Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Tectonics

  • active tectonics
  • extensional tectonics
  • plate tectonics
  • regional tectonics

  • Selected Abstracts

    Molecular Tectonics: Design of 1-D Coordination Networks Based on Pyrene-Bearing Pyrazolyl Units

    Abdelaziz Jouaiti
    Abstract The synthesis of a new ligand based on a pyrene backbone bearing four pyrazolyl units is reported. Whereas this compound forms a discrete exo-binuclear complex with palladium, in the presence of silver a 1-D coordination network is obtained and structurally characterised in the solid state by X-ray diffraction method. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]

    Tectonics and quaternary evolution of the Northern Apennines watershed area (upper course of Arno and Tiber rivers, Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    Marco Bonini
    Abstract This work examines the connection between Quaternary tectonics and erosion/incision processes in the primary Tuscan-Romagna watershed of the Northern Apennines, which essentially coincides with the topographic culmination of the Nero Unit structural ridge. Tectonic and geomorphic information were collected in the area where this ridge is crossed by the upper Tiber River course forming a deep gorge. Structural analysis and field mapping have revealed that the region experienced polyphase tectonics with superposed thrust folding events identifiable both at the map and mesoscopic scales. Hinterland-SSW-verging thrusts and thrust-related folds deformed the whole thrust pile during the latest deformation phase. Backthrusts/backfolds controlled the development of intermountain basins nearby the main watershed during the Early Pleistocene and seemingly deformed, in the Tiber gorge, a low-relief landscape developed in the Early Pleistocene (ca. 1.1,Ma). Successively, the upper Tiber River course area and Apennines axial zone underwent a generalized uplift, which is manifested by the deep incision of palaeo-morphologies. This proposed sequence of events correlates well with the major geodynamic change of the Apennines revealed by an acceleration of uplift rates in the Middle,Late Pleistocene. This latter event may also correlate with increased rates of river incision recorded in Europe as a consequence of uplift and/or climate change. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Molecular Tectonics at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Controlling the Nanoscale Geometry, Directionality, and Packing of 1D Coordination Networks on Graphite Surfaces

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 10-11 2009
    Artur Ciesielski
    Supramolecular arrays composed of 1-D coordination networks on surfaces, with nanoscale control over both the geometry and the directionality, are achieved through the design and combination of organic tectons with metal complexes (CoCl2) or metal centers (Pd(BF4)2). Scanning tunneling microscope at the solid/liquid interface allows the visualization of long and shape-persistent arrays, with either linear or zig-zag geometries. [source]

    Books and Multimedia Reviews

    Article first published online: 26 JAN 2010
    Book reviewed in this article: Chemical Dynamics in Extreme Environments, Volume 11 of Advanced Series in Physical Chemistry edited by Rainer A. Dressler. Storms in Space by John Freeman. Major Impacts and Plate Tectonics: A Model for the Phanerozoic Evolution of the Earth's Lithosphere by Neville J. Price. Meteorite Hunter: The Search For Siberian Meteorite Craters by Roy A. Gallant. [source]

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tectonics of the Yellow Sea and Oil-Gas Exploration

    Tianfeng WAN
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to study the tectonics of the Yellow Sea. Although oil-gas exploration has been undertaken for more than 30 years in the southern Yellow Sea, the exploration progress has achieved little. There are three tectonic periods with near N,S trending shortening and compression (260,200 Ma, 135,52 Ma and 23,0.78 Ma) and three tectonic periods with near E,W trending shortening and compression (200,135 Ma, 52,23 Ma and 0.78 Ma) at the Yellow Sea and adjacent areas during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Indosinian tectonic period is the collision period between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plates, which formed the basic tectonic framework for the Yellow Sea area. There were strong intraplate deformations during the Yanshanian (200,135 Ma) and Sichuanian (135,52 Ma) periods with different tectonic models, which are also the main formation periods for endogenic metallic mineral deposits around the Yellow Sea. The three tectonic periods during the Cenozoic affect important influences for forming oil-gas reservoirs. The Eocene,Oligocene (52,23 Ma) is the main forming period for oil-gas sources. The Miocene,Early Pleistocene (23,0.78 Ma) was a period of favorable passage for oil-gas migration along NNE trending faults. Since the Middle Pleistocene (0.78 Ma) the NNE trending faults are closed and make good conditions for the reservation of oil-gas. The authors suggest that we pay more attention to the oil-gas exploration at the intersections between the NNE trending existing faults and Paleogene-Neogene systems in the southern Yellow Sea area. [source]

    Control of Deep Tectonics on the Superlarge Deposits in China

    YANG Liqiang
    Abstract, Seventy-three large-superlarge deposits in China were formed in 4 metallogenic epochs, and located in 6 metallogenic domains. By combing their time-space distribution and the relevant data of crustal thickness, we discuss the control conditions of deep tectonics on superlarge deposits. The various spatial variation of the crustal thickness where deposits locate is closely related to their different tectonic setting. The crustal thickness of the region where deposits are in the Precambrian metallogenic epoch is 37.1 km and shows double-peak distribution, which is related to the different tectonic-mineralization processes in the Tarim-North China and Yangtze metallogenic domains. The crustal thickness of the region where deposits are in the Paleoproterozoic metallogenic epoch is 43.4 km and shows normal distribution, which is the result of "pure" mineralization setting. The crustal thickness of the region where deposits are in the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic metallogenic epoch is about 41.2 km and shows multi-peak distribution, which can be related with dispersing distribution in the metallogenic domain of these superlarge deposits. The crustal thickness of the region where deposits are in the post-Indosinian metallogenic epoch is 37.3 km, and shows skew distribution, which resulted from different tectonic settings in eastern and western China. [source]

    Collision Tectonics between the Tarim Block (Basin) and the Northwestern Tibet Plateau: New Observations from a Multidisciplinary Geoscientific Investigation in the Western Kunlun Mountains

    XIAO Xuchang
    Abstract New results from deep seismic reflection profiling, wide-angle reflection-refraction profiling and broadband seismic experiments reveal that a series of south-dipping reflectors occur on the southern margin of the Tarim block (basin). However, it is these south-dipping structures that are intercepted by another series of north-dipping reflectors at depths from 30 to about 150 km beneath the foreland of the W Kunlun Mountains. No evidence from the above geophysical data as well as geochemical and surface geological data indicate the southward subduction of the Tarim block beneath the W Kunlun Mountains (NW Tibet plateau), forming the so-called "two-sided subduction" model for the Tibet plateau as proposed by previous studies. So the authors infer that the tectonic interaction between the Tarim block and the W Kunlun block was chiefly affected by a "horizontal compression in opposite directions", which brought about "face-to-face contact" between these two lithospheric blocks and led to the thickening, shortening and densifying of the lithosphere. Hence a "delamination" was formed due to the gravitational instability created by the thickening and densifying; then alkaline basic volcanic rocks (mainly shoshonite series) was erupted along the northern margin of the Tibet plateau owing to the delamination. This inference for the formation of the alkaline basic volcanics has been confirmed by recent geochemical and petrological studies in Tibet, indicating that different contacts control different magmatic activities: the alkali basalts are always developed in the "horizontal shortening boundary (contact)" on the northern margin of the Tibet plateau, while the muscovite granite and two-mica granite (leucogranite) in the "subductional contact" on the southern margin of the Tibet plateau. [source]

    Morphometric indices as indicators of tectonic, fluvial and karst processes in calcareous drainage basins, South Menorca Island, Spain

    Francesca S. Segura
    Abstract This study proposes using morphometric indices to discriminate the processes that shape calcareous drainage basins. To illustrate this, a DEM of the southern part of Menorca Island (Migjorn) was created and basin slope, drainage density, hypsometric curve and integral, and the area occupied by open and closed dolines were extracted from it. These indices show an important dependence on tectonics, which govern the morphology of these drainage basins and encourage the predominance of karst and/or fluvial processes in the different sectors. The morphometric indices are clearly influenced by the geological Migjorn structure, a carbonate Upper Miocene reef platform gently folded as an asymmetrical anticline. The hypsometric integral and curve discriminate the influence of tectonics and structure whilst the drainage density and the proportion of open dolines are associated with basins with more pronounced fluvial processes. A cluster analysis based on these indices discriminated three sectors where different forms and processes are found. In the western and eastern sectors, rounded basins without major fractures predominate. The basins slope at less than 5°, and karst processes outweigh fluvial processes. The central sector, however, has steeper slopes, a clearly defined drainage system, and a predominance of fluvial over karst processes. Greater uplift in this sector has facilitated the formation of elongated basins that follow the main fracture lines. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term landscape evolution: linking tectonics and surface processes

    Paul Bishop
    Abstract Research in landscape evolution over millions to tens of millions of years slowed considerably in the mid-20th century, when Davisian and other approaches to geomorphology were replaced by functional, morphometric and ultimately process-based approaches. Hack's scheme of dynamic equilibrium in landscape evolution was perhaps the major theoretical contribution to long-term landscape evolution between the 1950s and about 1990, but it essentially ,looked back' to Davis for its springboard to a viewpoint contrary to that of Davis, as did less widely known schemes, such as Crickmay's hypothesis of unequal activity. Since about 1990, the field of long-term landscape evolution has blossomed again, stimulated by the plate tectonics revolution and its re-forging of the link between tectonics and topography, and by the development of numerical models that explore the links between tectonic processes and surface processes. This numerical modelling of landscape evolution has been built around formulation of bedrock river processes and slope processes, and has mostly focused on high-elevation passive continental margins and convergent zones; these models now routinely include flexural and denudational isostasy. Major breakthroughs in analytical and geochronological techniques have been of profound relevance to all of the above. Low-temperature thermochronology, and in particular apatite fission track analysis and (U,Th)/He analysis in apatite, have enabled rates of rock uplift and denudational exhumation from relatively shallow crustal depths (up to about 4 km) to be determined directly from, in effect, rock hand specimens. In a few situations, (U,Th)/He analysis has been used to determine the antiquity of major, long-wavelength topography. Cosmogenic isotope analysis has enabled the determination of the ,ages' of bedrock and sedimentary surfaces, and/or the rates of denudation of these surfaces. These latter advances represent in some ways a ,holy grail' in geomorphology in that they enable determination of ,dates and rates' of geomorphological processes directly from rock surfaces. The increasing availability of analytical techniques such as cosmogenic isotope analysis should mean that much larger data sets become possible and lead to more sophisticated analyses, such as probability density functions (PDFs) of cosmogenic ages and even of cosmogenic isotope concentrations (CICs). PDFs of isotope concentrations must be a function of catchment area geomorphology (including tectonics) and it is at least theoretically possible to infer aspects of source area geomorphology and geomorphological processes from PDFs of CICs in sediments (,detrital CICs'). Thus it may be possible to use PDFs of detrital CICs in basin sediments as a tool to infer aspects of the sediments' source area geomorphology and tectonics, complementing the standard sedimentological textural and compositional approaches to such issues. One of the most stimulating of recent conceptual advances has followed the considerations of the relationships between tectonics, climate and surface processes and especially the recognition of the importance of denudational isostasy in driving rock uplift (i.e. in driving tectonics and crustal processes). Attention has been focused very directly on surface processes and on the ways in which they may ,drive' rock uplift and thus even influence sub-surface crustal conditions, such as pressure and temperature. Consequently, the broader geoscience communities are looking to geomorphologists to provide more detailed information on rates and processes of bedrock channel incision, as well as on catchment responses to such bedrock channel processes. More sophisticated numerical models of processes in bedrock channels and on their flanking hillslopes are required. In current numerical models of long-term evolution of hillslopes and interfluves, for example, the simple dependency on slope of both the fluvial and hillslope components of these models means that a Davisian-type of landscape evolution characterized by slope lowering is inevitably ,confirmed' by the models. In numerical modelling, the next advances will require better parameterized algorithms for hillslope processes, and more sophisticated formulations of bedrock channel incision processes, incorporating, for example, the effects of sediment shielding of the bed. Such increasing sophistication must be matched by careful assessment and testing of model outputs using pre-established criteria and tests. Confirmation by these more sophisticated Davisian-type numerical models of slope lowering under conditions of tectonic stability (no active rock uplift), and of constant slope angle and steady-state landscape under conditions of ongoing rock uplift, will indicate that the Davis and Hack models are not mutually exclusive. A Hack-type model (or a variant of it, incorporating slope adjustment to rock strength rather than to regolith strength) will apply to active settings where there is sufficient stream power and/or sediment flux for channels to incise at the rate of rock uplift. Post-orogenic settings of decreased (or zero) active rock uplift would be characterized by a Davisian scheme of declining slope angles and non-steady-state (or transient) landscapes. Such post-orogenic landscapes deserve much more attention than they have received of late, not least because the intriguing questions they pose about the preservation of ancient landscapes were hinted at in passing in the 1960s and have recently re-surfaced. As we begin to ask again some of the grand questions that lay at the heart of geomorphology in its earliest days, large-scale geomorphology is on the threshold of another ,golden' era to match that of the first half of the 20th century, when cyclical approaches underpinned virtually all geomorphological work. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Morphometric analysis and tectonic interpretation of digital terrain data: a case study

    Gyozo Jordan
    Abstract Tectonic movement along faults is often re,ected by characteristic geomorphological features such as linear valleys, ridgelines and slope-breaks, steep slopes of uniform aspect, regional anisotropy and tilt of terrain. Analysis of digital elevation models, by means of numerical geomorphology, provides a means of recognizing fractures and characterizing the tectonics of an area in a quantitative way. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of numerical geomorphometric methods for tectonic geomorphology through a case study. The methodology is based on general geomorphometry. In this study, the basic geometric attributes (elevation, slope, aspect and curvatures) are complemented with the automatic extraction of ridge and valley lines and surface speci,c points. Evans' univariate and bivariate methodology of general geomorphometry is extended with texture (spatial) analysis methods, such as trend, autocorrelation, spectral, and network analysis. Terrain modelling is implemented with the integrated use of: (1) numerical differential geometry; (2) digital drainage network analysis; (3) digital image processing; and (4) statistical and geostatistical analysis. Application of digital drainage network analysis is emphasized. A simple shear model with principal displacement zone with an NE,SW orientation can account for most of the the morphotectonic features found in the basin by geological and digital tectonic geomorphology analyses. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Zur Geschichte der Geowissenschaften im Museum für Naturkunde zu Berlin.

    Teil 6: Geschichte des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts und Museums der Universität Berlin 1910--200
    Abstract Die Entwicklung des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts und Museums der Universität Berlin von einer Institution, die Geologie zusammen mit Paläontologie als eine Einheit vertrat, über eine Institution, die eine geotektonische Ausrichtung hatte, zu einer auf Paläontologie konzentrierten Institution wird nachvollzogen. Die beiden Institutsdirektoren am Anfang des 20sten Jahrhunderts waren Vertreter der allumfassenden Geologie des 19ten Jahrhunderts, während die beiden folgenden Direktoren eine Geologie ohne Paläontologie vertraten. Das führte zu einer Trennung der beiden Richtungen, und nach der III. Hochschulreform der DDR 1968 verblieb allein die sammlungsbezogene Paläontologie am Museum. Nach der Wiedervereinigung wurde ein Institut für Paläontologie mit biologischer Ausrichtung mit zwei Professuren, einer für Paläozoologie und einer für Paläobotanik, eingerichtet. The development of the Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut und Museum of the Museum für Naturkunde at the Humboldt University (formerly Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität) in Berlin from a geology-paleontology institution to a pure paleontology institution is described. The first two directors of the department in the beginning of the 20th century, Prof, von Branca and Prof. Pompeckj, represented a 19th century concept of a geology, which included paleontology, even vertebrate paleontology as the crown jewel of geology. They fought sometimes vigorously against a separation of paleontology from geology. The next two directors. Prof. Stille and Prof, von Bubnoff, were the leading geologists in Germany; to be a student of Stille was a special trade mark in geology of Germany. They represented a geology centered on tectonics. The separation of paleontology as separate section was prepared. The destructions of the Second World War, the following restaurations and the division of Germany into two States influenced strongly their directorships. The education of geologists at the Museum für Naturkunde ended with the III. University Reform of the German Democratic Republik in 1968. Paleontology was represented by the international renown vertebrate paleontologist, Prof. Dr. W. Gross, up to 1961. Since 1969, paleobotany was strengthened by the inclusion of the paleobotany unit of the Akademie der Wissenschaften into the museum. After reunification of Germany n 1990, the department was rebuild as a Institut für Palaontologie with close connection to biology, a unique situation in Germany. Two professorships, one for paleozoology, Prof. Schultze. and one for paleobotany, Prof. Mai, were established. The number of curators increased to ten from one under the first director of the 20th century. [source]

    Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: a fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2007
    Abstract An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study was carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite,barite,quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O,NaCl,(KCl) type, have low salinities (0,10 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150,350°C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8, to +12.2, and calculated ,18OH2O values of the fluid are between ,12.5, and +4.4,. The ,D values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between ,49, and +4,. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O,NaCl,CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22,25 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and lower Th values of 90,200°C. A low-salinity fluid (0,15 wt.% eqv. NaCl) was observed in late-stage fluorite, calcite, and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The ,18O values of quartz range between +11.1, and +20.9,, which translates into calculated ,18OH2O values between ,11.0, and +4.4,. This range is consistent with ,18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (,11.6, to +1.1,). The ,D values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between ,29, and ,1,, ,26, and ,15,, and ,63, and +9, for fluorite, quartz, and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite,barite,quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The ,18OH2O and ,D data, particularly the observed wide range in ,D, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl,CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma. [source]

    Basement controls on Acadian thrusting and fault reactivation along the southern margin of the Welsh Basin

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    D. I. Schofield
    Abstract Inversion of the Lower Palaeozoic Welsh Basin during the Early to Mid-Devonian is generally thought to have been achieved by a combination of approximately co-axial shortening and transcurrent movement along major faults to produce a strongly partitioned transpressional strain. However, new field observations from Rhydwilym in southwest Wales reveal superimposed deformations which indicate that thrust tectonics operated within the Welsh Borderland Fault System (WBFS) along this segment of the basin margin. An increasing regional magnetic response towards the south suggests that contrasting depth to magnetic basement across the WBFS may have buttressed basin shortening and provided the focus for thrusting and late-Caledonian or proto-Variscan reactivation. British Geological Survey © Nerc 2009. All rights reserved. [source]

    Deformation during exhumation of medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Variscan chain in northern Sardinia (Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Rodolfo Carosi
    Abstract The Anglona and SW Gallura regions represent key places to investigate the tectonic evolution of medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks cropping out in northern Sardinia (Italy). From south to north we distinguish two different metamorphic complexes recording similar deformation histories but different metamorphic evolution: the Medium Grade Metamorphic Complex (MGMC) and the High Grade Metamorphic Complex (HGMC). After the initial collisional stage (D1 deformation phase), both complexes were affected by three contractional deformational phases (D2, D3 and D4) followed by later extensional tectonics. The D2 deformation phase was the most significant event producing an important deformation partitioning that produced localized shearing and folding domains at the boundary between the two metamorphic complexes. We highlight the presence of two previously undocumented systems of shear belts with different kinematics but analogous orientation in the axial zone of Sardinia. They became active at the boundary between the MGMC and HGMC from the beginning of D2. They formed a transpressive regime responsible for the exhumation of the medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks, and overall represent a change from orthogonal to orogen-parallel tectonic transport. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tectonics and quaternary evolution of the Northern Apennines watershed area (upper course of Arno and Tiber rivers, Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    Marco Bonini
    Abstract This work examines the connection between Quaternary tectonics and erosion/incision processes in the primary Tuscan-Romagna watershed of the Northern Apennines, which essentially coincides with the topographic culmination of the Nero Unit structural ridge. Tectonic and geomorphic information were collected in the area where this ridge is crossed by the upper Tiber River course forming a deep gorge. Structural analysis and field mapping have revealed that the region experienced polyphase tectonics with superposed thrust folding events identifiable both at the map and mesoscopic scales. Hinterland-SSW-verging thrusts and thrust-related folds deformed the whole thrust pile during the latest deformation phase. Backthrusts/backfolds controlled the development of intermountain basins nearby the main watershed during the Early Pleistocene and seemingly deformed, in the Tiber gorge, a low-relief landscape developed in the Early Pleistocene (ca. 1.1,Ma). Successively, the upper Tiber River course area and Apennines axial zone underwent a generalized uplift, which is manifested by the deep incision of palaeo-morphologies. This proposed sequence of events correlates well with the major geodynamic change of the Apennines revealed by an acceleration of uplift rates in the Middle,Late Pleistocene. This latter event may also correlate with increased rates of river incision recorded in Europe as a consequence of uplift and/or climate change. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    K-feldspar alteration to gel material and crystallization of glauconitic peloids with berthierine in Cretaceous marine sediments,sedimentary implications (Prebetic Zone, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Juan Jiménez-Millán
    Abstract Glauconitic peloids from a Hauterivian condensed level in a hemipelagic unit of the Internal Prebetic (Los Villares Formation, eastern Betic Cordillera) have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The sediments forming the condensed level are characterized by abundant spherical to ovoid green glauconite peloids with radial cracks. Quartz, feldspar and muscovite are also abundant, whereas calcium phosphate is rarely detected. XRD analysis of the peloids reveals glauconite and small amounts of berthierine. SEM and HRTEM data show feldspar dissolution features, a Si,Al-rich gel-like substance filling K-feldspar micropores and interlayering of well-crystallized glauconite and berthierine packets. The last stage of the glauconitization process resulted in conversion of the smectitic precursor. Sedimentary and mineralogical features indicate an autochthonous origin for the glauconite. The depositional environment was a distal, hemipelagic ramp on the Southern Iberian Continental Palaeomargin. Low sedimentation rates lead to sediment condensation in a general transgressive context. The margin was affected by extensional tectonics, creating tilted blocks, resulting in lateral facies changes. The dissolution of K-feldspars probably occurred after their deposition in the marine environment but predating the glauconitization. An influx of meteoric water is therefore required, probably related to subsurface fluxes from adjacent emergent areas (the higher parts of tilted blocks). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Triassic metasedimentary successions across the boundary between the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc (northern Calabria, Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2005
    A. Iannace
    Abstract The boundary area between the Apenninic fold-and-thrust belt and the crystalline Calabrian Arc, located around Sangineto in northern Calabria, has been investigated. New geological mapping in the Sant'Agata area has been performed on the Triassic successions traditionally attributed to the metasedimentary San Donato Unit. This, coupled with a reappraisal of the stratigraphy and tectonics of coeval successions present more to the south in the Cetraro Unit, results in a new reconstruction of the Triassic evolution of all the metasedimentary successions found in the region. Four informal stratigraphic units have been distinguished in the S. Agata area. The lowest one (Unit A) consists of well-bedded metalimestones and bioturbated marly limestones that correlate with Ladinian,Carnian carbonates in nearby areas. A second unit (Unit B), never recognized before, contains a complex alternation of dolomites, phyllites and some meta-arenites containing several beds of Cavernoso facies, attributed to the Carnian. They grade upward to platform and platform-margin dolomites of Norian,Rhaetian age (Unit C) that in turn are replaced upward and laterally by a fourth unit (Unit D) consisting of well-bedded, dark dolomites and metalimestones with marly interlayers locally found as resedimented large blocks in slope conglomerates. Unit D correlates with Rhaetian,Liassic beds in nearby areas. Several pieces of evidence of post-metamorphic contractional tectonics, with 140°N and 30°N trends, are found together with evidence of SW-directed extension. The siliciclastic Carnian beds of Unit B are correlated with the phyllites of Cetraro, formerly believed to be Middle Triassic; moreover, it is suggested that in the Cetraro area Unit C is almost totally replaced by Unit D. This demonstrates that the former distinction between the two tectonic units in the whole area has to be discarded. We have made a general palaeoenvironmental reconstruction which progresses laterally, during Ladinian,Carnian times, from (i) a coastal, mixed siliciclastic,carbonate,evaporitic area at Cetraro to (ii) a transitional carbonate shelf where siliciclastic input was only episodic, and finally to (iii) a bioconstructed margin which was later replaced by a steepened margin created by tectonic instability. Starting from the Norian, subsidence shifted toward the former coastal area where an intraplatform, restricted basin developed. The proposed stratigraphy corresponds closely to the Alpujarride units of the Betic Cordillera, Spain. Moreover, it is shown that strong affinities also exist, in terms of the structural framework, with the metamorphic units of Tuscany and Liguria. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sedimentation and tectonics: the marine Silurian,basal Lower Old Red Sandstone transition in southwest Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2004
    Robert D. Hillier
    Abstract Both regional and localized tectonic events controlled deposition within the Wenlock and early Ludlow of SW Wales. Estuarine deposits within north,south-tending incised valleys dominate the youngest (Homerian) Gray Sandstone Group, valley incision being probably related to changing base-levels associated with Avalonia/Laurentian collision. Available accommodation space was outpaced by sediment supply, with the Red Cliff Formation (Late Ludfordian) defining a conformable transition from marine to Old Red Sandstone (ORS) deposition within the Marloes Peninsula. Sedimentation was dominated by fine-grained pedified siliciclastics, with subordinate fine-grained ephemeral sheet-flood sandstones. Local palaeocurrents indicate sediment transport from the south and west, though long-distance transport from a distant Laurentian provenance is assumed. A probable tectonically generated sequence boundary marks the base of petrographically distinctive, multi-storey pebbly sandstones of the Albion Sands Formation, deposited within the hangingwall valley of the active east,west-trending Wenall Fault. Sediment accommodation space was controlled by proximity to the tip-point of this important growth fault within the Lower ORS. Debris-flow-dominated fans, shed from both the hangingwall and footwall of the Wenall Fault, deposited the Lindsway Bay Formation, an exotic-clast conglomerate unit sourced predominantly from the south and west. It is uncertain as to whether movement along the Wenall Fault was caused by collision-related transtension, or rifting associated with the southern margin of Avalonia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Insights into biaxial extensional tectonics: an examplefrom the Sand,kl, Graben, West Anatolia, Turkey

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Mustafa Cihan
    Abstract West Anatolia, together with the Aegean Sea and the easternmost part of Europe, is one of the best examples of continental extensional tectonics. It is a complex area bounded by the Aegean,Cyprus Arc to the south and the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) to the north. Within this complex and enigmatic framework, the Sand,kl, Graben (10,km wide, 30,km long) has formed at the eastern continuation of the Western Anatolian extensional province at the north-northwestward edge of the Isparta Angle. Recent studies have suggested that the horst,graben structures in West Anatolia formed in two distinct extensional phases. According to this model the first phase of extension commenced in the Early,Middle Miocene and the last, which is accepted as the onset of neotectonic regime, in Early Pliocene. However, it is controversial whether two-phase extension was separated by a short period of erosion or compression during Late Miocene,Early Pliocene. Both field observations and kinematic analysis imply that the Sand,kl, Graben has existed since the Late Pliocene, with biaxial extension on its margins which does not necessarily indicate rotation of regional stress distribution in time. Although the graben formed later in the neotectonic period, the commencement of extension in the area could be Early Pliocene (c. 5,Ma) following a severe but short time of erosion at the end of Late Miocene. The onset of the extensional regime might be due to the initiation of westward motion of Anatolian Platelet along the NAFZ that could be triggered by the higher rate of subduction at the east Aegean,Cyprus Arc in the south of the Aegean Sea. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tectonic and environmental evolution of Quaternary intramontane basins in Southern Apennines (Italy): insights from palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations

    M. Porreca
    SUMMARY Southern Apennines is characterized by active extensional tectonics with NE,SW stretching direction. The seismicity of the region is very well understood and continuously monitored. In contrast, the onset of extensional tectonics is chronologically poorly constrained. The aim of this study is that to give important constraints on the development of extensional regime and the onset of the continental deposition during Quaternary in Southern Apennines. We report the results of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses from four Quaternary small intramontane basins in the Picentini Mountains (Southern Apennines). The sedimentary sequences are located at different altitudes, from 600 to 1200 m a.s.l., and were deposited in fluvial-lacustrine environments. We sampled 29 sites in clays and lacustrine limestones from Tizzano, Piano del Gaudo and Acerno basins and in red palaeosoils and matrix-supported conglomerates from the Iumaiano basins. In the clay and limestones samples magnetite, titano-magnetite, hematite and iron-sulphide have been recognized as the main magnetic carriers, whereas magnetite and hematite characterize the Iumaiano conglomerates and red soils. Palaeomagnetic results have been integrated with published radiometric data in order to constrain the age of each sedimentary basins. Sites from the Iumaiano basin, which represents the substrate of the Tizzano and Piano del Gaudo basins, show a reverse polarity and therefore have been attributed to the lower Matuyama chron. In contrast, palaeomagnetic data from Tizzano basin show a transition from reversed to normal polarity along the exposed section, which has been interpreted as the Matuyama/Brunhes transition. Sites from Acerno and Piano del Gaudo basins show a normal polarity, which, according to radiometric and pollen data, have been correlated to the Brunhes epoch. On the base of such results we discuss the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basins and the role of extensional tectonics in this portion of the Southern Apennine during the Quaternary. [source]

    Sedimentary and crustal structure from the Ellesmere Island and Greenland continental shelves onto the Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    H. Ruth Jackson
    SUMMARY On the northern passive margin of Ellesmere Island and Greenland, two long wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction (WAR) profiles and a short vertical incident reflection profile were acquired. The WAR seismic source was explosives and the receivers were vertical geophones placed on the sea ice. A 440 km long North-South profile that crossed the shelf, a bathymetric trough and onto the Lomonosov Ridge was completed. In addition, a 110 km long profile along the trough was completed. P -wave velocity models were created by forward and inverse modelling. On the shelf modelling indicates a 12 km deep sedimentary basin consisting of three layers with velocities of 2.1,2.2, 3.1,3.2 and 4.3,5.2 km s,1. Between the 3.1,3.2 km s,1 and 4.3,5.2 km s,1 layers there is a velocity discontinuity that dips seaward, consistent with a regional unconformity. The 4.3,5.2 km s,1 layer is interpreted to be Palaeozoic to Mesozoic age strata, based on local and regional geological constraints. Beneath these layers, velocities of 5.4,5.9 km s,1 are correlated with metasedimentary rocks that outcrop along the coast. These four layers continue from the shelf onto the Lomonosov Ridge. On the Ridge, the bathymetric contours define a plateau 220 km across. The plateau is a basement high, confirmed by short reflection profiles and the velocities of 5.9,6.5 km s,1. Radial magnetic anomalies emanate from the plateau indicating the volcanic nature of this feature. A lower crustal velocity of 6.2,6.7 km s,1, within the range identified on the Lomonosov Ridge near the Pole and typical of rifted continental crust, is interpreted along the entire line. The Moho, based on the WAR data, has significant relief from 17 to 27 km that is confirmed by gravity modelling and consistent with the regional tectonics. In the trough, Moho shallows eastward from a maximum depth of 19,16 km. No indication of oceanic crust was found in the bathymetric trough. [source]

    Contribution of gravitational potential energy differences to the global stress field

    Attreyee Ghosh
    SUMMARY Modelling the lithospheric stress field has proved to be an efficient means of determining the role of lithospheric versus sublithospheric buoyancies and also of constraining the driving forces behind plate tectonics. Both these sources of buoyancies are important in generating the lithospheric stress field. However, these sources and the contribution that they make are dependent on a number of variables, such as the role of lateral strength variation in the lithosphere, the reference level for computing the gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) of the lithosphere, and even the definition of deviatoric stress. For the mantle contribution, much depends on the mantle convection model, including the role of lateral and radial viscosity variations, the spatial distribution of density buoyancies, and the resolution of the convection model. GPE differences are influenced by both lithosphere density buoyancies and by radial basal tractions that produce dynamic topography. The global lithospheric stress field can thus be divided into (1) stresses associated with GPE differences (including the contribution from radial basal tractions) and (2) stresses associated with the contribution of horizontal basal tractions. In this paper, we investigate only the contribution of GPE differences, both with and without the inferred contribution of radial basal tractions. We use the Crust 2.0 model to compute GPE values and show that these GPE differences are not sufficient alone to match all the directions and relative magnitudes of principal strain rate axes, as inferred from the comparison of our depth integrated deviatoric stress tensor field with the velocity gradient tensor field within the Earth's plate boundary zones. We argue that GPE differences calibrate the absolute magnitudes of depth integrated deviatoric stresses within the lithosphere; shortcomings of this contribution in matching the stress indicators within the plate boundary zones can be corrected by considering the contribution from horizontal tractions associated with density buoyancy driven mantle convection. Deviatoric stress magnitudes arising from GPE differences are in the range of 1,4 TN m,1, a part of which is contributed by dynamic topography. The EGM96 geoid data set is also used as a rough proxy for GPE values in the lithosphere. However, GPE differences from the geoid fail to yield depth integrated deviatoric stresses that can provide a good match to the deformation indicators. GPE values inferred from the geoid have significant shortcomings when used on a global scale due to the role of dynamically support of topography. Another important factor in estimating the depth integrated deviatoric stresses is the use of the correct level of reference in calculating GPE. We also elucidate the importance of understanding the reference pressure for calculating deviatoric stress and show that overestimates of deviatoric stress may result from either simplified 2-D approximations of the thin sheet equations or the assumption that the mean stress is equal to the vertical stress. [source]

    Controls of mantle plumes and lithospheric folding on modes of intraplate continental tectonics: differences and similarities

    Evgueni Burov
    SUMMARY Mantle plume activity and lithospheric folding by far-field stresses exerted from plate boundaries are two important end-members as mechanisms for continental intraplate deformation. The topographic expression of mantle plume impingement on continental lithosphere and lithospheric folding has some striking similarities. Observations from a number of areas in Europe's intraplate lithosphere demonstrate that these mechanisms commonly interact in space and time. We present the results of thermomechanical modelling addressing the role of factors such as the presence of a hot upper mantle, the spatial dimensions of the plume and the time constants involved in the temporal succession of plume activity and lithospheric folding by stress accumulation in intraplate continental lithosphere. The results demonstrate that both the processes, plume,lithosphere interactions and folding may interact resulting either in strong amplification, attenuation or modification of their surface expression. These inferences are compatible with a number of key observations on the nature and the temporal succession of topography evolution in the Alpine foreland, the Pannonian Basin, the Scandinavian continental margin and the Iberian Peninsula. [source]

    Waveform modelling of teleseismic S, Sp, SsPmP, and shear-coupled PL waves for crust- and upper-mantle velocity structure beneath Africa

    Abhijit Gangopadhyay
    SUMMARY We describe a waveform modelling technique and demonstrate its application to determine the crust- and upper-mantle velocity structure beneath Africa. Our technique uses a parallelized reflectivity method to compute synthetic seismograms and fits the observed waveforms by a global optimization technique based on a Very Fast Simulated Annealing (VFSA). We match the S, Sp, SsPmP and shear-coupled PL phases in seismograms of deep (200,800 km), moderate-to-large magnitude (5.5,7.0) earthquakes recorded teleseismically at permanent broad-band seismic stations in Africa. Using our technique we produce P - and S -wave velocity models of crust and upper mantle beneath Africa. Additionally, our use of the shear-coupled PL phase, wherever observed, improves the constraints for lower crust- and upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the corresponding seismic stations. Our technique retains the advantages of receiver function methods, uses a different part of the seismogram, is sensitive to both P - and S -wave velocities directly, and obtains helpful constraints in model parameters in the vicinity of the Moho. The resulting range of crustal thicknesses beneath Africa (21,46 km) indicates that the crust is thicker in south Africa, thinner in east Africa and intermediate in north and west Africa. Crustal P - (4.7,8 km s,1) and S -wave velocities (2.5,4.7 km s,1) obtained in this study show that in some parts of the models, these are slower in east Africa and faster in north, west and south Africa. Anomalous crustal low-velocity zones are also observed in the models for seismic stations in the cratonic regions of north, west and south Africa. Overall, the results of our study are consistent with earlier models and regional tectonics of Africa. [source]

    Geomorphic constraints on the active tectonics of southern Taiwan

    Lucy A. Ramsey
    SUMMARY Taiwan is a region of rapid active tectonics, yet the study of the tectonic processes that shape the interior of the island is difficult due to the high rates of erosion and dense vegetation. We use digital topography to look for indications of active deformation preserved in the local geomorphology. In particular, anomalies in the regional pattern of drainage are used to infer zones of enhanced tectonic activity. The apparent anticlockwise rotation of major river systems in plan view indicates the presence of a diffuse zone of left-lateral shear running down the southeastern side of Taiwan. Asymmetries in the catchments of individual drainage basins show the influence of varying rates of uplift across southern Taiwan, with the most rapid uplift close to Taitung at the indentation point of the Luzon arc with the Chinese continental margin. Our interpretations, though based predominantly on remote-sensing observations, are consistent with the available field evidence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of drainage basins as tectonic markers in the quantification of regional strain and uplift, which may have wider applicability in other deforming parts of the world. [source]

    Seismotectonics of the Sinai subplate , the eastern Mediterranean region

    Amos Salamon
    SUMMARY We define the Sinai subplate, from a seismotectonic perspective, as a distinct component in the plate tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean region. This is based on the tectonic characteristics of a comprehensive listing of all ML, 4 recorded seismicity in the region during the 20th century, on newly calculated and recalculated fault plane mechanisms of first P -wave arrivals and on published solutions based on waveform inversion of broad-band data. The low seismicity level and scarcity of strong events in the region required a thorough search for useful data and a careful examination of the reliability of the focal solutions. We gathered all available records of first P -wave onsets from the ISS and ISC Bulletins and the local seismic networks. Altogether, we were able to calculate 48 new focal mechanisms and 33 recalculated ones of events that occurred during the years 1940,1992. With the increasing number of teleseismic and regional broad-band stations in the later years, we added 37 solutions based on teleseismic and regional waveform inversions of events that occurred during 1977,2001. These mechanisms enabled us to examine the seismotectonic character of the Sinai subplate. The strike and rake directions of the calculated mechanisms usually reflect the geometry and the large-scale type of deformation observed along the boundaries of the Sinai subplate,the Dead Sea Transform, the Cypriot Arc convergent zone and the Suez Rift. Nevertheless, along each of these boundaries we found anomalous solutions that attest to the complexity of the deformation processes along plate margins. Earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform exhibit mainly sinistral transtension and transpression, reflecting its leaky manner and local change in the transform geometry. The presence of other unexpected mechanisms near the transform, however, reflects the heterogeneous deformation it induces around. As expected, thrust mechanisms along the Cypriot Arc mirror its convergent nature and typical curved geometry. Transtension and transpressional solutions in the eastern segment of the arc reflect the sinistral shear motion between Anatolia and Sinai there. However, shear mechanisms found between Cyprus and the Eratosthenes Seamount pose a problem regarding its collision process. Most intriguing of all are ML, 4 thrust and shear solutions found in the Gulf of Suez. They are associated with predominantly normal mechanisms within a rift zone and therefore constitute a unique phenomenon, yet to be deciphered. [source]

    Fault interactions and subduction tectonics: a re-examination of the Weber, New Zealand, earthquake sequence of 1990

    Russell Robinson
    SUMMARY Two moderate magnitude (Mw= 6.2 and 6.4) earthquakes in the Hikurangi subduction margin, North Island, New Zealand, occurred 3 months apart in 1990. The epicentres are nearly coincident, but the first (Weber 1, primarily normal faulting) occurred within the subducting Pacific Plate (depth about 28 km) and the second (Weber 2, a mix of thrusting and right-lateral motion) occurred within the overlying Australian Plate (depth about 13 km), the plate interface in between. The plate interface is interpreted to be locked trenchward (SE) from about the position of these events, with a transition to aseismic slip further down-dip to the NW. Several stress interaction questions are examined. First, to see whether Weber 1 triggered Weber 2, a range of possible mainshock parameters are used to calculate induced changes in the static Coulomb failure stress (,CFS). In most cases the results are consistent with triggering. Secondly, previous work showed that the rate of aftershock occurrence for Weber 1 decreased markedly about 35 days before Weber 2, recovering afterwards. To see whether aseismic pre-slip on the Weber 2 fault, as predicted by rate and state friction, could be the cause of the decrease, the same fault parameters have been used in reverse. The results are ambiguous, some fault parameters giving results consistent with the hypothesis and others not. The amount of pre-slip required for significant inhibition, however, is about equal to that in the mainshock and distributed over the entire fault plane. Thirdly, observations of episodic, aseismic slip down-dip from locked sections of other plate interfaces are becoming more common. Could such slip have triggered both Weber events? The induced changes in CFS for such slip are uniformly positive on the Weber 1 fault plane, and mostly positive on the Weber 2 fault plane, so the answer is yes. Although there is no independent evidence for aseismic slip prior to the Weber sequence, this case shows that such slip may trigger events on other nearby faults, besides loading the locked section of the plate interface. Static stress triggering considerations are thus likely to be important in subduction environments. [source]

    The 1994 Sefidabeh earthquakes in eastern Iran: blind thrusting and bedding-plane slip on a growing anticline, and active tectonics of the Sistan suture zone

    M. Berberian
    Summary In 1994 a sequence of five earthquakes with Mw 5.5,6.2 occurred in the Sistan belt of eastern Iran, all of them involving motion on blind thrusts with centroid depths of 5,10 km. Coseismic ruptures at the surface involved bedding-plane slip on a growing hanging-wall anticline displaying geomorphological evidence of uplift and lateral propagation. The 1994 earthquakes were associated with a NW-trending thrust system that splays off the northern termination of a major N,S right-lateral strike-slip fault. Elevation changes along the anticline ridge suggest that displacement on the underlying thrust dies out to the NW, away from its intersection with the strike-slip fault. This is a common fault configuration in eastern Iran and accommodates oblique NE,SW shortening across the N,S deforming zone, probably by anticlockwise rotations about a vertical axis. This style of fault kinematics may be transitional to a more evolved state that involves partitioning of the strike-slip and convergent motion onto separate subparallel faults. [source]

    Deformation and stress change associated with plate interaction at subduction zones: a kinematic modelling

    Shaorong Zhao
    The interseismic deformation associated with plate coupling at a subduction zone is commonly simulated by the steady-slip model in which a reverse dip-slip is imposed on the down-dip extension of the locked plate interface, or by the backslip model in which a normal slip is imposed on the locked plate interface. It is found that these two models, although totally different in principle, produce similar patterns for the vertical deformation at a subduction zone. This suggests that it is almost impossible to distinguish between these two models by analysing only the interseismic vertical deformation observed at a subduction zone. The steady-slip model cannot correctly predict the horizontal deformation associated with plate coupling at a subduction zone, a fact that is proved by both the numerical modelling in this study and the GPS (Global Positioning System) observations near the Nankai trough, southwest Japan. It is therefore inadequate to simulate the effect of the plate coupling at a subduction zone by the steady-slip model. It is also revealed that the unphysical assumption inherent in the backslip model of imposing a normal slip on the locked plate interface makes it impossible to predict correctly the horizontal motion of the subducted plate and the stress change within the overthrust zone associated with the plate coupling during interseismic stages. If the analysis made in this work is proved to be correct, some of the previous studies on interpreting the interseismic deformation observed at several subduction zones based on these two models might need substantial revision. On the basis of the investigations on plate interaction at subduction zones made using the finite element method and the kinematic/mechanical conditions of the plate coupling implied by the present plate tectonics, a synthesized model is proposed to simulate the kinematic effect of the plate interaction during interseismic stages. A numerical analysis shows that the proposed model, designed to simulate the motion of a subducted slab, can correctly produce the deformation and the main pattern of stress concentration associated with plate coupling at a subduction zone. The validity of the synthesized model is examined and partially verified by analysing the horizontal deformation observed by GPS near the Nankai trough, southwest Japan. [source]

    Shallow velocity structure along the Hirapur,Mandla profile using traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data, and its tectonic implications

    Kalachand Sain
    In order to investigate the velocity structure, and hence shed light on the related tectonics, across the Narmada,Son lineament, traveltimes of wide-angle seismic data along the 240 km long Hirapur,Mandla profile in central India have been inverted. A blocky, laterally heterogeneous, three-layer velocity model down to a depth of 10 km has been derived. The first layer shows a maximum thickness of the upper Vindhyans (4.5 km s,1,) of about 1.35 km and rests on top of normal crystalline basement, represented by the 5.9 km s,1 velocity layer. The anomalous feature of the study is the absence of normal granitic basement in the great Vindhyan Graben, where lower Vindhyan sediments (5.3 km s,1,) were deposited during the Precambrian on high-velocity (6.3 km s,1,) metamorphic rock. The block beneath the Narmada,Son lineament represents a horst feature in which high-velocity (6.5 km s,1,) lower crustal material has risen to a depth of less than 2 km. South of the lineament, the Deccan Traps were deposited on normal basement during the upper Cretaceous period and attained a maximum thickness of about 800 m. [source]