Tertiary Sediments (tertiary + sediment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Soil organic carbon in density fractions of tropical soils under forest , pasture , secondary forest land use changes

S. Paul
Summary Our knowledge of effects of land use changes and soil types on the storage and stability of different soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions in the tropics is limited. We analysed the effect of land use (natural forest, pasture, secondary forest) on SOC storage (depth 0,0.1 m) in density fractions of soils developed on marine Tertiary sediments and on volcanic ashes in the humid tropics of northwest Ecuador. The origin of organic carbon stored in free light (< 1.6 g cm,3) fractions, and in two light fractions (LF) occluded within aggregates of different stability, was determined by means of ,13C natural abundance. Light occluded organic matter was isolated in a first step after aggregate disruption by shaking aggregates with glass pearls (occluded I LF) and in a subsequent step by manual destruction of the most stable microaggregates that survived the first step (occluded II LF). SOC storage in LFs was greater in volcanic ash soils (7.6 ± 0.6 Mg C ha,1) than in sedimentary soils (4.3 ± 0.3 Mg C ha,1). The contribution of the LFs to SOC storage was greater in natural forest (19.2 ± 1.2%) and secondary forest (16.6 ± 1.0%) than in pasture soils (12.8 ± 1.0%), independent of soil parent material. The amount of SOC stored in the occluded I LF material increased with increasing silt + clay content (sedimentary soils, r = 0.73; volcanic ash soils, r = 0.58) and aggregation (sedimentary soils, r = 0.52; volcanic ash soils, r = 0.45). SOC associated with occluded I LF, had the smallest proportion of new, pasture-derived carbon, indicating the stabilizing effect of aggregation. Fast turnover of the occluded II LF material, which was separated from highly stable microaggregates, strongly suggested that this fraction is important in the initial process of aggregate formation. No pasture-derived carbon could be detected in any density fractions of volcanic ash soils under secondary forest, indicating fast turnover of these fractions in tropical volcanic ash soils. [source]


D. Franke
A total of 11,700 km of multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired during three recent reconnaissance surveys of the wide, shallow shelves of the Laptev and western East Siberian Seas in the Siberian Arctic Ocean. Three seismic marker horizons were defined and mapped in both shelf areas. Their nature and age were predicted on the basis of regional tectonic and palaeoenvironmental events and corroborated using onshore geology. To the north of the Laptev Sea, the Gakkel Ridge, an active mid-ocean ridge which separates the North American and Eurasian Plates, abruptly meets the steep slope of the continental shelf which is curvilinear in plan view. Extension has affected the Laptev Shelf since at least the Early Tertiary and has resulted in the formation of three major, generally north-south trending rift basins: the Ust'Lena Rift, the Anisin Basin and the New Siberian Basin. The Ust'Lena Rift has a minimum east-west width of 300km at latitude 75°N and a Cenozoic infill up to 6 s (twt) in thickness. Further to the NW of the Laptev Shelf, the downthrown and faulted basement is overlain by a sub-parallel layered sedimentary succession with a thickness of 4 s (twt) that thins towards the west. Although this area was affected by extension as shown by the presence of numerous faults, it is not clear whether this depression on the NW Laptev Shelf is continuous with the Ust'Lena Rift. The Anisin Basin is located in the northern part of the Laptev Shelf and has a Cenozoic sedimentary fill up to 5 s (twt) thick. The deepest part of the basin trends north-south. To the west is a secondary, NW-SE trending depression which is slightly shallower than the main depocentre. The overall structure of the basin is a half-graben with the major bounding fault in the east. The New Siberian Basin is up to 70 km wide and has a minimum NW-SE extent of 300 km. The sedimentary fill is up to 4.5 s (twt) thick. Structurally, the basin is a half-graben with the bounding fault in the east. Our data indicate that the rift basins on the Laptev Shelf are not continuous with those on the East Siberian Shelf. The latter shelf can best be described as an epicontinental platform which has undergone continuous subsidence since the Late Cretaceous. The greatest subsidence occurred in the NE, as manifested by a major depocentre filled with inferred (?)Late Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments up to 5 s (twt) thick. [source]

3D seismic imaging of a Tertiary Dyke Swarm in the Southern North Sea, UK

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
Mostyn Wall
ABSTRACT We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection and magnetic data to interpret and describe the 3D geometry of igneous dykes in the southern North Sea. The dykes were emplaced into Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments and have a common upper termination in Early Tertiary sediments. We interpret the dykes to be part of the British Tertiary volcanic province and estimate the age of the dykes to be 58 Ma. The dykes are characterized by a narrow 0.5,2 km wide vertical disturbance of seismic reflections that have linear plan view geometry. Negative magnetic anomalies directly align with the vertical seismic disturbance zones and indicate the presence of igneous material. Linear coalesced collapse craters are found above the dykes. The collapse craters have been defined and visualized in 3D. Collapse craters have formed above the dyke due to the release of volatiles at the dyke tip and resulting volume loss. Larger craters have potentially formed due to explosive phreatomagmatic interaction between magma and pore water. The collapse craters are a new Earth analogue to Martian pit chain craters. [source]

Evaluation of pedotransfer functions predicting hydraulic properties of soils and deeper sediments

Bernhard Wagner
Abstract Eight pedotransfer functions (PTF) originally calibrated to soil data are used for evaluation of hydraulic properties of soils and deeper sediments. Only PTFs are considered which had shown good results in previous investigations. Two data sets were used for this purpose: a data set of measured pressure heads vs. water contents of 347 soil horizons (802 measured pairs) from Bavaria (Southern Germany) and a data set of 39 undisturbed samples of tertiary sediments from deeper ground (down to 100 m depth) in the molasse basin north of the Alps, containing 840 measured water contents vs. pressure head and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. A statistical analysis of the PTFs shows that their performance is quite similar with respect to predicting soil water contents. Less satisfactory results were obtained when the PTFs were applied to prediction of water content of sediments from deeper ground. The predicted unsaturated hydraulic conductivities show about the same uncertainty as for soils in a previous study. Systematic deviations of predicted values indicate that an adaptation of the PTFs to the specific conditions of deeper ground should be possible in order to improve predictions. Bewertung von Pedotransferfunktionen zur Prognose der hydraulischen Kennwerte von Böden und tieferen Sedimenten Acht Pedotransferfunktionen (PTF), die ursprünglich anhand von Bodendaten kalibriert wurden, werden für die Prognose der hydraulischen Kennwerte sowohl von Böden als auch tieferen Sedimenten eingesetzt. Es wurden nur PTFs untersucht, die in anderen Untersuchungen gute Ergebnisse geliefert hatten. Zwei Datensätze standen für die Bewertung der PTFs zur Verfügung: ein Datensatz mit gemessenen Saugspannungen vs. Wassergehalten von 347 über ganz Bayern verteilten Bodenhorizonten (802 Messpaare) und ein Datensatz von 39 ungestörten Sedimentproben der miozänen Oberen Süßwassermolasse (OSM) des voralpinen Molassebeckens aus Tiefen von bis zu 100 m mit insgesamt 840 gemessenen Wassergehalten vs. Saugspannungen und ungesättigten Wasserleitfähigkeiten. Die statistische Analyse der acht PTFs zeigt, dass die meisten untersuchten PTFs die gemessenen Wassergehalte der Böden ungefähr gleich gut abschätzen. Alle PTFs ergaben bei der Vorhersage der Wassergehalte der tieferen Sedimente deutlich weniger gute Ergebnisse. Dennoch konnten mit den PTFs die ungesättigten Wasserleitfähigkeiten mit etwa der gleichen Genauigkeit wie bei Böden in einer früheren Studie prognostiziert werden. Systematische Abweichungen der Prognosewerte zeigen, dass eine spezifische Anpassung der PTFs auf die Bedingungen des tieferen Untergrundes zur Verbesserung der Vorhersagegenauigkeit möglich sein müsste. [source]