Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by BN

  • patient
  • rat

  • Selected Abstracts

    Bayesian Networks and Adaptive Management of Wildlife Habitat

    herramientas para la toma de decisiones; incertidumbre ecológica; pastoreo feral; regímenes de quema; validación de modelos Abstract:,Adaptive management is an iterative process of gathering new knowledge regarding a system's behavior and monitoring the ecological consequences of management actions to improve management decisions. Although the concept originated in the 1970s, it is rarely actively incorporated into ecological restoration. Bayesian networks (BNs) are emerging as efficient ecological decision-support tools well suited to adaptive management, but examples of their application in this capacity are few. We developed a BN within an adaptive-management framework that focuses on managing the effects of feral grazing and prescribed burning regimes on avian diversity within woodlands of subtropical eastern Australia. We constructed the BN with baseline data to predict bird abundance as a function of habitat structure, grazing pressure, and prescribed burning. Results of sensitivity analyses suggested that grazing pressure increased the abundance of aggressive honeyeaters, which in turn had a strong negative effect on small passerines. Management interventions to reduce pressure of feral grazing and prescribed burning were then conducted, after which we collected a second set of field data to test the response of small passerines to these measures. We used these data, which incorporated ecological changes that may have resulted from the management interventions, to validate and update the BN. The network predictions of small passerine abundance under the new habitat and management conditions were very accurate. The updated BN concluded the first iteration of adaptive management and will be used in planning the next round of management interventions. The unique belief-updating feature of BNs provides land managers with the flexibility to predict outcomes and evaluate the effectiveness of management interventions. Resumen:,El manejo adaptativo es un proceso interactivo de recopilación de conocimiento nuevo relacionado con el comportamiento de un sistema y el monitoreo de las consecuencias ecológicas de las acciones de manejo para refinar las opciones de manejo. Aunque el concepto se originó en la década de los 1970s, rara vez es incorporado activamente en la restauración ecológica. Las redes Bayesianas (RBs) están emergiendo como herramientas eficientes para la toma de decisiones ecológicas en el contexto del manejo adaptativo, pero los ejemplos de su aplicación en este sentido son escasos. Desarrollamos una RB en el marco del manejo adaptativo que se centra en el manejo de los efectos del pastoreo feral y los regímenes de quemas prescritas sobre la diversidad de aves en bosques subtropicales del este de Australia. Construimos la RB con datos para predecir la abundancia de aves como una función de la estructura del hábitat, la presión de pastoreo y las quemas prescritas. Los resultados del análisis de sensibilidad sugieren que la presión de pastoreo incrementó la abundancia de melífagos agresivos, que a su vez tuvieron un fuerte efecto negativo sobre paserinos pequeños. Posteriormente se llevaron a cabo intervenciones de manejo para reducir la presión del pastoreo feral y quemas prescritas, después de las cuales recolectamos un segundo conjunto de datos de campo para probar la respuesta de paserinos pequeños a estas medidas. Utilizamos estos datos, que incorporaron cambios ecológicos que pueden haber resultado de la intervención de manejo, para validar y actualizar la RB. Las predicciones de la abundancia de paserinos pequeños bajo las nuevas condiciones de hábitat y manejo fueron muy precisas. La RB actualizada concluyó la primera iteración de manejo adaptativo y será utilizada para la planificación de la siguiente ronda de intervenciones de manejo. La característica única de actualización de la RBs permite que los manejadores tengan flexibilidad para predecir los resultados y evaluar la efectividad de las intervenciones de manejo. [source]

    Crystallization behaviors of carbon fiber reinforced BN-Si3N4 matrix composite

    Bin Li
    Abstract The crystallization behaviors of a new carbon fiber reinforced composite with a hybrid matrix comprising BN and Si3N4 prepared by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the as-received composite is almost amorphous, and its main composition is BN and Si3N4. When heat treated at 1600°C, the composite is crystallized and shows a much better crystal form. When heat treated at 2100°C, Si3N4 in the matrix is decomposed, and BN exhibits a relatively complete crystallization. The existence of B4C and SiC is detected, which indicates the interfacial chemical reactions between nitride matrices and carbon fibers. The surface morphology of carbon fibers in the composite changed significantly when heated from 1600 to 2100°C, which also proved the occurrence of interfacial chemical reactions. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Hydrothermal growth of boron nitride microcrystals

    Xiaopeng Hao
    Abstract Boron nitride (BN) crystals with size of several micrometers have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The reactants used in our experiments were boric acid (H3BO3), sodium azide (NaN3) and white phosphor (P). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), selective area electron diffraction (SAED). It is found that the existence of Cl - in the reaction mixture has much effect on the synthesis of BN. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effects of a yoga breath intervention alone and in combination with an exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami

    T. Descilo
    Descilo T, Vedamurtachar A, Gerbarg PL, Nagaraja D, Gangadhar BN, Damodaran B, Adelson B, Braslow LH, Marcus S, Brown RP. Effects of a yoga breath intervention alone and in combination with an exposure therapy for PTSD and depression in survivors of the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami. Objective:, This study evaluated the effect of a yoga breath program alone and followed by a trauma reduction exposure technique on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami. Method:, In this non-randomized study, 183 tsunami survivors who scored 50 or above on the Post-traumatic Checklist-17 (PCL-17) were assigned by camps to one of three groups: yoga breath intervention, yoga breath intervention followed by 3,8 h of trauma reduction exposure technique or 6-week wait list. Measures for post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-17) and depression (BDI-21) were performed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Data were analyzed using anova and mixed effects regression. Results:, The effect of treatment vs. control was significant at 6 weeks (F2,178 = 279.616, P < 0.001): mean PCL-17 declined by 42.5 ± 10.0 SD with yoga breath, 39.2 ± 17.2 with Yoga breath + exposure and 4.6 ± 13.2 in the control. Conclusion:, Yoga breath-based interventions may help relieve psychological distress following mass disasters. [source]

    Self-help treatments for disorders of recurrent binge eating: a systematic review

    S. C. Stefano
    Objective:, To evaluate self-help interventions for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), tested in randomized controlled trials, and compared with waiting list or any other type of control group. Methods:, A systematic review including quality appraisal was conducted of randomized controlled trials, using self-help techniques in patients with BED and/or BN. Six databases were searched during the period between January 1994 and June 2004. Results:, A total of 2686 articles were identified, 1701 abstracts were evaluated in detail and, nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. All studies indicated that patients treated with active interventions had a reduced number of binge eating episodes at end of treatment. Conclusion:, The results support self-help interventions but shall be interpreted with caution. Because of the small number of studies using self-help techniques for BED and BN, further larger randomized, multi-center controlled studies that apply standardized inclusion criteria, evaluation instruments and self-help materials, are needed. [source]

    Diagnosing eating disorders , AN, BN and the others

    Søren Nielsen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Folate deficiency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes induces chromosome 8 aneuploidy but this effect is not modified by riboflavin

    Juan Ni
    Abstract Chromosome 8 aneuploidy is a common event in certain cancers but whether folate (F) deficiency induces chromosome 8 aneuploidy is not known. Furthermore the impact of riboflavin (R) deficiency, which may alter activity of a key enzyme in folate metabolism, on these events is unknown. Therefore, the aim of our research was to test the following hypotheses: (a) F deficiency induces chromosome 8 aneuploidy; (b) chromosome 8 aneuploidy is affected by F deficiency to a similar degree as chromosome 17 and (c) R deficiency aggravates the risk of aneuploidy caused by F deficiency. These hypotheses were tested in long-term cultures of lymphocytes from twenty female healthy volunteers (aged 30,48 years). Lymphocytes were cultured in each of the four possible combinations of low (L) and high (H) F (LF, 20 nmol/L, HF 200 nmol/L, respectively) and L and H R (LR 1 nmol/L, HR 500 nmol/L, respectively) media (LFLR, LFHR, HFLR, HFHR) for 9 days. Chromosomes 8 and 17 aneuploidy was measured in mononucleated (MONO) and cytokinesis-blocked binucleated (BN) cells using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescent centromeric probes specific for chromosomes 8 and 17. Culture in LF media (LFLR or LFHR) induced significant and similar increases in frequencies of aneuploidy of chromosomes 8 and 17 (P < 0.001) relative to culture in HF media (HFLR or HFHR). There was no significant effect of R concentration on aneuploidy frequency for either chromosome. We conclude that F deficiency is a possible cause of chromosome 8 aneuploidy. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Polygenic Control of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy Phenotypes in the Genetic Absence Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2004
    Gabrielle Rudolf
    Summary: Purpose: Generalized nonconvulsive absence seizures are characterized by the occurrence of synchronous and bilateral spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalographic recordings, concomitant with behavioral arrest. The GAERS (genetic absence rats from Strasbourg) strain, a well-characterized inbred model for idiopathic generalized epilepsy, spontaneously develops EEG paroxysms that resemble those of typical absence seizures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic control of SWD variables by using a combination of genetic analyses and electrophysiological measurements in an experimental cross derived from GAERS and Brown Norway (BN) rats. Methods: SWD subphenotypes were quantified on EEG recordings performed at both 3 and 6 months in a cohort of 118 GAERS × BN F2 animals. A genome-wide scan of the F2 progenies was carried out with 146 microsatellite markers that were used to test each marker locus for evidence of genetic linkage to the SWD quantitative traits. Results: We identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in chromosomes 4, 7, and 8 controlling specific SWD variables in the cross, including frequency, amplitude, and severity of SWDs. Age was a major factor influencing the detection of genetic linkage to the various components of the SWDs. Conclusions: The identification of these QTLs demonstrates the polygenic control of SWDs in the GAERS strain. Genetic linkages to specific SWD features underline the complex mechanisms contributing to SWD development in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. [source]

    Change processes in residential cognitive therapy for bulimia nervosa

    Asle Hoffart
    Abstract The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of process variables derived from the cognitive model of bulimia nervosa (BN) and weekly outcome. The participants were 39 patients with BN or subthreshold bulimia consecutively admitted to an inpatient treatment program for bulimia. Theory-derived process and outcome variables were measured repeatedly during the course of therapy with a gap of a week between each measurement. The data were analysed with time series methods (ARIMA). Weekly variations in the process variables: self-efficacy about resisting binge eating, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect influenced variations in subsequent outcome, whereas weekly outcome did not influence subsequent process. These results are consistent with the cognitive model of BN and suggest that self-efficacy, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Meta-analysis on drugs in people with eating disorders

    Ana Calero-Elvira
    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether drug use (DU) is higher in people with eating disorders (EDs) compared to a healthy control group and to perform a meta-analysis on the literature related to DU in people with EDs. Method We searched electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL) and reviewed studies published from 1994 to August, 2007, in English, German or Spanish. A total of 16 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. Results The general meta-analysis revealed a negligible albeit significant effect size (0.119, p,<,.05). Risk was found to be higher in bulimia nervosa (BN, ,,=,0.462, p,=,,<,.001), smaller in binge eating disorder (,,=,0.14, p,<,.05) and non-significant in anorexia nervosa (AN, ,,=,,.167, p,=,.070). Conclusions The differential risk observed in patients with BN might be related to differences in temperament or might be the result of reward sensitization. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    A case series evaluation of a modified version of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for the treatment of bulimic eating disorders: A pilot study

    Jon Arcelus
    Abstract Objective To determine the therapeutic outcome of a modified form of (IPT-BNm) amongst patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). Method Following initial assessment, 59 patients with diagnoses of BN or EDNOS entered treatment in the form of 16 sessions of IPT-BNm. At initial assessment, patients completed measures of general psychopathology (SCL-90), Self esteem (RSE), eating psychopathology (EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning; IIP-32) and depression (BDI). At the middle and end of treatment, EDE-Q, IIP-32 and BDI measures were repeated. Results By the middle of therapy, patients had made significant improvements in terms of their eating disordered cognitions and behaviours (including reductions in EDE-Q scores, bingeing and self-induced vomiting), interpersonal functioning and levels of depression. Conclusions IPT-BNm is an effective treatment for patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders and appears to work quickly, as there were significant reductions in eating disorders symptoms within the first eight sessions of treatment. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy for individuals with bulimia nervosa and a co-occurring substance use disorder

    Robyn Sysko
    Abstract A significant percentage of individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) also can be diagnosed with a co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD). Although studies have addressed the frequency of overlap between the disorders, etiology and shared personality traits, limited research is available about the treatment of these comorbid patients. Adapting cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) to serve as an integrated treatment for patients with both BN and a SUD is a viable option, as studies of CBT suggest that this form of treatment is efficacious for both disorders independently. The shared strategies in CBT for BN and SUDs facilitate the development of a combined treatment for individuals with both disorders with the addition of modules designed to address some common features of these disorders, such as motivation, difficulty with interpersonal relationships, reward sensitivity and impulsivity. Future research should begin to evaluate the efficacy of an integrated CBT in treating individuals with BN and a SUD. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Are Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa separate disorders?

    Challenging the, transdiagnostic' theory of eating disorders
    Abstract Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are classified as separate and distinct clinical disorders. Recently, there has been support for a transdiagnostic theory of eating disorders, which would reclassify them as one disorder. Objective To determine whether AN and BN are a single disorder with one cause or separate disorders with different causes. Method Hill's Criteria of Causation were used to test the hypothesis that AN and BN are one disorder with a single cause. Hill's Criteria of Causation demand that the minimal conditions are needed to establish a causal relationship between two items which include all of the following: strength of association, consistency, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility, coherence, experimental evidence and analogy. Results The hypothesis that AN and BN have a single cause did not meet all of Hill's Criteria of Causation. Strength of association, plausibility, analogy and some experimental evidence were met, but not consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient, coherence and most experimental evidence. Conclusions The hypothesis that AN and BN are a single disorder with a common cause is not supported by Hill's Criteria of Causation. This argues against the notion of a transdiagnostic theory of eating disorders. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Personality traits and self-injurious behaviour in patients with eating disorders

    Jennie Ahrén-Moonga
    Abstract The interest in different aspects of personality and the neuropsychological basis for behaviour in eating disorder patients has increased over the last decade. The present study aims at exploring personality traits, self-injurious behaviour (SIB) and suicide attempts in a group of severely ill eating disorder patients. Patients with eating disorders (N,=,38) and age-matched controls (N,=,67) were examined concerning self-reported personality traits by means of the Karolinska scales of personality (KSP). Psychosocial history and SIB was collected from medical records. Depression was rated by means of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results indicated significantly higher anxiety-related and detachment traits in both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients and higher hostility in BN patients than controls. No specific personality traits could be defined as typical for self-injurious or suicidal behaviour. The AN group was lower than the BN group on scales measuring impulsivity, guilt and anxiety. Furthermore, presence of SIB and suicide attempts was more frequent among the BN patients. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Getting better byte by byte: a pilot randomised controlled trial of email therapy for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder,

    Paul Robinson
    Abstract One hundred and ten people in an university population responded to emailed eating disorder questionnaires. Ninty-seven fulfilling criteria for eating disorders (bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), EDNOS) were randomised to therapist administered email bulimia therapy (eBT), unsupported Self directed writing (SDW) or Waiting list control (WLC). Measures were repeated at 3 months. Diagnosis, Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Bulimia investigatory test (BITE) scores were recorded. Follow-up rate was 63% and results must be interpreted cautiously. However significantly fewer participants who had received eBT or SDW fulfilled criteria for eating disorders at follow up compared to WLC. There was no significant difference between eBT and SDW in the analysis of variance (ANOVA), although in separate analyses, eBT was significantly superior to WLC (p,<,0.02) and the difference for SDW approached significance (p,=,0.06). BDI and BITE scores showed no significant change. For eBT participants there was a significant positive correlation between words written and improvement in BITE severity score. BN, BED and EDNOS can be treated via email. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    The needs of carers of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa

    Holmer Graap
    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess the degree of distress and the need for support of carers of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods Thirty-two carers filled out the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Burden Inventory (BI). In addition, they were interviewed with a semi-structured research interview, the Carers' Needs Assessment (CNA), to assess relevant problem areas as well as the needs for helpful interventions. Patients were interviewed with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) to assess the severity of the eating disorder. All patients met criteria for anorexia (n,=,16) or BN (n,=,16) according to DSM-IV criteria. Results The mean duration of illness was 5.6 years. The mean age of the carers was 41 years. Most of the carers were mothers or partners. In the CNA we found high numbers of problems as well as high numbers of needed interventions. The most frequently mentioned problem area was ,disappointment caused by the chronic course of the illness, concerns about the patient's future' and the most frequently reported need for support was ,counselling and support by a professional'. In three problem areas carers of persons suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) reported significantly higher scores than carers of persons suffering from BN. Conclusions Our results suggest that carers themselves have high levels of needs which are usually not addressed in clinical practice. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Premature termination of treatment in an inpatient eating disorder programme

    Philip C. Masson
    Abstract This retrospective study was conducted to explore rates, timing and predictors of two forms of premature termination of treatment (PTT) in an inpatient eating disorders programme: patient dropout (DO) and administrative discharge (AD). A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) data for 186 patients being treated for bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa (AN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Overall, of the 37.6% of patients who terminated treatment prematurely, 22.1% of patients dropped out, and 15.5% of patients were administratively discharged. Time at which discharge occurred was found to be associated with the type of premature termination. The presence of DSM-IV Axis-I comorbidity was found to be the only factor associated with an increased risk of being administratively discharged. No factors were predictive of patients dropping out of treatment. The findings support the notion that AD and patient DO are different events that may have different factors influencing their rates and timing. Implications for future research and programme planning are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents with bulimia nervosa,

    G. Terence Wilson
    Abstract Psychological and pharmacological treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been studied extensively in adults, but there are no published controlled treatment studies of adolescents with BN. One option for treating adolescents with BN is to adapt cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for younger individuals. The rationale for developing CBT for adolescents with BN is three-fold: the efficacy of CBT for adult patients with BN, the efficacy of CBT in treating adolescents with other clinical disorders, and the conceptual fit between CBT and adolescent eating disorders. CBT should be tailored to the treatment of adolescents, with particular focus on domains of development, including: motivation, cognitive processing, interpersonal functioning, and family involvement. A recently described new version of CBT for BN (Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003) is well-suited for adapting manual-based CBT from adults to adolescents. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of CBT for the treatment of adolescents with BN and related eating disorders. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Long-term follow-up of adolescent onset anorexia nervosa in northern Sweden

    Karin Nilsson
    Abstract Objective This study examines the long-term outcome of adolescent onset anorexia nervosa, 8 and 16 years after first admission to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) treatment in northern Sweden. Method Two follow-ups (1991 and 1999) were made of 68 women who were first admitted to CAP between 1980 and 1985. The follow-ups included interviews and self-report inventories. Eating disorders and GAF were evaluated according to DSM-III-R. Results Recovery increased from 46 (68%) to 58 (85%). EDNOS (eating disorder not otherwise specified) decreased from 16 (24%) to seven (10%). The numbers for anorexia nervosa (AN) were the same, two (3%) in both follow-ups. Bulimia nervosa (BN) decreased from four (6%) in the first follow-up to one (1.5%) in the second follow-up. The mortality rate was one (1%). Self-evaluation of mental health indicated that 15% had problems with depression, anxiety or compulsive symptoms. Somatic problems and paediatric inpatient care during the first treatment period could predict long-term outcome. Most former patients had a satisfactory family and work situation. Conclusion Recovery from eating disorders continued during the follow-ups. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Self-injurious behaviour in people with eating disorders

    Raquel Solano
    Abstract Objective To determine the importance of self-injurious behaviour in people with eating disorders (ED) and to analyse the possible differences between ED subtypes. Method 109 patients with ED (51 anorexia nervosa (AN) and 58 bulimia nervosa (BN)), according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, who were consecutively referred to our unit, participated in this study. All cases were female. Assessment Subjects were assessed by means of a semi-structured clinical interview and self-report questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test, EAT-40; Eating Disorders Inventory, EDI; Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh, BITE; Body Shape Questionnaire, BSQ; Beck Depression Inventory, BDI; Social Anxiety Scale, SAD). Design Comparison of cases by considering the factors diagnosis and self-injurious behaviour. Results The presence of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) (32% of cases) was not associated with the diagnosis (p,=,0.28). There was no association between SIB, suicide attempts, alcohol abuse and stealing, but a positive correlation between SIB and drug abuse was found (r,=,0.284, p,<,0.003). Likewise, patients with SIB showed higher scores on severity of the disorder (EDI, p,<,0.04), depressive symptoms (BDI, p,<,0.02), social anxiety (SAD, p,<,0.02) and body image dissatisfaction (BSQ, p,<,0.03). Conclusions: Eating disorders are pathologies in which self-injurious behaviour will be commonly present. SIB is associated with greater depression and anxiety and in general terms with greater severity of the disorder. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Effect of weight-regulating practices on potassium level in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa

    Dr. Katrin Imbierowicz
    Abstract Objective The authors evaluated retrospectively data from 397 patients with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa(BN). Method Patients were divided into six pre-defined and symptom-related subgroups and their hypokalemia frequencies compared. The correlation between potassium level and disease-related patterns was assessed. Results The two purging type AN groups were at greatest risk of hypokalemia. Vomiting frequency, body mass index (BMI) and laxative dosage had an effect on potassium levels within the overall group but only accounted for 19% of the variance of potassium level. Effects could not be proved for fasting, sport and disease duration. Discussion Patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa are very heterogeneous due to the considerable range of potential weight-regulating measures. Taking this heterogeneity into consideration by dividing patients into diagnostic subgroups and considering their symptomatology thus considerably aids the estimation of hypokalemia risk when treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Prevalence of personality disorders in patients with eating disorders: a pilot study using the IPDE

    Izaskun Marañon
    Abstract Objective The present study aims to determine the comorbidity of personality disorders (PD) with anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and to establish the major personality characteristics of eating disorders subtypes. Method Using the International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE), the study investigated the personality profiles of 66 outpatients with eating disorders. Statistical analyses were carried out using non-parametric methods such as the Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U. Results 51.5% of the overall sample met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Purging anorexia nervosa patients were the most affected. The most common personality disorders were obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, borderline and not otherwise specified. Discussion More than half of the subjects with AN and BN met the criteria for at least one PD. This finding is a challenge for clinical practice. Implications for further research in this area are commented on. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Physical assessment of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: an international comparison

    D. Kovacs
    Abstract Objective: A questionnaire study was carried out to determine which investigations were carried out routinely on patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method: A specially designed questionnaire was sent to 168 clinicians working in the field of eating disorders in 25 countries. Respondents were asked to supply information about how often they carry out specific investigations on new patients with AN and BN. The questionnaire covered the use of physical examination, biochemical and haematological tests and cardiac investigations. Results: 71,(42.3,per cent) questionnaires were returned. Biochemical investigations and full blood counts were carried out frequently. Significant differences were found between AN patients and BN patients in the measurement of calcium, phosphate and magnesium levels. In some cases, patients with BN were not routinely assessed for hypokalaemia. Micronutrient levels were measured rarely and only 40,per cent of respondents carried out routine electrocardiograms (ECGs) in AN. Discussion: Measurement of serum potassium should be routine in BN and other electrolytes should probably measured more often in both disorders. Detection of treatable micronutrient deficiencies should be given more emphasis and the ECG should become a routine investigation in AN. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Size really doesn't matter

    Bethan Lawrence
    Abstract Objective: The judgement of what constitutes a large amount of food is one part of determining a binge and is therefore crucial for the diagnosis of BN. This study aimed to determine whether eating disorder professionals agree on what constitutes a large amount of food and the criterion they use to make the decision. Method: 147 eating disorder professionals completed a short questionnaire, that involved rating five food vignettes according to whether they believed them to consist of a large amount of food. Results: There was general consensus among eating disorder professionals as to what constituted a large amount of food. The results also suggested that many participants based their judgement on how dissimilar the vignette was to a normal meal. Discussion: The finding that the judgement of whether an amount of food is large can be made with high reliability but low validity should be the subject of further research due to its importance in the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Synthesis and Characterisation of Semi-Bridging Molybdenum Borylene Complexes

    Holger Braunschweig
    Abstract Investigation of the reactivity of the molybdenum borylene complex [(OC)5Mo=B=N(SiMe3)2] towards the late transition metal complexes [M(PCy3)2] (M = Pd, Pt) indicated the formation of [(OC)4Mo(, - CO){, - BN(SiMe3)2}Pd(PCy3)] and [(Cy3P)(OC)3Mo(, - CO){, - BN(SiMe3)2}Pt(PCy3)], respectively, as the first Mo-based semi-bridging borylene complexes. The new complexes were fully characterised spectroscopically and analysed by X-ray diffraction. The conclusions drawn from the experimental data for the ligand-metal interactions for this particular coordination mode of a borylene group were supported by DFT computations.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    Isolation and structural characterization of the Ndh complex from mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of Zea mays

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2005
    Costel C. Darie
    Complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first complex in the respiratory electron transport chain. Homologs of this complex exist in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. The minimal complex I from mitochondria and bacteria contains 14 different subunits grouped into three modules: membrane, connecting, and soluble subcomplexes. The complex I homolog (NADH dehydrogenase or Ndh complex) from chloroplasts from higher plants contains genes for two out of three modules: the membrane and connecting subcomplexes. However, there is not much information about the existence of the soluble subcomplex (which is the electron input device in bacterial complex I) in the composition of the Ndh complex. Furthermore, there are contrasting reports regarding the subunit composition of the Ndh complex and its molecular mass. By using blue native (BN)/PAGE and Tricine/PAGE or colorless-native (CN)/PAGE, BN/PAGE and Tricine/PAGE, combined with mass spectrometry, we attempted to obtain more information about the plastidal Ndh complex from maize (Zea mays). Using antibodies, we detected the expression of a new ndh gene (ndhE) in mesophyll (MS) and bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts and in ethioplasts (ET). We determined the molecular mass of the Ndh complex (550 kDa) and observed that it splits into a 300 kDa membrane subcomplex (containing NdhE) and a 250 kDa subcomplex (containing NdhH, -J and -K). The Ndh complex forms dimers at 1000,1100 kDa in both MS and BS chloroplasts. Native/PAGE of the MS and BS chloroplasts allowed us to determine that the Ndh complex contains at least 14 different subunits. The native gel electrophoresis, western blotting and mass spectrometry allowed us to identify five of the Ndh subunits. We also provide a method that allows the purification of large amounts of Ndh complex for further structural, as well as functional studies. [source]

    Stable, Glassy, and Versatile Binaphthalene Derivatives Capable of Efficient Hole Transport, Hosting, and Deep-Blue Light Emission

    Bin Wei
    Abstract Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have great potential applications in display and solid-state lighting. Stability, cost, and blue emission are key issues governing the future of OLEDs. The synthesis and photoelectronics of a series of three kinds of binaphthyl (BN) derivatives are reported. BN1,3 are "melting-point-less" and highly stable materials, forming very good, amorphous, glass-like films. They decompose at temperatures as high as 485,545,°C. At a constant current density of 25,mA,cm,2, an ITO/BN3/Al single-layer device has a much-longer lifetime (>80,h) than that of an ITO/NPB/Al single-layer device (8,h). Also, the lifetime of a multilayer device based on BN1 is longer than a similar device based on NPB. BNs are efficient and versatile OLED materials: they can be used as a hole-transport layer (HTL), a host, and a deep-blue-light-emitting material. This versatility may cut the cost of large-scale material manufacture. More importantly, the deep-blue electroluminescence (emission peak at 444 nm with CIE coordinates (0.16, 0.11), 3.23 cd A,1 at 0.21,mA cm,2, and 25200,cd,m,2 at 9,V) remains very stable at very high current densities up to 1000,mA,cm,2. [source]

    Cell cycle deregulation in liver lesions of rats with and without genetic predisposition to hepatocarcinogenesis

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    Rosa M. Pascale
    Preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatocytes undergo c-Myc up-regulation and overgrowth in rats genetically susceptible to hepatocarcinogenesis, but not in resistant rats. Because c-Myc regulates the pRb-E2F pathway, we evaluated cell cycle gene expression in neoplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), induced by initiation/selection (IS) protocols 40 and 70 weeks after diethylnitrosamine treatment, in susceptible Fisher 344 (F344) rats, and resistant Wistar and Brown Norway (BN) rats. No interstrain differences in gene expression occurred in normal liver. Overexpression of c- myc, Cyclins D1, E, and A, and E2F1 genes, at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, rise in Cyclin D1-CDK4, Cyclin E-CDK2, and E2F1-DP1 complexes, and pRb hyperphosphorylation occurred in nodules and HCCs of F344 rats. Expression of Cdk4, Cdk2, p16INK4A, and p27KIP1 did not change. In nodules and/or HCCs of Wistar and BN rats, low or no increases in c- myc, Cyclins D1, E, and A, and E2F1 expression, and Cyclin-CDKs complex formation were associated with p16INK4A overexpression and pRb hypophosphorylation. In conclusion, these results suggest deregulation of G1 and S phases in liver lesions of susceptible rats and block of G1-S transition in lesions of resistant strains, which explains their low progression capacity. [source]

    Highly Durable Ceramic Thermometer for Molten Metal

    Hideki Kita
    It was shown that a silicon nitride (SN)/boron nitride (BN) composite laminate provides excellent thermal shock resistance, and to improve the corrosion resistance of the SN pipe against molten metals, the Mo/ZrB2 film was effective for molten cast iron. The authors have developed a thermocouple that yields high durability and good response using an SN/BN composite laminate as an external sleeve and film-coated SN protection tube. According to the results of repeated temperature measurement tests for molten metals, it was demonstrated that the thermometer thus designed had high durability, e.g., 360 times measurement to life was achieved for molten cast iron. [source]

    Regulation of HER expression and transactivation in human prostate cancer cells by a targeted cytotoxic bombesin analog (AN-215) and a bombesin antagonist (RC-3095)

    Sandra Sotomayor
    Abstract Bombesin (BN) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) have been shown to stimulate the growth of human prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro by mechanisms initiated by binding of the peptide to BN/GRP receptor (GRPR). GRPR is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, including human prostatic carcinoma. This led us to evaluate the effectiveness of blocking GRPR and of chemotherapy targeted to GRPR in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cells, which exhibit different features of disease progression. Thus, we used a cytotoxic BN/GRP analog, AN-215, consisting of 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin (AN-201) linked to BN-like carrier peptide, and a BN/GRP receptor antagonist, RC-3095. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that mRNA and protein levels for GRPR increased in prostate cancer cells as compared with nonneoplastic RWPE-1 cells. Immunofluorocytochemistry and Western blot assays revealed that AN-215 was the most effective analog decreasing both the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor family members and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and HER-2, which are associated to a poor prognosis. Furthermore, analogs targeted to BN/GRP receptors, AN-215 and RC-3095, blocked the effect of BN on cell growth in RWPE-1, LNCaP and PC-3 cells. These findings shed light on the mechanisms of action of these analogs and support the view that the use of AN-215 and RC-3095 for blocking BN/GRP receptors for targeted therapy may be of benefit for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. [source]