Barrier Disruption (barrier + disruption)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Seizure-Promoting Effect of Blood,Brain Barrier Disruption

EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2007
Nicola Marchi
Summary:,Purpose: It is generally accepted that blood,brain barrier (BBB) failure occurs as a result of CNS diseases, including epilepsy. However, evidences also suggest that BBB failure may be an etiological factor contributing to the development of seizures. Methods: We monitored the onset of seizures in patients undergoing osmotic disruption of BBB (BBBD) followed by intraarterial chemotherapy (IAC) to treat primary brain lymphomas. Procedures were performed under barbiturate anesthesia. The effect of osmotic BBBD was also evaluated in naive pigs. Results: Focal motor seizures occurred immediately after BBBD in 25% of procedures and originated contralateral to the hemisphere of BBBD. No seizures were observed when BBB was not breached and only IAC was administered. The only predictors of seizures were positive indices of BBBD, namely elevation of serum S100, levels and computed tomography (CT) scans. In a porcine model of BBBD, identical procedures generated an identical result, and sudden behavioral and electrographic (EEG) seizures correlated with successful BBB disruption. The contribution of tumor or chemotherapy to acute seizures was therefore excluded. Conclusion: This is the first study to correlate extent of acute BBB openings and development of seizures in humans and in a large animal model of BBB opening. Acute vascular failure is sufficient to cause seizures in the absence of CNS pathologies or chemotherapy. [source]

Lipids and skin barrier function , a clinical perspective

Jakob Mutanu Jungersted
The stratum corneum (SC) protects us from dehydration and external dangers. Much is known about the morphology of the SC and penetration of drugs through it, but the data are mainly derived from in vitro and animal experiments. In contrast, only a few studies have the human SC lipids as their focus and in particular, the role of barrier function in the pathogenesis of skin disease and its subsequent treatment protocols. The 3 major lipids in the SC of importance are ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. Human studies comparing levels of the major SC lipids in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls have suggested a possible role for ceramide 1 and to some extent ceramide 3 in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therapies used in diseases involving barrier disruption have been sparely investigated from a lipid perspective. It has been suggested that ultraviolet light as a treatment increases the amount of all 3 major SC lipids, while topical glucocorticoids may lead to a decrease. Such effects may influence the clinical outcome of treatment in diseases with impaired barrier function. We have, therefore, conducted a review of the literature on SC lipids from a clinical perspective. It may be concluded that the number of human studies is very limited, and in the perspective of how important diseases of impaired barrier function are in dermatology, further research is needed. [source]

CNS-irrelevant T-cells enter the brain, cause blood,brain barrier disruption but no glial pathology

Alina Smorodchenko
Abstract Invasion of autoreactive T-cells and alterations of the blood,brain barrier (BBB) represent early pathological manifestations of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Non-CNS-specific T-cells are also capable of entering the CNS. However, studies investigating the spatial pattern of BBB alterations as well as the exact localization and neuropathological consequences of transferred non-CNS-specific cells have been thus far lacking. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging and multiphoton microscopy, as well as histochemical and high-precision unbiased stereological analyses to compare T-cell transmigration, localization, persistence, relation to BBB disruption and subsequent effects on CNS tissue in a model of T-cell transfer of ovalbumin (OVA)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-specific T-cells. BBB alterations were present in both EAE-mice and mice transferred with OVA-specific T-cells. In the latter case, BBB alterations were less pronounced, but the pattern of initial cell migration into the CNS was similar for both PLP- and OVA-specific cells [mean (SEM), 95 × 103 (7.6 × 103) and 88 × 103 (18 × 103), respectively]. Increased microglial cell density, astrogliosis and demyelination were, however, observed exclusively in the brain of EAE-mice. While mice transferred with non-neural-specific cells showed similar levels of rhodamine-dextran extravasation in susceptible brain regions, EAE-mice presented huge BBB disruption in brainstem and moderate leakage in cerebellum. This suggests that antigen specificity and not the absolute number of infiltrating cells determine the magnitude of BBB disruption and glial pathology. [source]

Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin

Audrey Guéniche
Please cite this paper as: Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e1,e8. Abstract:, Reactive skin is characterized by marked sensitivity to physical (heat, cold, wind) or chemical (topically applied products) stimuli and by the impairment of the skin barrier's ability to repair itself. Several lines of evidence suggest that beyond their capacity to positively influence the composition of intestinal microbiota, some probiotic bacteria can modulate the immune system both at local and systemic levels, thereby improving immune defense mechanisms and/or down-regulating immune disorders such as allergies and intestinal inflammation. Several recent human clinical trials clearly suggest that probiotic supplementation might be beneficial to the skin. Using a probiotic lysate, Bifidobacterium longum sp. extract (BL), we demonstrated first in vitro, and then in a clinical trial, that this non-replicating bacteria form applied to the skin was able to improve sensitive skin. The effect of BL were evaluated first on two different models. Using ex vivo human skin explant model we found a statistically significant improvement versus placebo in various parameters associated with inflammation such as a decrease in vasodilation, oedema, mast cell degranulation and TNF-alpha release. Moreover, using nerve cell cultures in vitro, we showed that after 6 h of incubation in culture medium (0.3,1%), the probiotic lysate significantly inhibited capsaicin-induced CGRP release by neurones. Then, a topical cream containing the active extract was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-six female volunteers with reactive skin were randomly given either the cream with the bacterial extract at 10% (n = 33) or the control cream (n = 33). The volunteers applied the cream to the face, arms and legs twice a day for two months. Skin sensitivity was assessed by stinging test (lactic acid) and skin barrier recovery was evaluated by measuring trans-epidermal water loss following barrier disruption induced by repeated tape-stripping at D1, D29 and D57. The results demonstrated that the volunteers who applied the cream with bacterial extract had a significant decrease in skin sensitivity at the end of the treatment. Moreover, the treatment led to increase skin resistance against physical and chemical aggression compared to the group of volunteers who applied the control cream. Notably, the number of strippings required to disrupt skin barrier function was significantly increased for volunteers treated with the active cream. Clinical and self-assessment scores revealed a significant decrease in skin dryness after 29 days for volunteers treated with the cream containing the 10% bacterial extract. Since in vitro studies demonstrated that, on one hand, isolate sensitive neurones release less CGRP under capsaicin stimulation in the presence of the bacterial extract and, on the other hand, increased skin resistance in volunteers applying the test cream, we speculate that this new ingredient may decrease skin sensitivity by reducing neurone reactivity and neurone accessibility. The results of this studies demonstrate that this specific bacterial extract has a beneficial effect on reactive skin. These findings suggest that new approaches, based on a bacteria lysate, could be developed for the treatment and/or prevention of symptoms related to reactive skin. [source]

Transepidermal water loss reflects permeability barrier status: validation in human and rodent in vivo and ex vivo models

Joachim W. Fluhr
Abstract:, Permeability barrier function is measured with instruments that assess transepidermal water loss (TEWL), either with closed- or open-loop systems. Yet, the validity of TEWL as a measure of barrier status has been questioned recently. Hence, we tested the validity of this measure by comparing TEWL across a wide range of perturbations, with a variety of methods, and in a variety of models. TEWL rates with two closed-chamber systems (VapoMeter and H4300) and one closed-loop system (MEECO) under different experimental in vivo conditions were compared with data from four open-loop instruments, i.e. TM 210, TM 300, DermaLab and EP 1. The instruments were compared in vivo both in humans and hairless mice skin subjected to different degrees of acute barrier disruption. The values obtained with bioengineering systems were correlated with absolute water loss rates, determined gravimetrically. Measurements with both closed and open systems correlated not only with each other, but each method detected different degrees of barrier dysfunction. Although all instruments differentiated among gradations in TEWL in the mid-range of barrier disruption in vivo, differences in very low and very high levels of disruption were less accurately measured with the H4300 and DermaLab systems. Nevertheless, a high Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated for data from all instruments vs. gravimetrically assessed TEWL. Together, these results verify the utility of TEWL as a measure of permeability barrier status. Moreover, all tested instruments are reliable tools for the assessment of variations in permeability barrier function. [source]

Epithelial barrier disruption allows nondisease-causing bacteria to initiate and sustain IBD in the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse,

Beate C. Sydora PhD
Abstract Background: In the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse model, development of intestinal inflammation is associated with a defect in epithelial barrier integrity that is thought to allow sufficient passage of bacteria or bacterial antigens to initiate a mucosal immune response. Microbial monoassociation experiments into axenic animals have shown that some, but not all, endogenous bacteria will initiate an intestinal inflammatory response. For instance, Bacteroides vulgatus does not initiate intestinal inflammation in axenic IL-10 gene-deficient mice. We investigated whether B. vulgatus requires concomitant disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in order to initiate an inflammatory response. Methods: We first identified a dose of the indomethacin that would cause a primary disruption of the epithelial barrier without causing intestinal inflammation. IL-10 axenic mice were then administered this dose of indomethacin in their drinking water for 7 days and concomitantly monoassociated, by oral gavage, with B. vulgatus. Results: Indomethacin treatment (2 ,g/g/d) for 7 days resulted in disruption of epithelial barrier integrity, but it caused neither a systemic inflammatory response nor a mucosal inflammatory response in the colon or cecum. Monoassociation with B. vulgatus alone did not lead to a mucosal inflammatory response, despite a measurable systemic response. In contrast, administration of indomethacin plus B. vulgatus -monoassociation resulted in a marked intestinal inflammatory response in colon and cecum. Conclusions: Our data show that, in a genetically predisposed animal model, the nondisease-causing endogenous bacteria, B. vulgatus, is able to cause an intestinal inflammatory response provided that disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has occurred. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

N-Palmitoyl-4-Hydroxy- L -Proline Palmityl Ester: A Pseudoceramide that Provides Efficient Skin Barrier Repair and Protection

G. Vielhaber
Ceramides are the main constituents of the epidermal permeability barrier, and it has been demonstrated that the application of ceramide enriched creams promotes epidermal barrier repair. However, nature-identical ceramides are extremely expensive and difficult to formulate. We therefore developed a new pseudoceramide, N-palmitoyl-4-hydroxy- l -proline palmityl ester (BIO391). Due to its low melting point of £60°C the pseudoceramide BIO391 can easily be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. In addition, it is very safe for use in cosmetics. The efficacy of the pseudoceramide BIO391 was investigated in vivo in a model for detergent-induced barrier disruption. Trans-epidermal water loss, redness, and skin hydration were recorded before and after barrier disruption as well as during the subsequent 9-day treatment with the test products. Barrier repair of skin treated with the pseudoceramide BIO391 was accomplished earlier than that of untreated and vehicle treated skin. Optimum barrier repair was achieved with 1.0% pseudoceramide BIO391 and optimum erythema reduction with 0.5% pseudoceramide BIO391. The optimum dosage could be reduced to 0.1% pseudo-ceramide by synergistic combination with 0.1% (-)-a-bisabolol. In addition, the pseudoceramide BIO391 proved to be as effective as nature-identical ceramides 2 and 3. In summary, N-palmitoyl-4-hydroxy- l -proline palmityl ester is a highly efficient barrier repair agent with efficacy equivalent to that of nature-identical ceramides, and it has excellent formulation properties. [source]

Role of Rac 1 and cAMP in endothelial barrier stabilization and thrombin-induced barrier breakdown

Y. Baumer
Barrier stabilizing effects of cAMP as well as of the small GTPase Rac 1 are well established. Moreover, it is generally believed that permeability-increasing mediators such as thrombin disrupt endothelial barrier functions primarily via activation of Rho A. In this study, we provide evidence that decrease of both cAMP levels and of Rac 1 activity contribute to thrombin-mediated barrier breakdown. Treatment of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) with Rac 1-inhibitor NSC-23766 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) and caused intercellular gap formation. These effects were reversed by addition of forskolin/rolipram (F/R) to increase intracellular cAMP but not by the cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2,-O-Methyl-cAMP (O-Me-cAMP) which primarily stimulates protein kinase A (PKA)-independent signaling via Epac/Rap 1. However, both F/R and O-Me-cAMP did not increase TER above control levels in the presence of NSC-23766 in contrast to experiments without Rac 1 inhibition. Because Rac 1 was required for maintenance of barrier functions as well as for cAMP-mediated barrier stabilization, we tested the role of Rac 1 and cAMP in thrombin-induced barrier breakdown. Thrombin-induced drop of TER and intercellular gap formation were paralleled by a rapid decrease of cAMP as revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The efficacy of F/R or O-Me-cAMP to block barrier-destabilizing effects of thrombin was comparable to Y27632-induced inhibition of Rho kinase but was blunted when Rac 1 was inactivated by NSC-23766. Taken together, these data indicate that decrease of cAMP and Rac 1 activity may be an important step in inflammatory barrier disruption. J. Cell. Physiol. 220: 716,726, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Intestinal Injury Is Required for Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Liver Damage

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2009
Yueming Tang
Background:, Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) requires endotoxemia and is commonly associated with intestinal barrier leakiness. Using monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells as an in vitro barrier model, we showed that ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption is mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) upregulation, nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and oxidation/nitration of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibitors [NG-nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME), l -N6 -(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (l -NIL)] in vivo will inhibit the above cascade and liver injury in an animal model of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Methods:, Male Sprague,Dawley rats were gavaged daily with alcohol (6 g/kg/d) or dextrose for 10 weeks ± l -NAME, l -NIL, or vehicle. Systemic and intestinal NO levels were measured by nitrites and nitrates in urine and tissue samples, oxidative damage to the intestinal mucosa by protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine, intestinal permeability by urinary sugar tests, and liver injury by histological inflammation scores, liver fat, and myeloperoxidase activity. Results:, Alcohol caused tissue oxidation, gut leakiness, endotoxemia, and ASH. l -NIL and l -NAME, but not the d -enantiomers, attenuated all steps in the alcohol-induced cascade including NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, gut leakiness, endotoxemia, hepatic inflammation, and liver injury. Conclusions:, The mechanism we reported for alcohol-induced intestinal barrier disruption in vitro , NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, leaky gut, endotoxemia, and liver injury , appears to be relevant in vivo in an animal model of alcohol-induced liver injury. That iNOS inhibitors attenuated all steps of this cascade suggests that prevention of this cascade in alcoholics will protect the liver against the injurious effects of chronic alcohol and that iNOS may be a useful target for prevention of ALD. [source]

Magnetic resonance imaging of blood,spinal cord barrier disruption in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Angela E. Schellenberg
Abstract Inflammation, demyelination, and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSB) breakdown occur in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of MRI for detecting lesions and BSB disruption in vivo during EAE in the mouse lumbar spinal cord, to determine how MR features of BSB disruption change during the course of disease, and to relate such changes to clinical signs and histological features of disease. Following induction of EAE in C57BL/6 mice, contrast-enhanced (CE) T1 -weighted MR images were acquired to detect BSB disruption in the lumbar spinal cord at the early stage of disease, at peak disease, and at remission, and T2 -weighted images were obtained to monitor spinal cord morphology. Following imaging the spinal cords were assessed in situ for general features of inflammation, BSB leakage, activated macrophages/microglia, and demyelination. No focal lesions were evident on T2 -weighted MR images. BSB disruption was greatest at the onset of signs of disease, and decreased progressively thereafter. Inflammation and demyelination were pronounced at the initial stage of disease and at peak disease, and were decreased at remission. Nonuniform contrast enhancement indicated that breakdown of the BSB occurred predominantly within the white matter (WM) of the spinal cord. Magn Reson Med 58:298,305, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood,brain barrier function

D. M. Bailey
We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood,brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O2) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O2). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects developed clinical AMS (AMS+) and were more hypoxaemic relative to subjects without AMS (AMS,). A more marked increase in the venous concentration of the ascorbate radical (A,,), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and increased susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation was observed during hypoxia in AMS+ (P < 0.05 versus AMS,). Despite a general decline in total nitric oxide (NO) in hypoxia (P < 0.05 versus normoxia), the normoxic baseline plasma and red blood cell (RBC) NO metabolite pool was lower in AMS+ with normalization observed during hypoxia (P < 0.05 versus AMS,). CA was selectively impaired in AMS+ as indicated both by an increase in the low-frequency (0.07,0.20Hz) transfer function gain and decrease in RoR (P < 0.05 versus AMS,). However, there was no evidence for cerebral hyper-perfusion, BBB disruption or neuronal,parenchymal damage as indicated by a lack of change in MCAv, S100, and neuron-specific enolase. In conclusion, these findings suggest that AMS is associated with altered redox homeostasis and disordered CA independent of barrier disruption. [source]

Morphological Correlates of Acute and Permanent Hearing Loss During Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis

Matthias Klein
In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, hearing loss can be transient but is often permanent. The mechanisms underlying meningitis-associated hearing loss are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the morphological correlates of hearing loss in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Transcutaneous intracisternal injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae resulted in a dose-dependent hearing loss (determined by auditory brainstem response audiometry), which was partially reversible during the acute stage. Nevertheless, a severe permanent hearing loss persisted until 2 weeks after infection. Suppurative labyrinthitis was accompanied by blood-labyrinth barrier disruption (determined by cochlear Evans blue extravasation), which correlated closely with hearing loss during the acute stage but not after recovery. Two weeks after infection, spiral ganglion neuronal density was markedly decreased and correlated with the severity of permanent hearing loss. Neuronal loss can be explained by the new finding of meningitis-associated spiral ganglion neuronal necrosis rather than apop-tosis (determined by morphology, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemistry). [source]

Sequential application of cold and sodium lauryl sulphate decreases irritation and barrier disruption in vivo in humans

J.W. Fluhr
Summary Background, Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is one of the most frequent types of occupational dermatitis. Different factors are involved in the development of contact dermatitis. In the food-processing industry, the combined exposure to different irritants may be involved in the development of ICD. Few data have been published regarding the irritant potential of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in combination with cold. Objectives, The present study was intended to analyse whether cold exposure and low skin temperature influence the development of ICD. Methods, Twenty (part I) and 12 (part II) healthy volunteers were exposed twice daily for 4 days to SLS alone, different low temperatures alone (4 °C six times for 90 s with an interval of 20 s or 15 °C for 10 min) or a combination of cold and SLS (19·6 µL SLS 1% cm,2, part I; or 52·6 µL SLS 0·5% cm,2, part II) using the tandem repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were measured by noninvasive biophysical methods with transepidermal water loss as a parameter for permeability barrier function and skin colour reflectance together with visual scoring as parameters for inflammatory reactions. Results, Cold alone caused no significant skin reaction compared with untreated control. Exposure to SLS alone and SLS together with cold (independent of the applied temperature of 4 or 15 °C) twice daily induced a clear irritant reaction and barrier disturbance. Reactions did not differ whether SLS was applied before or after cold. Furthermore, ,tandem application' of cold and SLS diminished the barrier disruption and irritant reaction compared with SLS alone. Conclusions, We conclude that the application of cold may have a protective effect on the development of ICD, at least in our short-term model. [source]

Artificial disruption of skin barrier prior to irritant patch testing does not improve test design

K.L. Gebhard
Summary Background, Irritant patch testing is often performed as a 24- or 48-h occlusive patch test with low concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Objectives, The aim of this study was to investigate potential ways to shorten this test procedure and obtain precise test results. Patients and methods, Thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent irritant patch testing with different pretreatments (PT) of the test fields. Occlusive test chambers were applied on the upper back with SLS 0·5%, 1%, 2% and 5% in large Finn Chambers®. The patches were removed after 4 and 24 h, respectively, depending on the concentration used. Test fields were pretreated as follows: PT 0, field without any PT (control); PT 1, prick with lancet; PT 2, prick with test stamp; PT 3, scratch with lancet; PT 4, incision with standardized incision instrument (0·1,0·2 mm depth). Skin reactions were evaluated by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin erythema and skin hydration and as well by a visual score (VS) at 4, 24 and 72 h. Results, Our data show an obvious distinction between PT 0,2 and PT 3,4 at all measurement methods. The average TEWL values with PT 3,4 were higher than those with PT 0,2, especially on the 4-h course. This distinction may derive from the shape and size of the skin impairment achieved by PT 3,4, leading to a mechanical barrier disruption. However, SLS may infiltrate directly into deeper skin layers supported by capillarity. Consequently, no or little penetration through the epidermis and interaction with its structures occurs, which is responsible for irritant skin reactions. The SLS dose in the upper skin layers is therefore lower at these PTs. The lower remaining dose of SLS also explains this distinction, especially for the VS. Additionally, there are presumed reactions in deeper layers of the epidermis and dermis at PT 3,4. Conclusions, In summary, all data suggest a different reaction pattern from the classical irritant response. Therefore, application without any PT seems to be best suited for irritancy skin testing, especially for visual assessment. PTs prior to irritant patch testing have been shown to be unjustifiable. [source]

Initial response to glucocorticoids

CANCER, Issue 2 2006
A potentially important prognostic factor in patients with primary CNS lymphoma
Abstract BACKGROUND Known prognostic variables in patients with primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) include age, Karnofsky performance status, involvement of deep regions of the brain, intensity of blood,brain barrier disruption, and treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. PCNSL often responds transiently to glucocorticoids administered to control neurologic symptoms before radiation or chemotherapy. This retrospective chart review was designed to estimate the prognostic significance of a clinical or radiologic response to initial glucocorticoid therapy. METHODS By using data from The Johns Hopkins Cancer Registry from January 1980 to June 2001, a total of 76 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative adults with newly diagnosed PCNSL were identified. Nineteen patients with uninformative medical records were excluded from the study. RESULTS The median survival of the remaining 57 patients was 11.8 months. The median survival for the 48 patients who had clinical response to initial steroid therapy was 17.9 months, and for nonresponders, it was 5.5 months (P = 0.05). The 16 patients with documented radiologic response had a median survival of 117.0 months compared with 5.5 months for nonresponders (P = 0.001). After adjusting for known prognostic factors (age and treatment), significant reduction in risk of death was noted in patients who had either clinical (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16,0.99}) or radiologic response (HR = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04,0.46) to glucocorticoids given before radiation or chemotherapy. CONCLUSION This analysis suggests that initial response to treatment with glucocorticoids may be an important prognostic factor in patients with PCNSL. Cancer 2006. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]

Abrogation of IFN-, mediated epithelial barrier disruption by serine protease inhibition

L. E. M. Willemsen
Summary The intestinal barrier function is often impaired in a variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Increased intestinal permeability during episodes of active disease correlates with destruction or rearrangement of the tight junction protein complex. IFN-, has been widely studied for its effect on barrier function and tight junction structures but its mode of action remains unclear. Since the claudin family of tight junction proteins is proposed to be involved in barrier maintenance we studied the effect of IFN-, on claudin expression in relation to epithelial barrier function. Cycloheximide and protease inhibitors were used to study mechanisms of IFN-, mediated barrier disruption. Intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to IFN-, and permeability was evaluated by horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and 4 kD FITC-dextran fluxes. Occludin and claudin-1, -2, -3, and -4 tight junction protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Occludin and claudin-2 protein expression was dramatically reduced after IFN-, exposure, which correlated with increased permeability for HRP and FITC-dextran. Interestingly, cleavage of claudin-2 was observed after incubation with IFN-,. Serine protease inhibitor AEBSF completely abrogated IFN-, mediated barrier disruption which was associated with preservation of claudin-2 expression. Moreover, IFN-, induced loss of barrier integrity was found to affect claudin-2 and occludin expression through different mechanisms. Since inhibition of serine protease activity abrogates IFN-, mediated barrier disruption this may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. [source]

Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries

GL Darmstadt
Topical therapy to enhance skin barrier function may be a simple, low-cost, effective strategy to improve outcome of preterm infants with a developmentally compromised epidermal barrier, as lipid constituents of topical products may act as a mechanical barrier and augment synthesis of barrier lipids. Natural oils are applied topically as part of a traditional oil massage to neonates in many developing countries. We sought to identify inexpensive, safe, vegetable oils available in developing countries that improved epidermal barrier function. The impact of oils on mouse epidermal barrier function (rate of transepidermal water loss over time following acute barrier disruption by tape-stripping) and ultrastructure was determined. A single application of sunflower seed oil significantly accelerated skin barrier recovery within 1 h; the effect was sustained 5 h after application. In contrast, the other vegetable oils tested (mustard, olive and soybean oils) all significantly delayed recovery of barrier function compared with control- or Aquaphor-treated skin. Twice-daily applications of mustard oil for 7 d resulted in sustained delay of barrier recovery. Moreover, adverse ultrastructural changes were seen under transmission electron microscopy in keratin intermediate filament, mitochondrial, nuclear, and nuclear envelope structure following a single application of mustard oil. Conclusion: Our data suggest that topical application of linoleate-enriched oil such as sunflower seed oil might enhance skin barrier function and improve outcome in neonates with compromised barrier function. Mustard oil, used routinely in newborn care throughout South Asia, has toxic effects on the epidermal barrier that warrant further investigation. [source]