Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Tens

  • few ten
  • only a few ten
  • several ten

  • Terms modified by Tens

  • ten patient
  • ten year

  • Selected Abstracts

    Open trial of ciclosporin treatment for Stevens,Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    L. Valeyrie-Allanore
    Summary Background, Stevens,Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are acute mucocutaneous reactions associated with poor prognosis. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, based on supportive care. Until now, several curative treatments have been proposed without evidence of effectiveness. Objectives, To evaluate the effect of ciclosporin on SJS and TEN after a short series had suggested a benefit. Methods, We conducted an open, phase II trial to determine the safety and possible benefit of ciclosporin. Among the 45 consecutive patients admitted for SJS/TEN from March 2005 to September 2007, 29 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Ciclosporin was administered orally (3 mg kg,1 daily for 10 days) and tapered over a month. Clinical and biological evaluations were performed sequentially. Predicted death rate was estimated with a validated prognostic score (SCORTEN). Results, Twenty-nine patients were included at a mean ± SD of 2·8 ± 1·8 days after onset. The final diagnosis was SJS (n = 10), SJS/TEN overlap (n = 12) and TEN (n = 7). One month of treatment was completed in 26. Ciclosporin was stopped after more than 10 days in three cases for side-effects including posterior leucoencephalopathy (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 1) and nosocomial pneumopathy (n = 1). Ciclosporin dosage was tapered earlier than scheduled in two cases for alteration in renal function. The prognostic score predicted 2·75 deaths; none occurred (P = 0·1). Mean epidermal detachment remained stable in 18 of 29 cases (62%). The mean ± SD hospital stay was 16·2 ± 9·1 days. Conclusions, Both the death rate and the progression of detachment seemed lower than expected, suggesting a possible usefulness of ciclosporin in SJS and TEN that needs to be confirmed. [source]

    Treatment of erythema multiforme, Stevens,Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Klemens Rappersberger
    The "erythema multiforme disease spectrum" comprises four distinct, severe, clinical subvariants: (1) bullous erythema multiforme (bullous-EM), (2) Stevens,Johnson syndrome (SJS), (3) SJS,toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-overlap syndrome, and (4) TEN. These diseases are closely related to severe mucocutaneous intolerance reactions that are mostly elicited by drugs/drug metabolites and associated with a high mortality rate. Old age and area of detached skin negatively influence the course of disease, and early withdrawal of causative drugs with short half-life is a positive prognostic factor. Therapeutic management represents a multidisciplinary challenge for colleagues from various specialities including specialized nurses and usually can be performed at a dermatologic ward unless technical equipment of an intensive care unit is needed. Topical therapy with biologic and (semi-)synthetic dressings is aimed at early re-epithelialization and the prevention of scarring, synechia formation, and infection. Systemic treatment includes antibiotics, fluid and electrolyte replacement, protein preparations and blood products, etc. Various anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment regimens with corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, cyclophosphamide, plasmapheresis have been considered to halt ongoing immunologic pathomechanisms, and some of these have shown significant efficacy. However, because we lack formal clinical trials, none of these regimens can be definitively proposed as a therapy of choice in any of the severe clinical variants of the EM spectrum. [source]

    Environmental and economic development issues in the Polish motorway programme: a review and an analysis of the public debate

    E. J. Judge
    This paper examines the development of the Polish motorway programme, though the lessons apply generally throughout the central and east European (CEE) region. This has particular significance for European transport policy as three major corridors of the Polish motorway network also form crucial links of the Trans European Network (TEN). Thus, until recently, motorways have been presented on the one hand (by the Polish government and its supporters) as a boost to national and regional development, and on the other (by its detractors, principally the environmental lobby) as a threat that will suck development out of the country, while saddling it with substantial environmental costs. Environmental pressure groups have sought to refute economic development arguments using Western research, and have seen such research as influential in public debate and decision making. Based on evidence drawn from official reports and documents and a content analysis of the public debate on motorway development using the media archive of the Polish Motorways Agency, this paper suggests that these arguments have so far in fact been overshadowed by environmental considerations, and even more by financing issues. However, the future direction of policy is uncertain because of political changes after the September 2001 election. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Severe cutaneous reactions caused by barbiturates in seven Iranian children

    Setareh Mamishi MD
    Background, The severe adverse cutaneous reactions of erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens,Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare mucocutaneous diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause is antiepileptic drugs, particularly carbamazepine and lamotrigine, as well as the barbiturates group (phenobarbital and phenytoin). In this article, we present seven children with severe adverse cutaneous reactions caused by barbiturates. Case Reports, The age of the affected children was between 2 and 11 years and they all had a history of taking barbiturates. Their symptoms started 1,3 weeks after the initiation of barbiturates, including a prodrome characterized by 2,3 days of malaise, fever, cough and anorexia, after which the skin and mucosal lesions appeared and worsened. The skin lesions varied from rash to large bullae, plus different forms of mucous membrane involvement. The offending drugs (barbiturates) were stopped immediately and care was largely supportive. Conclusion, As a result of the morbidity and/or mortality associated with EM, SJS and TEN, physicians should keep in mind their differential diagnosis when cutaneous reactions are observed in patients undergoing barbiturate therapy. Furthermore, although TEN and SJS are life-threatening diseases, early detection and appropriate care can lead to a decrease in the incidence of death. The strategies described here seem to be successful and safe because, despite the serious conditions, our patients responded well. All survived. [source]

    Severe drug-induced skin reactions: clinical pattern, diagnostics and therapy

    Maja Mockenhaupt
    Summary The spectrum of severe drug-induced skin reactions includes not only Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) but also generalized bullous fixed drug eruption (GBFDE), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), also called drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). These reactions differ in clinical presentation as well as prognosis, causative agents and therapy. Therefore, the appropriate diagnostic measures should be undertaken rapidly, in order to prove the diagnosis. In addition to a thorough clinical examination, a skin biopsy should be taken and specific laboratory investigations should be done if AGEP or HSS/DRESS is suspected. Since these reactions are drug-induced, the causative agent should be rapidly identified and withdrawn. Besides adequate supportive therapy, systemic immunomodulatory treatments may be considered. Despite intensive care management, the prognosis in SJS and TEN is often poor and influenced by the amount of skin detachment as well as the age of the patients and the pre-existing underlying conditions. Severe sequelae may develop in survivors and affect especially mucosal sites. The prognosis of GBFDE is better but recurrent events may lead to more severe involvement. In HSS/DRESS sequelae have been also described as well as long lasting and recurrent courses, whereas AGEP usually heals without problems. [source]

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis; 15 years' experience in a Dutch burns centre

    B Gerdts
    Abstract Background, Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe and potentially fatal drug reaction characterized by an extensive skin rash with blisters and exfoliation, frequently accompanied by mucositis. The wounds caused by TEN are similar to second-degree burns and severe cases may involve large areas of skin loss. Objectives, Analysis of our results in patients with TEN and evaluation of the variety of therapeutic interventions that has been studied and suggested in TEN. Patients/methods, Retrospective analysis of 19 consecutive patients with TEN treated in our burns centre between 1989 and 2004. Results, Immediate withdrawal of any potentially fatal drug, maximum supportive care, and a restricted and tailored antibiotic, medical and surgical treatment regimen confined mortality to 21%, whereas prognosis scores like APACHE II and SCORTEN predicted mortality of 22 and 30%, respectively. A positive contribution of selective digestive decontamination is suggested but has yet to be established. Conclusions, Because of a potentially fatal outcome, fast referral of a patient suspected of TEN to a specialized centre (mostly a burns unit or specialized dermatology centre) for expert wound management and tailored comprehensive care is strongly advised and contributes to survival. [source]

    Number IV Erythema multiforme

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2005
    P Farthing
    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction characterised by a skin eruption, with or without oral or other mucous membrane lesions. Occasionally EM may involve the mouth alone. EM has been classified into a number of different variants based on the degree of mucosal involvement and the nature and distribution of the skin lesions. EM minor typically affects no more than one mucosa, is the most common form and may be associated with symmetrical target lesions on the extremities. EM major is more severe, typically involving two or more mucous membranes with more variable skin involvement , which is used to distinguish it from Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), where there is extensive skin involvement and significant morbidity and a mortality rate of 5-15%. Both EM major and SJS can involve internal organs and typically are associated with systemic symptoms. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) may be a severe manifestation of EM, but some experts regard it as a discrete disease. EM can be triggered by a number of factors, but the best documented is preceding infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV), the lesions resulting from a cell mediated immune reaction triggered by HSV,DNA. SJS and TEN are usually initiated by drugs, and the tissue damage is mediated by soluble factors including Fas and FasL. [source]

    Acetaminophen-Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in a Child

    Anette Bygum M.D.
    It is often drug induced. We report an instance of a severe case of TEN in a 6-year-old boy, probably induced by acetaminophen, and less likely by codeine. A lymphocyte stimulation test could not identify the culprit drug. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin seemed to halt the disease progression. [source]

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis and hemolytic uremic syndrome after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation

    Johan Arvidson
    Abstract:, TEN and HUS are challenging complications with excessive mortality after HSCT. We report the development of these two conditions in combination in a nine-yr-old boy after HSCT from an unrelated donor. TEN with skin detachment of more than 90% of body surface area developed after initial treatment for GvHD. Within a few days of admission to the burns unit, the patient developed severe hemolysis, hypertension, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure consistent with HUS, apparently caused by CSA. The management included intensive care in a burns unit, accelerated drug removal using plasmapheresis, and a dedicated multi-disciplinary team approach to balance immunosuppression and infections management in a situation with extensive skin detachment. The patient survived and recovered renal function but requires continued treatment for severe GvHD. Suspecting and identifying causative drugs together with meticulous supportive care in the burns unit is essential in the management of these patients and long-term survival is possible. [source]

    Erythema multiforme, Stevens,Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: Frozen-section diagnosis

    Hiroomi HOSAKA
    Abstract Stevens,Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) may be fatal. Although classified by body surface area skin detachment, initial stages of both may present with erythema multiforme (EM)-like lesions. To diagnose and predict disease activity adequately as early as possible for patients revealing EM-like lesions, we performed frozen-section diagnosis. Thirty-five patients clinically diagnosed as EM, SJS or TEN were biopsied to diagnose and predict disease progression within the initial-visit day. Half of a histological section taken from a lesion was snap-frozen and immediately cryostat-sectioned, acetone-fixed and stained with hematoxylin,eosin. Specimens were examined with light microscopy for presence of epidermal necrosis. A section from unaffected sites was also examined for 11 patients. Specimens were examined with light microscopy for presence of graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR)-like findings: apoptotic keratinocytes and satellite cell necrosis. Epidermal necrosis was seen in nine patients. Initial diagnosis of the nine was one of overlap SJS-TEN, four of SJS and four of EM, and final diagnosis of those was one of TEN, one of overlap SJS,TEN, four of SJS and three of EM. Dissociation between initial and final diagnosis was seen in three cases. GVHR-like findings in the epidermis were observed in two patients finally diagnosed as overlap SJS,TEN and TEN. Frozen sections are useful not only to make a diagnosis of erythema multiforme but to assess a potential to exhibit more aggressive clinical behaviors (SJS or TEN). [source]

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis and neutropaenia: Complications of omeprazole

    Avnesh S Thakor
    ABSTRACT Worldwide, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs; however, up to 70% of patients taking these drugs have no appropriate indication. Although PPI are relatively well tolerated, they are not free from side-effects and several life-threatening complications are associated with them. In the present report, a 43-year-old woman presented to her general practitioner with an erythematous rash over her face and chest, having been started on omeprazole for chronic abdominal bloating. Over the next 24 h she became increasingly unwell and was admitted to hospital with shortness of breath, pyrexia and the rash spreading over her back, arms and legs. Vesicles had now started to appear within the erythematous regions over her upper body and within 24 h the rash became confluent and desquamative, spreading to involve her entire body. A diagnosis of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was made. Despite supportive treatment within a critical care setting, she became neutropaenic and her skin loss became more extensive, resulting in 95% epidermal detachment. This case highlights that TEN is a life-threatening condition associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Optimal management requires early diagnosis and transfer to a specialized unit. Clinicians need to be aware that PPI are not free from side-effects and that their routine prescription should be strongly discouraged. [source]

    Titelbild: Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 11/2008

    Article first published online: 30 OCT 200
    Die Eisenbahnachse Berlin-Neapel gehört zu den 14 vorrangigsten Projekten der Transeuropäischen Verkehrsnetze (TEN). Als erstes Teilstück wurde die Zulaufstrecke Nord durch das Unterinntal in Tirol in Angriff genommen. Für 2008 ist die Fertigstellung der 170 Millionen Euro teuren Teilstrecke zwischen Fiecht und Terfens mit dem Tunnel Vomp-Terfens geplant. Im Tunnelbau zählen konstante Qualität und zeitgerechte und maßgenaue Ergebnisse. Auf der Tunnelbaustelle kam deshalb aufgrund ihrer Lebensdauer und der konstant hochwertigen Betonflächen die 6 mm dicke alkus GM Platte mit eingelegter Glasfasermatte zum Einsatz. (Foto: alkus AG) [source]

    Open trial of ciclosporin treatment for Stevens,Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    L. Valeyrie-Allanore
    Summary Background, Stevens,Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are acute mucocutaneous reactions associated with poor prognosis. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, based on supportive care. Until now, several curative treatments have been proposed without evidence of effectiveness. Objectives, To evaluate the effect of ciclosporin on SJS and TEN after a short series had suggested a benefit. Methods, We conducted an open, phase II trial to determine the safety and possible benefit of ciclosporin. Among the 45 consecutive patients admitted for SJS/TEN from March 2005 to September 2007, 29 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Ciclosporin was administered orally (3 mg kg,1 daily for 10 days) and tapered over a month. Clinical and biological evaluations were performed sequentially. Predicted death rate was estimated with a validated prognostic score (SCORTEN). Results, Twenty-nine patients were included at a mean ± SD of 2·8 ± 1·8 days after onset. The final diagnosis was SJS (n = 10), SJS/TEN overlap (n = 12) and TEN (n = 7). One month of treatment was completed in 26. Ciclosporin was stopped after more than 10 days in three cases for side-effects including posterior leucoencephalopathy (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 1) and nosocomial pneumopathy (n = 1). Ciclosporin dosage was tapered earlier than scheduled in two cases for alteration in renal function. The prognostic score predicted 2·75 deaths; none occurred (P = 0·1). Mean epidermal detachment remained stable in 18 of 29 cases (62%). The mean ± SD hospital stay was 16·2 ± 9·1 days. Conclusions, Both the death rate and the progression of detachment seemed lower than expected, suggesting a possible usefulness of ciclosporin in SJS and TEN that needs to be confirmed. [source]

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis in a premature infant of 27 weeks' gestational age

    K. Lohmeier
    Summary Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is very rare in the newborn period. So far, three cases of TEN in newborns have been reported worldwide. We report a premature infant of 27 weeks' gestational age with TEN at 4 weeks of age. Sepsis treated by an antibiotic combination regimen preceding the TEN was a common feature of all four cases. In our patient, coagulase-negative staphylococci could be identified by blood culture, whereas the previously reported patients suffered from Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis or Escherichia coli sepsis. Possibly, the uniform association with septic infection in the cases of TEN in the neonatal period might hint at a causal association, thus differentiating it from TEN in older children or adults. [source]

    Localities and seasonal variations in the chemical composition of essential oils of Satureja montana L. and S. cuneifolia Ten

    M. Milos
    Abstract The essential oils of Satureja montana L. and Satureja cuneifolia Ten. were subjected to detailed GC,MS analysis in order to determine possible similarities between them and also the differences in their chemical compositions, depending on the locality and the stage of development. The plant materials were collected prior to, during and after flowering from three different locations in the central part of Dalmatia (Croatia). For both plants the qualitative composition of the components appeared to be constant in three phenological stages and in three different localities. However, considerable differences were found to exist in the amounts of several compounds. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparison of bone-anchored male sling and collagen implant for the treatment of male incontinence

    Aim: To compare the effectiveness of transurethral collagen injection and perineal bone-anchored male sling for the treatment of male stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods: Seventy-one men with SUI underwent either transurethral collagen injections (n = 34) or perineal bone-anchored male sling (n = 37) between June 1999 and October 2003. Most of the patients in each group had radical retropubic prostatectomy and/or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in relation to the cause of incontinence. There was one patient in both groups who only had EBRT for the cause. The mean duration of incontinence were 4.2 and 4.4 years, respectively. Collagen injections were carried out transurethrally either under regional or general anesthesia until co-aptation of mucosa was observed. The male sling was placed under spinal anesthesia with a bone drill using either absorbable or synthetic materials. Retrospectively, all patients were assessed for continence status and procedure-related morbidity, if present. The outcome of both procedures was also compared with the degree of incontinence. Results: Ten (30%) patients in the collagen group showed either significant improvement or were cured following injections. Preoperatively, the mean pad use in collagen group was 4.5 (SD 2.8) per day, whereas it was 2.2 (SD 1.1) after the injection(s). Collagen injection failed in 24 (70%) of the patients. Patients who received the male sling had a mean preoperative pad use of 3.7 (SD 1.5) and postoperatively, the number decreased to 1.6 (SD 1.2). Most of the patients in this group were either totally dry or significantly improved (n: 28, 76%). There was a statistically significant difference between two groups in respect to success rate (P < 0.05). Analysis of treatment outcome with the degree of incontinence revealed that the male sling is most effective in patients with minimal-to-moderate incontinence. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the male sling, a minimally invasive procedure, is more effective than collagen implant in the treatment of mild-to-moderate SUI in men. [source]

    The New Transatlantic Agenda at Ten: Reflections on an Experiment in International Governance,

    The 1995 New Transatlantic Agenda (NTA) represents anovel experiment in international governance, linking the institutions of the EU and the United States at the intergovernmental, transgovernmental and transnational levels. This article draws lessons from the NTA after its first decade, noting tensions in the Brussels-Washington relationship, a highly variable pattern of effectiveness in transgovernmental regulatory co-operation, and a largely ineffectual record of transnational civil-society co-operation. [source]

    Maastricht's Fiscal Rules at Ten: An Assessment

    Marco Buti
    The Maastricht Treaty is ten years old. Its fiscal rules played a key role in kickstarting and sustaining the budgetary retrenchment efforts in European Union countries in the run,up to economic and monetary union (EMU). The experience of the Maastricht,induced fiscal consolidation shows that the political economy dimension of the rules is key to their success. It remains to be seen whether the stability and growth pact , which aims to lock EMU members into a permanent fiscal discipline commitment while allowing for flexibility to cushion cyclical fluctuations , will work. In order to succeed in this undertaking, EU governments and institutions have to tackle a number of open issues in the implementation of the pact while recreating the political drive which made Maastricht a success. [source]

    Infertile couples' experience of family stress while women are hospitalized for Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome during infertility treatment

    Shiu-Neng Chang MS
    Aims and objectives., The aim of this study was to explore the essential structure of family stress among hospitalized women receiving infertility treatment with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Background., When hospitalization is necessary for infertile women with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, they face health-illness transition stress and their families are traumatized by the pressure of hospitalization. Most literature on infertility treatment has dealt with the infertile women's physio-psychological reactions, the impact on the couples' relationships and the influence of social support on infertile couples. Design., A descriptive phenomenological design consistent with Husserl's philosophy. Methods., Ten married couples from a Taipei medical centre participated in the study. All the couples were receiving infertility treatment because the female partners were suffering from moderate or severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome and this required hospitalized. An open in-depth interview technique encouraged parents to reflect on their experience, which raised their feelings to a conscious level. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's approach. Results., This study explored infertile women's experiences from the couples' perspectives and the results identify the overall stresses that the family face. Five themes emerged from the study, namely, the stress of ,carrying on the ancestral line', the psychological reactions of the couple, a disordering of family life, reorganization of family life and external family support. Conclusions., The results demonstrate that the experience of family stress involves impacts that range across the domains of individual, marital, family and social interactions and there is a need to cope with these when the wife is hospitalized for moderate to severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Relevance to clinical practice., The findings indicated that nurses should provide infertile couples with family-centred perspectives that are related to Chinese cultural family values. Nurses should supply information on infertility treatment and assist couples to cope with their personal and family stress. [source]

    Struggling with an unfamiliar and unreliable body: the experience of irritable bowel syndrome

    Cecilia Håkanson MSc
    Aim., To describe the phenomenon living with irritable bowel syndrome from a life-world perspective. Background., Ten to twenty per cent of the adult population in the world is known to live with irritable bowel syndrome. The life-world experience of people with irritable bowel syndrome has been paid little attention. A deeper understanding about the phenomenon living with irritable bowel syndrome is of interest for the future development of care. Design and methods., The study was performed using a phenomenological method. Data was collected by in-depth, open interviews performed in 2006, with nine persons between 25,55 years, diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. The interviews were analysed according to the method of Giorgi. Results., Six interrelated key constituents have been identified: Having an altered self-image, feeling ashamed, distrusting the body, feeling tired, blaming oneself, and finding solutions. A structure has been formulated, describing that living with irritable bowel syndrome means struggling with an unfamiliar and unreliable body. Tiredness, distrust, and feelings of shame towards the body bring about limitations in everyday life. At the same time, living with irritable bowel syndrome means having a strong will to exceed the limitations and become familiar with one self. Conclusion., This study suggests that living with irritable bowel syndrome means to struggle with an unfamiliar and unreliable body that brings about changes of self-image and limitations in every day life. Feelings of distrust, shame and embarrassment towards troublesome symptoms, are important contributions to the limitations experienced. Relevance to clinical practice., Nurses have a major role to play in the care for people with irritable bowel syndrome. A caring perspective, in which the life-world is central, is an important approach to care for these persons. Using the dialogue as a forum where patients can share their unique life-world experiences lets nurses gather knowledge that is essential in helping patients identify and acknowledge new and positive understandings of the lived body. [source]

    Influence of rootstock and scion on antioxidant capacity of juice from new pomelo and mandarin varieties

    Eran Raveh
    Abstract BACKGROUND: New pomelo and mandarin scion varieties growing under subtropical arid conditions were investigated for total antioxidants in the juice. Four different rootstocks,sour orange (Citrus aurantium (L.); SO), Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana (Ten & Pasq.)), SB812 (C. sunki (Hort. ex Tan.) × Poncirus trifoliate (L.)) and C. macrophylla (Wester),were tested. RESULTS: Fruit juice was tested for total antioxidants, ascorbic acid and total polyphenol contents. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis revealed three different antioxidant groups for pomelo and four groups for mandarin. CV analysis for the pomelo scion/rootstock combinations showed that ascorbic acid concentration was highest for scions grafted onto SO. Total polyphenol levels were similar among the pomelo varieties. Mandarin analysis revealed that ,Merav' scion/SO had the highest ascorbic acid concentration (1.91 ± 0.01 mmol L,1). Total polyphenol analysis discovered that ,Merav' 4/119-/SB812 gave the highest levels, while ,Ora Shani' scion grafted on to any tested rootstock contained the lowest CONCLUSION: We suggest that the SO rootstock is superior to Volka, 812 and macrophylla in terms of juice antioxidant capacity. For the pomelo, both ,Flamingo' scions were found to have high antioxidant production capacity, with ,Flamingo' 3/73 being slightly superior regardless of the rootstock. The best mandarins were ,Merav' hybrids in combination with SO rootstock. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Functional MRI of the rodent somatosensory pathway using multislice echo planar imaging,

    Shella D. Keilholz
    Abstract A multislice EPI sequence was used to obtain functional MR images of the entire rat brain with BOLD contrast at 11.7 T. Ten to 11 slices covering the rat brain, with an in-plane resolution of 300 ,m, provided enough sensitivity to detect activation in brain regions known to be involved in the somatosensory pathway during stimulation of the forelimbs. These regions were identified by warping a digitized rat brain atlas to each set of images. Data analysis was constrained to four major areas of the somatosensory pathway: primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, thalamus, and cerebellum. Incidence maps were generated. Electrical stimulation at 3 Hz led to significant activation in the primary sensory cortex in all rats. Activation in the secondary sensory cortex and cerebellum was observed in 70% of the studies, while thalamic activation was observed in 40%. The amplitude of activation was measured for each area, and average response time courses were calculated. Finally, the frequency dependence of the response to forepaw stimulation was measured in each of the activated areas. Optimal activation occurred in all areas at 3 Hz. These results demonstrate that whole-brain fMRI can be performed on rodents at 11.7 T to probe a well-defined neural network. Magn Reson Med 52:89,99, 2004. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Penn State joins the Big Ten and learns to benchmark

    Robert Secor
    Joining the Big Ten wasn't just about football. Since it became part of the alliance, Penn State has learned to benchmark to great effect, particularly in regard to faculty and academic issues. [source]

    Sjögren's syndrome sufferers have increased oral yeast levels despite regular dental care

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2 2008
    KCM Leung
    Aim:, To investigate the prevalence and quantity of oral yeasts and their association with oral candidiasis in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients receiving regular dental care. Materials and methods:, Yeasts in oral rinse and full-mouth supra-gingival plaque samples from 25 primary SS, 27 secondary SS and 29 control subjects were selectively cultured. All yeasts except single-species isolates were genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results:, Ten (19%) SS sufferers had symptomless candidiasis. SS subjects had a higher prevalence (73%vs 7%) and quantity of yeasts than controls in both oral rinse and plaque samples (P < 0.05). The prevalence of yeasts in plaque was associated with candidiasis regardless of denture wearing (P , 0.04). Candida albicans was the predominant yeast isolated. PFGE showed 20 (66% of total) C. albicans isolate pairs, i.e. C. albicans species isolated from plaque and oral rinse samples of the same individual, were of closely related genetic clonal types (P < 0.01). Conclusions:, Despite effective oral hygiene, more SS subjects than controls had detectable levels of oral yeasts and their presence in supra-gingival plaque was associated with candidiasis. Candida albicans colonized supra-gingival biofilm even in well-maintained SS individuals, posing a challenge to the control of oral candidiasis. [source]

    Ketotic hypoglycemia in patients with allergic diseases

    Tomoyo Matsubara
    AbstractBackground:,Ketotic hypoglycemia is the most common cause of recurrent hypoglycemia in early childhood but its etiology is poorly understood. Elimination diets have been used for the prevention or treatment of some allergic diseases; however, these diets entail a risk to the normal nutrition and growth of children. The present study investigated whether elimination diets are related to the occurrence of ketotic hypoglycemia. Methods:,The prevalence of allergy treated with elimination diet therapy was retrospectively investigated in 18 patients with ketotic hypoglycemia seen in Yamaguchi University Hospital between January 1995 and September 1999. Data were gathered by reviewing the patients' medical charts. Results:,Ten (55.6%) of 18 patients with ketotic hypoglycemia had allergic diseases. Six (60%) of the patients had been treated with strict elimination diets and the others were on incomplete elimination diets for the prevention of allergy. The ketotic hypoglycemia patients with allergic diseases had experienced fewer pre-existing infectious diseases than those without allergic diseases. Conclusions:,Patients with allergic diseases treated with elimination diets have a relatively high tendency towards developing ketotic hypoglycemia. They might have a lower capacity to tolerate fasting due to their excessive avoidance of many foods, even during periods when they are not undergoing strict elimination diets. [source]

    Synthesis and insecticidal activity of new 3-benzylfuran-2-yl N,N,N,,N,-tetraethyldiamidophosphate derivatives

    Vanderlścia F Paula
    Abstract BACKGROUND: A series of 3-benzylfuran-2-yl N,N,N,,N,-tetraethyldiamidophosphate derivatives were synthesized as potential new agents to control insects. Their structures were confirmed on the basis of IR, NMR and MS analyses. RESULTS: Ten 3-benzylfuran-2-ylN,N,N,,N,-tetraethyl derivatives were prepared from the compound furan-2-yl N, (N,N,N,,N,-tetraethyldiamidophosphate). The contact toxicity of all derivatives, at a dose of 10 µg mg,1 insect, was evaluated against four insect species, Ascia monuste orseis Latr. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The mortality range observed for some derivatives, such as 3-(3-methylbenzyl)furan-2-yl N,N,N,,N,-tetraethyldiamidophosphate (82.5% mortality against D. hyalinata; 100% mortality against S. saevissima), was comparable with that of the commercial insecticide chlorpyrifos-methyl. The biological activity of the derivatives depended on the substitution pattern of the benzylic ring. Furan-2-yl N,N,N,,N,-tetraethyldiamidophosphate, furan-2-yl N,N -diethylamidochlorophosphate and difuran-2-yl N,N -diethylamidophosphate were also evaluated, displaying, in some cases, activity comparable with that of chlorpyrifos-methyl (90%, 100% and 97.5% respectively against A. monuste orseis). Considerable activity was observed for some furan-2(5H)-ones evaluated. CONCLUSION: Ten 3-benzylfuran-2-yl N,N,N,,N,-tetraethyldiamidophosphate derivatives were synthesized and fully characterized from a chemical point of view. The results obtained from the biological assays indicate that this class of compounds can be utilized for the design of new substances endowed with insecticidal activity. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Contralateral Incipient Posterior Canal Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo: Complication After Epley Maneuver

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2008
    Annabelle C. Leong BSc MRCS
    Abstract Background: Particle repositioning procedures give consistent results for the treatment of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV). However, little consideration has been given to the possibilities of bilateral disease. Objective/Hypothesis: To report contralateral symptoms and signs suggestive of revealed or incipient BPPV as a complication of Epley maneuver. Study Design: A prospective cohort of 198 cases over a period of 11 years. Results: Ten (5.0%) developed contralateral symptoms and signs suggestive of revealed or incipient posterior canal BPPV within 2 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: This novel observation has not been previously described and may influence the strategy for future management of patients with BPPV. Particle repositioning maneuvers for the previously asymptomatic contralateral ear may need to be considered in a subset of patients with posterior canal BPPV who suffer contralateral symptoms after undergoing treatment for the original ear. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity and bioactivity of the therapeutic antibody catumaxomab intraperitoneally administered to cancer patients

    Peter Ruf
    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab is a highly effective anti-cancer therapeutic that is administered to patients suffering from malignant ascites intraperitoneally (i.p.) in microgram (µg) doses. So far, no clinical pharmacokinetic data are available. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , Catumaxomab attains effective local concentrations in the ascites fluid and shows low systemic exposure with an acceptable safety profile confirming the appropriateness of the i.p. application scheme. AIMS Catumaxomab is the first EMEA approved trifunctional anti-EpCAM×anti-CD3 antibody for the treatment of cancer patients with malignant ascites. A phase II pharmacokinetic study was conducted to determine local and systemic antibody concentrations and anti-drug antibody (ADA) development. METHODS Thirteen cancer patients with symptomatic malignant ascites were treated with four ascending doses of 10, 20, 50, and 150 µg catumaxomab intraperitoneally (i.p.) infused on days 0, 3, 6 or 7 and 10. The pharmacokinetics of catumaxomab were studied by implementation of supportive data from a non clinical mouse tumour model. Additionally, ADA development was monitored. RESULTS Ten out of 13 patients were evaluable for pharmacokinetic analysis. Catumaxomab became increasingly concentrated in ascites during the course of treatment, attaining effective concentrations in the ng ml,1 range. Catumaxomab remained immunologically active even after several days in the circulation. The observed systemic catumaxomab exposure was low (<1%), with a maximal median plasma concentration (Cmax) of 403 pg ml,1. The mean elimination half-life in the plasma was 2.13 days. All patients developed ADA, but not before the last infusion. High observed inter-individual variability and low systemic exposure may be explained by the inverse correlation between tumour burden, effector cell numbers and systemic antibody bioavailability as demonstrated in a defined mouse tumour model. CONCLUSIONS Based on the high and effective local concentrations, low systemic exposure and acceptable safety profile, we confirmed that the i.p. application scheme of catumaxomab for the treatment of malignant ascites is appropriate. [source]

    Synthesis of Nine-, Ten-, and Fifteen-Membered Alkenolides by the Oxidative Cleavage of the Bridging C=C Bond in 2-Oxabicycloalkenes.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 35 2002
    Yu. N. Ogibin
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    High-Electron-Density C6H6 Units: Stable Ten-,-Electron Benzene Complexes

    Martin Diefenbach Dr.
    Abstract The first stable benzene molecule with ten , electrons is predicted. Stability is achieved through barium atoms acting as an electron-donating "matrix" to C6H6 in the inverted sandwich complex [Ba2(C6H6)]. The bis(barium)benzene complex has been computed at the density functional level of theory by using the hybrid functional mPW1PW91. Ab initio calculations were performed by using the coupled-cluster expansion, CCSD(T). Nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) indices imply distinct aromatic character in the benzene ring of bis(barium)benzene. The D6h -symmetric structure with a 1A1g electronic ground state represents a thermochemically stable, aromatic benzene molecule with four excess , electrons, stabilised by two barium ions. A possible molecular wire, built up from Ba end-capped thorium,benzene "sandwiches", is discussed. [source]