kg) for testing. Oscillations of the triceps surae MTC system were initiated with a hand-held hammer by tapping the weight. In order to keep the same posture, the output of the force plate was displayed on the oscilloscope and subjects were asked to maintain the beam on the oscilloscope at a particular location in relation to a reference line. The damped oscillations in conjunction with the equation of motion of a damped mass-spring model were used to calculate the viscosity of muscle (b) and the elasticity of muscle fibres and tendon (k) in each subject, considering moment arm of the ankle joint. With this arrangement, we have obtained high reproducibility in this method. The coefficient of variations (CVs) of b and k in five trials at each weight were quite small (range: 0.5,18.7% in b and 1.0,15.1% in k). There were no significant differences in viscoelastic coefficients between right and left legs. Therefore, it appears that free vibration technique, used here, is adequate in describing the viscoelastic characteristics of the triceps surae in vivo in humans. [source]

    Occurrence and distribution of sesamoid bones in squamates: a comparative approach

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    Adriana Jerez
    Abstract Jerez, A., Mangione, S. and Abdala, V. 2010. Occurrence and distribution of sesamoid bones in squamates: a comparative approach.,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 295,305 Sesamoids are defined as skeletal elements that develop within a continuous band of regular dense connective tissue (tendon or ligament) adjacent to an articulation or joint. In this work, we discuss developmental data on two squamate species, provide data on the onset of the squamate sesamoids and the muscles they are associated to. Our results show that Mabuya mabouya and Liolaemus albiceps exhibited rather similar ontogenetic patterns and that the first sesamoids appear in embryos. The ossifying sesamoid timing is different between M. mabouya and L. albiceps, being faster in the former. In adults, we found 41 sesamoids, considering both fore and hindlimbs. We did not find any intrataxonomic differences, or any differences between the right and left side of the specimens in relation to the sesamoid presence. We recognize four types of sesamoids: (1) embedded sesamoids; (2) interosseus sesamoids; (3) glide sesamoids; and (4) supporting sesamoids. A table is included with a preliminary survey of the sesamoid distribution pattern in 10 Squamate clades. [source]

    Active tendon control of cable-stayed bridges: a large-scale demonstration

    Frédéric Bossens
    This paper presents a strategy for active damping of cable structures, using active tendons. The first part of the paper summarizes the theoretical background: the control law is briefly presented together with the main results of an approximate linear theory which allows the prediction of closed-loop poles with a root locus technique. The second part of the paper reports on experimental results obtained with two test structures: the first one is a small size mock-up representative of a cable-stayed bridge during the construction phase. The control of the parametric vibration of passive cables due to deck vibration is demonstrated. The second one is a 30 m long mock-up built on the reaction wall of the ELSA test facility at the JRC Ispra (Italy); this test structure is used to demonstrate the practical implementation of the control strategy with hydraulic actuators. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Lesions of the proximal aspect of the humerus and the tendon of biceps brachii

    S. Dyson
    First page of article [source]

    Size isn't everything: The importance of the hindlimb accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon

    R. K. W. Smith
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Collateral desmitis of the distal interphalangeal joint in conjunction with concurrent ossification of the cartilages of the foot in nine horses

    T. S. Mair
    Summary The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of severe ossification of the collateral cartilages (sidebone) coexistent with collateral desmitis of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) in lame horses. Sidebone was diagnosed and graded on standard radiographs and soft tissue injuries of the foot were diagnosed using standing low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Of 15 horses with forelimb lameness and severe sidebone, 9 had evidence of concurrent collateral desmitis of the DIPJ. All 15 horses had damage to other structures (including the deep digital flexor tendon, distal sesamoidean impar ligament, collateral sesamoidean ligament, navicular bone and distal phalanx) within the affected feet as identified on MRI. The clinical and pathophysiological significance of concurrent collateral desmitis of the DIPJ and sidebone is currently uncertain. However, this study shows that injuries to multiple structures within the foot are common and that collateral desmitis of the distal interphalangeal joint is frequently seen in lame horses in conjunction with severe ossification of the collateral cartilages. [source]

    Injection of the insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses using radiographic guidance

    J. D. C. Anderson
    Summary Insertional tendinopathies of the DDFT have been reported both as the sole lesion and as part of a multifocal lesion (Dyson et al. 2003). Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging allow specific diagnosis of deep digital flexor tendon lesions within the hoof capsule; however, direct intralesional treatment of such lesions is difficult because of the hoof's rigid structure. A technique designed to mimic intralesional injection of insertional tendinopathies of the DDFT in the standing horse using radiographic guidance was assessed. Radiographic and contrast CT imaging and sectioning of the limbs confirmed accurate injection in all cases although inadvertant administration of injectate into adjacent structures was also evident. [source]

    Influence of the position of the foot on MRI signal in the deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in the standing horse

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Hyperintense signal is sometimes observed in ligaments and tendons of the equine foot on standing magnetic resonance examination without associated changes in size and shape. In such cases, the presence of a true lesion or an artifact should be considered. A change in position of a ligament or tendon relative to the magnetic field can induce increased signal intensity due to the magic angle effect. Objectives: To assess if positional rotation of the foot in the solar plane could be responsible for artifactual changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and in the deep digital flexor tendon. Methods: Six isolated equine feet were imaged with a standing equine magnetic resonance system in 9 different positions with different degrees of rotation in the solar plane. Results: Rotation of the limb induced a linear hyperintense signal on all feet at the palmar aspect of one of the lobes of the deep digital flexor tendon and at the dorsal aspect of the other lobe. Changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint occurred with rotation of the limb only in those feet where mediolateral hoof imbalance was present. Conclusions: The position and conformation of the foot influence the signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint. Potential relevance: The significance of increased signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint should be interpreted with regard to the position and the conformation of the foot. [source]

    Influence of track surface on the equine superficial digital flexor tendon loading in two horses at high speed trot

    N. Crevier-Denoix
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Although track surfaces are a risk factor of tendon injuries, their effects on tendon loading at high speed are unknown. Using a noninvasive ultrasonic technique, it is now possible to evaluate the forces in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in exercise conditions. Objectives: To compare the effects of an all-weather waxed track (W) vs. a crushed sand track (S), on the SDFT loading in the trotter horse at high speed. Methods: Two trotter horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device (1 MHz ultrasonic probe, fixed on the palmar metacarpal area of the right forelimb). For each trial, data acquisition was made at 400 Hz and 10 consecutive strides were analysed. In each session, the 2 track surfaces were tested in a straight line. The speed was imposed at 10 m/s and recorded. The right forelimb was also equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe and skin markers. The horse was filmed with a high-speed camera (600 Hz); all recordings were synchronised. Statistical differences were tested using the GLM procedure (SAS; P<0.05). Results: Maximal tendon force was significantly lower on W compared with S. In addition to maximal force peaks around mid-stance, earlier peaks were observed, more pronounced on S than on W, at about 13%(horse 2) and 30% (both horses) of the stance phase. Comparison with kinematic data revealed that these early peaks were accompanied by plateaux in the fetlock angle-time chart. For high tendon forces, the tendon maximal loading rate was significantly lower on W than on S. Conclusions and potential clinical relevance: The all-weather waxed track appears to induce a lesser and more gradual SDFT loading than crushed sand. The SDFT loading pattern at high speed trot suggests proximal interphalangeal joint movements during limb loading. [source]

    Superficial digital flexor tendon lesions in racehorses as a sequela to muscle fatigue: A preliminary study

    M. T. Butcher
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Racing and training related lesions of the forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon are a common career ending injury to racehorses but aetiology and/or predisposing causes of the injury are not completely understood. Objectives: Although the injury takes place within the tendon, the lesion must be considered within the context of the function of the complete suspensory system of the distal limb, including the associated muscles. Methods: Both muscle and tendon function were investigated in vivo using implanted strain gauges in 3 Thoroughbred horses walking, trotting and cantering on a motorised treadmill. These data were combined with assessments of muscle architecture and fibre composition to arrive at an overview of the contribution of each muscle-tendon unit during locomotion. Results: The superficial digital flexor muscle has fatigue-resistant and high force production properties that allow its tendon to store and return elastic energy, predominantly at the trot. As running speed increases, deep digital flexor tendon force increases and it stabilises hyperextension of the fetlock, thus reinforcing the superficial digital flexor in limb load support. The deep digital flexor muscle has fast contracting properties that render it susceptible to fatigue. Conclusion: Based on these measurements and supporting evidence from the literature, it is proposed that overloading of the superficial digital flexor tendon results from fatigue of the synergistic, faster contracting deep digital flexor muscle. Potential relevance: Future research investigating distal limb system function as a whole should help refine clinical diagnostic procedures and exercise training approaches that will lead to more effective prevention and treatment of digital flexor tendon injuries in equine athletes. [source]

    Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of 264 horses with foot pain: The podotrochlear apparatus, deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint

    S. DYSON
    Summary Reasons for performing study: To improve understanding of the interrelationships between injuries of the podotrochlear apparatus and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Hypotheses: There is a difference in frequency of different types of lesions at different anatomical sites of the DDFT. Lesions of the collateral sesamoidean ligament (CSL), distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL), distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and navicular bursa are seen in association with lesions of the navicular bone. Methods: The magnetic resonance (MR) images of 264 horses with unilateral or bilateral foot pain were analysed and graded. Descriptive statistics were performed to establish the frequency of occurrence of DDFT lesion types at different anatomical levels, and lesions of the CSL, DSIL, navicular bursa, DIP joint and collateral ligaments (CLs) of the DIP joint. A Chi-square test was used to test for a difference in the proportion of navicular bone grades between limbs with and without DDFT lesions at each level, and to compare navicular bone grades for limbs with and without each of DSIL, CSL, navicular bursa or DIP joint lesions. Results: Lesions of the DDFT occurred in 82.6% of limbs, occurring most commonly at the level of the CSL (59.4%) and the navicular bone (59.0%). Core lesions predominated at the level of the proximal phalanx (90.3%), whereas at the level of the CSL and navicular bone core lesions, sagittal splits and dorsal abrasions were most common. There was a positive association between DDFT lesions and navicular bone pathology involving all aspects of the bone. Lesions of the DSIL (38.2% limbs) were more common than those of the CSL (10.5%), but the presence of either was associated with abnormalities of the navicular bone, especially involving the proximal or distal borders and the medulla. Conclusions and clinical relevance: There are close interactions between injuries of the components of the podotrochlear apparatus, the DDFT, the navicular bursa and the DIP joint. Further knowledge about the biomechanical risk factors for injury may have importance for both disease prevention and management. [source]

    Muscle, tendon, and somatotropin responses to the restriction of muscle blood flow induced by KAATSU-walk training

    T. ABE
    Summary Objective: The efficacy of KAATSU training has been demonstrated in human athletes, both as a therapeutic method as well as a training aid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slow walk training combined with restriction of muscle blood flow (KAATSU) on muscle and tendon size. Methods: Six healthy, unfit Standardbred mares performed walking (240 m/min for 10 min and then 5 min recovery) with KAATSU, and 6 mares performed walking without KAATSU. A specially designed elastic cuff1 was placed at the most proximal position of the forelegs and inflated to a pressure of 200,230 mmHg throughout the walking and recovery sessions. The training was conducted once a day, 6 days/week for 2 weeks. Skeletal muscle thickness and tendon thickness were measured using B-mode ultrasound at baseline and after 2 weeks of training. Venous blood samples were obtained before the first acute exercise and 5, 15 and 60 min afterwards. Serum somatotropin concentration was determined using a commercially available equine-specific ELISA kit. Results: The acute increase in plasma somatotropin was 40% greater (P<0.05) in the KAATSU-walk group than in the Control-walk group 5 min after exercise and remained elevated (P<0.05) at 15 and 60 min post exercise compared with the Control-walk group. After 2 weeks of training, muscle thickness increased (P<0.05) 3.5% in the KAATSU-walk group but did not change in the Control-walk group (0.7%). Tendon thickness did not change (P>0.05) in either group. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that KAATSU training can induce muscle hypertrophy in horses and suggest that KAATSU training may provide significant therapeutic/rehabilitative value in horses, as has been shown in man. [source]

    Association of type of sport and performance level with anatomical site of orthopaedic injury diagnosis

    R. C. MURRAY
    Summary Reason for performing study: Although anecdotal reports of increased orthopaedic injury risk in equine sports exist, there is little scientific evidence to support this. Objectives: To test whether horses undertaking a single competitive sport have increased risk of specific injuries compared to those used for general purpose riding (GP); and whether injury type varies with sport category and performance level. Methods: Data from 1069 records of horses undergoing orthopaedic evaluation (1998,2003) and meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Sport category (GP, showjumping, dressage, eventing, racing), level (nonelite or elite) and diagnosis were recorded. Effects of sport category and level on probability of a specific diagnosis were assessed using chisquared tests. Logistic regression was used to determine which competitive sports and levels increased risk of injury compared with GP. Results: Overall there was a significant effect of sport category and level on diagnosis (P<0.0001). There was significant difference between anatomical site injured and sport category (P<0.0001); a high risk of forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injury in elite eventing (P<0.0001) and elite showjumping (P=0.02); distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) injury in elite showjumping (P=0.002); and hindlimb suspensory ligament injury in elite (P<0.0001) and nonelite (P=0.001) dressage. There was a low risk of tarsal injury in elite eventing (P=0.01) and proximal DDFT injury in dressage (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Horses competing in different sports are predisposed to specific injuries; particular sports may increase the risk of injury at certain anatomical sites; and the type and site of injury may reflect the type and level of performance. Potential relevance: These findings could guide clinicians in the diagnosis of sport related injuries. [source]

    Two clinical manifestations of desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the hindlimb of 23 horses

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (ALDDFT) in the hindlimb is an unusual cause of lameness in horses, and reports of the condition are sparse. Objectives: To describe the clinical and ultrasonographic findings, therapy and outcome of 23 horses treated for desmopathy of the ALDDFT in the hindlimb. Methods: Records of 23 horses with ultrasonographic evidence of desmopathy of the ALDDFT in one or both hindlimbs from 3 referral centres were reviewed retrospectively. Age, breed, sex, duration and nature of clinical signs, results of clinical and lameness examinations, treatment and outcome were recorded. Results: In 13 horses (Group A), there was an acute onset of unilateral lameness. Ten horses (Group B) had an insidious or sudden onset of postural abnormality. There were 10 cobs, 5 British native-breed ponies and 8 horses of various larger breeds. Twenty horses were used for general purposes, and mean age was 12 years. Enlargement of the ALDDFT in the affected hindlimb(s) was identified in all horses. In 44% of horses, ultrasonographic abnormalities were localised to part of the ALDDFT. Treatment included box-rest and controlled exercise, and 10 horses were subjected to desmotomy or desmectomy of the ALDDFT. Seventy-three percent of horses in Group A returned to full function, while 90% of those in Group B remained lame. Conclusions: Two distinct clinical conditions are associated with the ALDDFT of the hindlimb. Traumatically induced injury resulting in acute onset lameness appears to have a favourable prognosis, with most horses returning to previous work. However, postural changes, once present, are irreversible and indicate a poor prognosis. Potential relevance: Desmopathy of the ALDDFT should be recognised as a potential cause of hindlimb lameness and this study provides clinical and prognostic information. Knuckling and/or semiflexion of the metatarsophalangeal joint may accompany the condition; therefore, if a horse is presented with a flexural deformity of this joint, desmopathy of the ALDDFT should be considered as a primary differential diagnosis. [source]

    Joint moments in the distal forelimbs of jumping horses during landing

    Summary Tendon injuries are an important problem in athletic horses and are probably caused by excessive loading of the tendons during demanding activities. As a first step towards understanding these injuries, the tendon loading was quantified during jump landings. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected from the leading and trailing forelimbs of 6 experienced jumping horses. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamic analysis. It was found that the variation of movement and loading patterns was small, both within and between horses. The peak flexor joint moments in the coffin and fetlock joints were larger in the trailing limb (,0.62 and ,2.44 Nm/kg bwt, respectively) than in the leading limb (,0.44 and ,1.93 Nm/kg bwt, respectively) and exceeded literature values for trot by 82 and 45%. Additionally, there was an extensor coffin joint moment in the first half of the stance phase of the leading limb (peak value 0.26 ± 0.18 Nm/kg bwt). From these results, it was concluded that the loading of the flexor tendons during landing was higher in the trailing than in the leading limb and that there was an unexpected loading of the extensor tendon in the leading limb. [source]

    Body maintenance and repair: how food and exercise keep the musculoskeletal system in good shape

    Michael J. Rennie
    This article provides a personal view of how feeding and exercise acutely modify protein metabolism of human skeletal muscle, with discussion of the anabolic signalling mechanisms involved and some new findings on the metabolism of the turnover of collagen, tendon and bone. [source]

    Sulfated polysaccharides inhibit the catabolism and loss of both large and small proteoglycans in explant cultures of tendon

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2006
    Tom Samiric
    This study investigated the effects of two highly sulfated polysaccharides, calcium pentosan polysulfate and heparin, on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans from the matrix of explant cultures of bovine tendon. The tensional region of deep flexor tendon was incubated with [35S]sulfate for 6 h and then placed in culture for up to 15 days. The amount of radiolabel associated with proteoglycans lost to the medium and retained in the matrix was determined for each day in culture. It was shown that both sulfated polysaccharides at concentrations of 1000 µg·mL,1 inhibited the loss of 35S-labeled large and small proteoglycans from the matrix and concomitant with this was a retention of chemical levels of proteoglycans in the explant cultures. In other explant cultures that were maintained in culture in the presence of both agents for more than 5 days after incubation with [35S]sulfate, inhibition of the intracellular catabolic pathway was evident, indicating that these highly sulfated polysaccharides also interfered with the intracellular uptake of small proteoglycans by tendon cells. [source]

    Large aggregating and small leucine-rich proteoglycans are degraded by different pathways and at different rates in tendon

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 17 2004
    Tom Samiric
    This work investigated the kinetics of catabolism and the catabolic fate of the newly synthesized 35S-labelled proteoglycans present in explant cultures of tendon. Tissue from the proximal region of bovine deep flexor tendon was incubated with [35S]sulfate for 6 h and then placed in explant cultures for periods of up to 15 days. The amount of radiolabel associated with proteoglycans and free [35S]sulfate lost to the medium and retained in the matrix was determined for each day in culture. It was shown that the rate of catabolism of radiolabelled small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) was significantly slower (T½ > 20 days) compared with the radiolabelled large proteoglycans (aggrecan and versican) that were rapidly lost from the tissue (T½ , 2 days). Both the small and large newly synthesized proteoglycans were lost from the matrix with either intact or proteolytically modified core proteins. When explant cultures of tendon were maintained either at 4 °C or in the presence of the lysosomotrophic agent ammonium chloride, inhibition of the cellular catabolic pathway for small proteoglycans was demonstrated indicating the involvement of cellular activity and lysosomes in the catabolism of small proteoglycans. It was estimated from these studies that approximately 60% of the radiolabelled small proteoglycans that were lost from the tissue were degraded by the intracellular pathway present in tendon cells. This work shows that the pathways of catabolism for large aggregating and small leucine-rich proteoglycans are different in tendon and this may reflect the roles that these two populations of proteoglycans play in the maintenance of the extracellular matrix of tendon. [source]

    Radial forearm-palmaris longus tenocutaneous free flap; implication in the repair of the moderate-sized postoncologic soft palate defect

    Tai Suk Roh MD
    Abstract Background. Moderate resection of the soft palate results in suboptimal outcomes in terms of postoperative velopharyngeal function. We propose the radial forearm tenocutaneous free flap incorporating the palmaris longus tendon for reconstruction of the levator sling in these cases. Methods. Twenty-six patients underwent reconstruction with this method. Group I defect involved up to one-fourth of the soft palate. Group II defect involved up to one-half of the soft palate whether or not including the uvula. Group III defect involved more than three-fourths of the soft palate. Postoperative function was assessed by means of speech intelligibility, swallowing performance, nasalance score, and nasoendoscopy. Results. Groups I and II showed normal results for speech intelligibility and swallowing function at 44 months. In group III, both parameters proved to be suboptimal. Conclusions. Moderate-sized soft palatal resection cases (group II) benefited most from this particular method of dynamic reconstruction using the radial forearm tenocutaneous free flap. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]