Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Task

  • academic task
  • antisaccade task
  • arithmetic task
  • assessment task
  • attention task
  • audit task
  • avoidance task
  • awareness task
  • behavioral task
  • behavioural task
  • belief task
  • bimanual task
  • care task
  • categorization task
  • challenging task
  • chewing task
  • choice reaction time task
  • choice task
  • classification task
  • cognitive task
  • common task
  • completion task
  • complex task
  • conflict task
  • continuous performance task
  • control task
  • coordination task
  • daily task
  • daunting task
  • decision task
  • decision-making task
  • delay task
  • demanding task
  • design task
  • detection task
  • developmental task
  • different task
  • difficult task
  • discounting task
  • discrimination task
  • distraction task
  • distractor task
  • dual task
  • easy task
  • emotional stroop task
  • estimation task
  • evaluation task
  • executive function task
  • experimental task
  • false belief task
  • false-belief task
  • first task
  • fixation task
  • fluency task
  • foraging task
  • function task
  • functional task
  • gambling task
  • generation task
  • hippocampal-dependent task
  • identification task
  • important task
  • inspection task
  • interaction task
  • interference task
  • iowa gambling task
  • job task
  • judgement task
  • judgment task
  • key task
  • laboratory task
  • language task
  • learning task
  • lexical decision task
  • main task
  • maintenance task
  • major task
  • management task
  • many task
  • matching task
  • maze task
  • medical task
  • memory task
  • mental arithmetic task
  • mental rotation task
  • mind task
  • monitoring task
  • morris water maze task
  • motor control task
  • motor task
  • movement task
  • multiple task
  • navigation task
  • necessary task
  • neuropsychological task
  • new task
  • non-trivial task
  • oddball task
  • orientation task
  • other task
  • particular task
  • perceptual task
  • performance task
  • play task
  • positive task
  • preference task
  • primary task
  • problem-solving task
  • processing task
  • production task
  • professional task
  • rating task
  • reaching task
  • reaction time task
  • reading task
  • reasoning task
  • recall task
  • recognition memory task
  • recognition task
  • relate task
  • response task
  • retrieval task
  • rotation task
  • same task
  • search task
  • second task
  • secondary task
  • selection task
  • serial reaction time task
  • similar task
  • simon task
  • simple motor task
  • simple reaction time task
  • simple task
  • sorting task
  • spatial learning task
  • spatial navigation task
  • spatial task
  • specific task
  • stress task
  • stroop task
  • sustained attention task
  • switch task
  • teaching task
  • time task
  • time-consuming task
  • tom task
  • tracking task
  • transfer task
  • various task
  • verbal fluency task
  • verbal task
  • vigilance task
  • visual search task
  • visual task
  • visuomotor task
  • water maze task
  • whole task
  • word recognition task
  • work task
  • writing task

  • Terms modified by Task

  • task allocation
  • task analysis
  • task assignment
  • task characteristic
  • task completion
  • task complexity
  • task condition
  • task conflict
  • task context
  • task demand
  • task difficulty
  • task environment
  • task execution
  • task force
  • task force member
  • task force report
  • task goal
  • task orientation
  • task paradigm
  • task performance
  • task switching
  • task trainer
  • task used
  • task value

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Paul S. Kwon MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    J. Linnet
    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective:, To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue gambling despite losses, known as ,chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method:, We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results:, PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion:, Our findings suggest a dopaminergic basis of monetary losses in pathological gambling, which might explain loss-chasing behavior. The findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine dysfunctions and impaired decision-making in pathological gambling and substance-related addictions. [source]

    Switching between spatial stimulus,response mappings: a developmental study of cognitive flexibility

    Eveline A. Crone
    Four different age groups (8,9-year-olds, 11,12-year-olds, 13,15-year-olds and young adults) performed a spatial rule-switch task in which the sorting rule had to be detected on the basis of feedback or on the basis of switch cues. Performance errors were examined on the basis of a recently introduced method of error scoring for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; Barcelo & Knight, 2002). This method allowed us to differentiate between errors due to failure-to-maintain-set (distraction errors) and errors due to failure-to-switch-set (perseverative errors). The anticipated age differences in performance errors were most pronounced for perseverative errors between 8,9 years and 11,12 years, but for distraction errors adult levels were not reached until 13,15 years. These findings were interpreted to support the notion that set switching and set maintenance follow distinct developmental trajectories. [source]

    Using Virtual Reality for Task-Based Exercises in Teaching Non-Traditional Students of German

    Stephanie E. Libbon

    Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    Lynne Dawkins
    ABSTRACT Aims We have demonstrated previously that acute smoking abstinence is associated with lowered reward motivation and impaired response inhibition. This prospective study explores whether these impairments, along with withdrawal-related symptoms, recover over 3 months of sustained abstinence. Design Participants completed a 12-hour abstinent baseline assessment and were then allocated randomly to quit unaided or continue smoking. All were re-tested after 7 days, 1 month and 3 months. Successful quitters' scores were compared with those of continuing smokers, who were tested after ad libitum smoking. Setting Goldsmiths, University of London. Participants A total of 33 smokers who maintained abstinence to 3 months, and 31 continuing smokers. Measurements Indices demonstrated previously in this cohort of smokers to be sensitive to the effect of nicotine versus acute abstinence: reward motivation [Snaith,Hamilton pleasure scale (SHAPS), Card Arranging Reward Responsivity Objective Test (CARROT), Stroop], tasks of response inhibition [anti-saccade task; Continuous Performance Task (CPT)], clinical indices of mood [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], withdrawal symptoms [Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS)] and desire to smoke. Findings SHAPS anhedonia and reward responsivity (CARROT) showed significant improvement and plateaued after a month of abstinence, not differing from the scores of continuing smokers tested in a satiated state. Mood, other withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke all declined from acute abstinence to 1 month of cessation and were equivalent to, or lower than, the levels reported by continuing, satiated smokers. Neither group showed a change in CPT errors over time while continuing smokers, but not abstainers, showed improved accuracy on the anti-saccade task at 3 months. Conclusion Appetitive processes and related affective states appear to improve in smokers who remain nicotine-free for 3 months, whereas response inhibition does not. Although in need of replication, the results suggest tentatively that poor inhibitory control may constitute a long-term risk factor for relapse and could be a target for intervention. [source]

    Task shifting in the management of epilepsy in resource-poor settings

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2010
    Andre P. Kengne
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Decision-making in Parkinson's disease patients with and without pathological gambling

    M. Rossi
    Background and purpose:, Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent impulse control disorder associated mainly with dopamine replacement therapy. As impairments in decision-making were described independently in PG and PD, the objective of this study was to assess decision-making processes in PD patients with and without PG. Methods:, Seven PD patients with PG and 13 age, sex, education and disease severity matched PD patients without gambling behavior were enrolled in the study. All patients were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychiatric and cognitive evaluation, including tasks used to assess decision-making abilities under ambiguous or risky situations, like the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Game of Dice Task and the Investment Task. Results:, Compared to PD patients without gambling behavior, those with PG obtained poorer scores in the IGT and in a rating scale of social behavior, but not in other decision-making and cognitive tasks. Conclusions:, Low performance in decision-making under ambiguity and abnormal social behavior distinguished PD patients with PG from those without this disorder. Dopamine replacement therapy may induce dysfunction of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala-ventral striatum system, thus increasing the risk for developing PG. [source]

    Assessment of multiple implicit self-concept dimensions using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST)

    Sarah Teige
    This study explored the psychometric properties of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003a) as adapted for the measurement of the implicit self-concept of personality. The EAST was adapted to allow the simultaneous assessment of the three traits shyness, anxiousness, and angriness. In order to test the EAST's psychometric properties, 100 participants completed a trait EAST, Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and direct self-ratings. The EAST showed low internal consistencies and correlated neither with the IATs nor with the direct measures. The main problem of the EAST, namely its low reliability, is discussed, and general conclusions regarding the indirect assessment of the personality self-concept by EASTs are derived. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Global Simulation: A Student-Centered, Task-Based Format for Intermediate Foreign Language Courses

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Glenn S. Levine PhD
    The course format requires students to collaboratively complete a long-term task organized around a single premise or scenario. In the process, they learn about particular aspects of the target culture and language, similarly to a traditional content course. Yet the objective is to make use of the content knowledge in functioning within and completing the simulation. Three example German courses are presented, followed by specific guidelines for designing a global simulation course. [source]

    Enhancing Learners' Communication Skills through Synchronous Electronic Interaction and Task-Based Instruction

    Lina Lee
    ABSTRACT: Online interactive exchange offers the learner many opportunities to use the target language to negotiate both meaning and form in a social context that is crucial for second language acquisition. This paper discusses a pilot study using synchronous electronic chats combined with task-based instruction (TBI) to enhance learners' communication skills. TBI focuses on the two-way exchange of information on real-life topics. This pilot study shows that computer-mediated communication using less structure-controlled but more open-ended exchange had a significant impact on the process of language learning. Students benefited from online task-based activities because they had to access different functional skills to construct and negotiate meaning collaboratively. However, foreign language educators need to be aware that the quick cyberspace interactions impeded students from producing correct and coherent discourse, especially during learner-learner interaction. One corrective technique is to make students reexamine and revise their exchanges with guided instruction. [source]

    Prefrontal cortex activity is reduced in gambling and nongambling substance users during decision-making,

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 12 2007
    Jody Tanabe
    Abstract Objective: Poor decision-making is a hallmark of addiction, whether to substances or activities. Performance on a widely used test of decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can discriminate controls from persons with ventral medial frontal lesions, substance-dependence, and pathological gambling. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies indicate that substance-dependent individuals show altered prefrontal activity on the task. Here we adapted the IGT to an fMRI setting to test the hypothesis that defects in ventral medial and prefrontal processing are associated with impaired decisions that involve risk but may differ depending on whether substance dependence is comorbid with gambling problems. Method: 18 controls, 14 substance-dependent individuals (SD), and 16 SD with gambling problems (SDPG) underwent fMRI while performing a modified version of the IGT. Result: Group differences were observed in ventral medial frontal, right frontopolar, and superior frontal cortex during decision-making. Controls showed the greatest activity, followed by SDPG, followed by SD. Conclusion: Our results support a hypothesis that defects in ventral medial frontal processing lead to impaired decisions that involve risk. Reductions in right prefrontal activity during decision-making appear to be modulated by the presence of gambling problems and may reflect impaired working memory, stimulus reward valuation, or cue reactivity in substance-dependent individuals. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Simplified intersubject averaging on the cortical surface using SUMA

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2006
    Brenna D. Argall
    Abstract Task and group comparisons in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are often accomplished through the creation of intersubject average activation maps. Compared with traditional volume-based intersubject averages, averages made using computational models of the cortical surface have the potential to increase statistical power because they reduce intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. We describe a two-step method for creating intersubject surface averages. In the first step cortical surface models are created for each subject and the locations of the anterior and posterior commissures (AC and PC) are aligned. In the second step each surface is standardized to contain the same number of nodes with identical indexing. An anatomical average from 28 subjects created using the AC,PC technique showed greater sulcal and gyral definition than the corresponding volume-based average. When applied to an fMRI dataset, the AC,PC method produced greater maximum, median, and mean t -statistics in the average activation map than did the volume average and gave a better approximation to the theoretical-ideal average calculated from individual subjects. The AC,PC method produced average activation maps equivalent to those produced with surface-averaging methods that use high-dimensional morphing. In comparison with morphing methods, the AC,PC technique does not require selection of a template brain and does not introduce deformations of sulcal and gyral patterns, allowing for group analysis within the original folded topology of each individual subject. The tools for performing AC,PC surface averaging are implemented and freely available in the SUMA software package. Hum Brain Mapp, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Young Infants' Performance in the Object-Variation Version of the Above-Below Categorization Task: A Result of Perceptual Distraction or Conceptual Limitation?

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2002
    Paul C. Quinn
    Five experiments were conducted to examine the performance of young infants on above versus below categorization tasks. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that infants did not form abstract categorical representations for above and below when familiarized with different objects depicted in a constant spatial relation relative to a horizontal bar and tested on a novel object depicted in the familiar and novel spatial relation. Experiments 3 through 5 examined perceptual-attentional distraction versus conceptually based generalization explanations for young infant performance in the object-variation version of the above-below categorization task. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that infants still did not form abstract categorical representations for above and below when object variation was removed from the familiarization trials or when object novelty was reduced during the preference test trials. However, Experiment 5 showed that 3- and 4-month-olds succeeded on the above versus below categorization task when familiarized with object variation and preference tested with a familiar versus novel object-bar relation. These results indicate that young infants can form categorical representations for above and below in the object-variation version of the above-below categorization task, but that such representations are specific to the particular objects presented. Young infant performance in the object-variation version of the above-below categorization task thus reflects a conceptually based generalization limit rather than a problem of perceptual-attentional distraction. [source]

    Brain Electrical Activity Associated With Cognitive Processing During a Looking Version of the A-Not-B Task

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2001
    Martha Ann Bell
    This work was designed to investigate individual differences in brain electrical activity during a looking version of the A-not-B task. It was proposed that this spatial task required the cognitive skills of working memory and inhibitory control, each associated with frontal lobe function. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 54 8-month-old infants during baseline and task. Only high performers on the looking task exhibited increases in 6- to 9-Hz EEG power from baseline to task. These task-related changes were evident at frontal and posterior scalp locations. High performers on the looking task exhibited lower EEG coherence values at right hemisphere frontal locations relative to the low performers. These lower coherence values were evident during baseline and task. All infants showed increased frontal-parietal coherence during the spatial working memory task relative to baseline values. These data confirm previous cognitive neuroscience work associating frontal lobe function with cognitive performance levels during infancy. [source]

    ,You be the big sister': Maternal-preschooler internal state discourse, perspective-taking, and sibling caretaking

    Nina Howe
    Abstract Maternal,preschooler internal state discourse, preschooler perspective-taking, and sibling caretaking for 32 dyads (preschooler M age=46.4 months, toddlers=14 months) was examined across three contexts varying in emotional demands: (a) naturalistic home observations, (b) mother,preschooler book reading (Parent,Child Affect Communication Task; Zahn-Waxler, Ridgeway, Denham, Usher and Cole, 1993), and (c) a laboratory maternal separation session. Preschooler perspective-taking was positively associated with emotional understanding during book reading. However, mothers did not adjust their internal state discourse in any of the three contexts to reflect preschoolers' perspective-taking skills. Both preschooler internal state language during sibling conflict and maternal leave-taking discourse were associated with sibling caretaking. Findings are discussed in light of the role of family discourse and dynamics in the development of children's social understanding. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Task-based language learning research: expecting too much or too little?

    Pauline Foster
    taakgericht taalleren; onderzoeksbetrouwbaarheid; implicaties voor het onderwijs; onderwijs aan docenten; evaluatie van docenten There are many assumptions about task-based language learning (TBLL) for which empirical support would be illuminating. Some of these are researchable and others are not, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Robust investigations into learning are not easy to design and should not necessarily be regarded as the pathfinder for language pedagogy, though critics sometimes may represent research into TBLL as claiming this role. This paper argues for a greater understanding of the scope of educational research, and a greater role for it in shaping best practice in classrooms. Er zijn veel veronderstellingen over taakgericht taal leren (tgtl) waarvoor empirische onderbouwing verhelderend zou zijn. Sommige van deze veronderstellingen vallen wel te onderzoeken maar andere niet , dit verschil is belangrijk. Het is niet makkelijk om degelijk onderzoek naar ,leren' te ontwerpen. Daarom moeten we dit niet zien als de enige juiste manier van onderzoek doen naar taalonderwijs, ook al doen critici soms als of onderzoek naar tgtl deze rol wil vervullen. Dit artikel pleit voor een beter begrip van het bereik van onderzoek naar onderwijs en wil bovendien dit soort onderzoek een grotere rol toekennen bij de ontwikkeling van ,best practices' voor de onderwijspraktijk. [source]

    University timetabling through conceptual modeling

    Jonathan Lee
    A number of approaches have been proposed in tackling the timetabling problem, such as operational research, human-machine interaction, constraint programming, expert systems, and neural networks. However, there are still several key challenges to be addressed: easily reformulated to support changes, a generalized framework to handle various timetabling problems, and ability to incorporate knowledge in the timetabling system. In this article, we propose an automatic software engineering approach, called task-based conceptual graphs, to addressing the challenges in the timetabling problem. Task-based conceptual graphs provide the automation of software development processes including specification, verification, and automatic programming. Maintenance can be directly performed on the specifications rather than on the source code; moreover, hard and soft constraints can be easily inserted or removed. A university timetabling system in the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering at National Central University is used as an illustrative example for the proposed approach. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Int Syst 20: 1137,1160, 2005. [source]

    Studying the relation between temporal reward discounting tasks used in populations with ADHD: A factor analysis

    Anouk Scheres
    Abstract Background: This study aimed at investigating the relationship between tasks that have been used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to measure choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed rewards: real and hypothetical temporal discounting tasks, and single-choice paradigms. Methods: Participants were 55 undergraduate psychology students. Tasks included a real and hypothetical version of a temporal discounting (TD) task with choices between a large reward (10 cents) after delays up to 60 seconds, and smaller immediate rewards (2,8 cents); two versions of a hypothetical temporal discounting task with choices between a large reward ($100) after delays up to 120 months, and smaller immediate rewards ($1,$95); a Choice Delay Task with choices between one point now and two points after 30 seconds (one point is worth five cents). Results: Correlation analyses showed that the real and the hypothetical TD tasks with 10 cents were very strongly associated. However, the hypothetical TD tasks with $100 did not correlate with either the real or the hypothetical TD task with 10 cents. Principal component analysis extracted two components: one for small amounts and short delays, and a second one for large rewards and long delays. Conclusions: Temporal reward discounting is not a uniform construct. Functional brain imaging research could shed more light on unique brain activation patterns associated with different forms of temporal reward discounting. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Task-Based Assessment Centers: Empirical support for a systems model

    Duncan J. R. Jackson
    Task-based assessment centers (TBACs) have been suggested to hold promise for practitioners and users of real-world ACs. However, a theoretical understanding of this approach is lacking in the literature, which leads to misunderstandings. The present study tested aspects of a systems model empirically, to help elucidate TBACs and explore their inner workings. When applied to data from an AC completed by 214 managers, canonical correlation analysis revealed that extraversion, abstract reasoning, and verbal reasoning, conceptualized as inputs into a system, explained around 21% of variance in manifest assessment center behavior. Behavior, in this regard, was found to consist of both general and situationally specific elements. Results are discussed in terms of their support for a systems model and as they pertain to the literature on TBACs. [source]

    Incremental Validity of Situational Judgment Tests for Task and Contextual Job Performance

    Matthew S. O'Connell
    This paper has three goals. First, it responds to calls for additional research on subgroup differences in situational judgment tests. Second, it expands the cumulative knowledge on the incremental validity of situational judgment tests beyond cognitive ability and personality. Third, it examines the validity and incremental validity of various predictors for both task and contextual performance. [source]

    Effect on Restaurant Tipping of Presenting Customers With an Interesting Task and of Reciprocity

    Bruce Rind
    Research has shown that servers can increase their tip percentages by positively influencing customers' mood and using the compliance technique of reciprocity. These factors were examined in the current study. An experiment was conducted in which a female server either did or did not present customers with a novel, interesting task that has been shown in previous research to stimulate interest and enhance mood. Additionally, sometimes she allowed customers to keep the task, in an attempt to elicit reciprocity. It was predicted that both of these manipulations would increase tip percentages. Presenting customers with the interesting task did increase tips, from about 18.5% to 22%, although the reciprocity manipulation had no effect. [source]

    Why are maximizers less happy than satisficers?

    Because they maximize positive, negative outcomes
    Abstract Although extant research suggests maximizing is related to objectively positive outcomes (e.g., job offers), I propose maximizing may be simultaneously and positively related to objectively negative outcomes (e.g., job rejections). Specifically, I argue maximizers bear more instances of positive and negative outcomes than satisficers, and that in spite of their positive outcomes,yet because of their negative outcomes,maximizers are less happy than satisficers. In Study 1, participants took the alternate uses test; as expected, maximizing was related to seeking alternatives, yet, maximizing was also related to seeking low-quality alternatives. Moreover, the number of low-quality alternatives partially mediated the relationship between maximizing and negative affect. In Study 2, the impact of maximizing on experiencing negative affect was further assessed by examining whether maximizing is related to seeking and choosing low-quality alternatives. Participants played the Iowa Gambling Task; it was found maximizing was related to alternating among decks, and in particular, sampling bad decks; ultimately, maximizing was related to winning less money, and experiencing more negative affect. Finally, in Study 3, participants responded to questionnaires about positive and negative life outcomes; it was found that maximizing was simultaneously related to experiencing more positive and more negative outcomes, and that negative outcomes predicted happiness to a greater degree than positive outcomes. These findings suggest an irony of maximizing: It produces both positive and negative outcomes, contributing to literature explaining why maximizers are less happy than satisficers, and ultimately whether happiness is a matter of choice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Physical discipline, escalation, and child abuse potential: psychometric evidence for the Analog Parenting Task

    Mary Bower Russa
    Abstract Data from three studies provide new evidence to support the validity of the Analog Parenting Task (APT) as an instrument to assess risk for harsh, physically aggressive parenting. In this series of studies, there was a strong association between APT scores of expected use and escalation of discipline strategies and self-reported disciplinary attitudes. APT scores were also associated with physical abuse potential as assessed by both a well-established measure of child abuse potential (Child Abuse Potential Inventory) and another instrument designed specifically for use in pre-parent populations (e.g., Adult,Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2). This study provides new psychometric evidence to support the use of the APT to assess harsh parenting. Additionally, these data highlight the connection between acceptance and use of physical disciplinary strategies, propensity for disciplinary escalation, and risk for abuse perpetration. The findings are discussed in the context of Milner's Social Information Processing model [Milner, 2003] of abuse, which suggests that parental selection of disciplinary responding and the monitoring of disciplinary responding are key events in the disciplinary process. The APT may prove a useful adjunct to more commonly used self-report measures to allow for multimethod assessment of risk for punitive parenting. Aggr. Behav. 36:251,260, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    How students and instructors using a virtual learning environment perceive the fit between technology and task

    T.J. McGill
    Abstract Virtual learning environments (VLEs) are widespread in higher education today, typically used to deliver instructional materials and facilitate communication within a course. This study aimed to investigate the task,technology fit of VLEs for their two main groups of users: instructors and students, using the VLE WebCT. Task,technology fit, user satisfaction, attitude towards use and anticipated consequences of use were found to be significantly higher for students than for instructors. Instructors were found to have higher perceptions of social norms and higher perceptions of facilitating conditions than students. However, there was no difference between the instructors and students in level of utilization of the VLE. Students perceived that the VLE had higher impacts on their learning compared with instructors' perceptions regarding their teaching. These results suggest that despite high levels of support acknowledged by instructors, they may still be unsure about the contribution of VLEs to their teaching. [source]

    Defensive Copers Show a Deficit in Passive Avoidance Learning on Newman's Go/No-Go Task: Implications for Self-Deception and Socialization

    Matthew S. Shane
    High-anxious individuals, low-anxious individuals, and defensive copers completed a computerized go/no-go task, in which they learned when to press or not to press a button, in response to contingent positive and negative feedback. The duration that feedback remained onscreen was self-regulated. Defensive copers showed preferential reflection away from negative feedback, committed more passive-avoidance errors, and were characterized by impaired learning, overall. Further, the ratio of reflection on negative feedback to reflection on positive feedback directly mediated both passive-avoidance errors and overall learning. Defensive coping strategies, therefore, appear to interfere with passive avoidance learning, thereby fostering perseverative, dysfunctional action patterns by reducing knowledge gained from previous mistakes. Implications for the learning of effective socialization strategies, and for psychopathy,which is commonly characterized by similar passive-avoidance deficits,are subsequently considered. [source]

    The Role of Personality in Task and Relationship Conflict

    Joyce E. Bono
    ABSTRACT Two studies explored the extent to which dispositions influence the attributions individuals make about the type of conflict they experience. Traits from the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) were linked to the tendency to experience task-and relationship-oriented conflict. Results provide some support for the idea that individuals have stable tendencies in the attributions they make about their conflict experiences across time, partners, and situations. Agreeableness and openness were related to reports of relationship conflict at the individual level. However, the strongest effects of personality on conflict attributions were found in the analysis of dyads. This analysis revealed that partner levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with individuals' tendencies to report relationship conflict. Moreover, mean levels of extraversion and conscientiousness in a pair were associated with reports of relationship conflict. Differences between partners in extraversion were associated with more frequent conflict and a greater likelihood of reporting task-related conflict. Implications of these findings with respect to the role of personality in interpersonal relationships are discussed. Finally, these studies provide confirmatory evidence that conflict attributions have a meaningful impact on relationship satisfaction. [source]

    Effects of a Novel Cognition-Enhancing Agent on Fetal Ethanol-Induced Learning Deficits

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Daniel D. Savage
    Background:, Drinking during pregnancy has been associated with learning disabilities in affected offspring. At present, there are no clinically effective pharmacotherapeutic interventions for these learning deficits. Here, we examined the effects of ABT-239, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, on fetal ethanol-induced fear conditioning and spatial memory deficits. Methods and Results:, Long-Evans rat dams stably consumed a mean of 2.82 g ethanol/kg during a 4-hour period each day during pregnancy. This voluntary drinking pattern produced a mean peak serum ethanol level of 84 mg/dl. Maternal weight gain, litter size and birth weights were not different between the ethanol-consuming and control groups. Female adult offspring from the control and fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) groups received saline or 1 mg ABT-239/kg 30 minutes prior to fear conditioning training. Three days later, freezing time to the context was significantly reduced in saline-treated FAE rats compared to control. Freezing time in ABT-239-treated FAE rats was not different than that in controls. In the spatial navigation study, adult male offspring received a single injection of saline or ABT-239 30 minutes prior to 12 training trials on a fixed platform version of the Morris Water Task. All rats reached the same performance asymptote on Trials 9 to 12 on Day 1. However, 4 days later, first-trial retention of platform location was significantly worse in the saline-treated FAE rats compared control offspring. Retention by ABT-239-treated FAE rats was similar to that by controls. ABT-239's effect on spatial memory retention in FAE rats was dose dependent. Conclusions:, These results suggest that ABT-239 administered prior to training can improve retention of acquired information by FAE offspring on more challenging versions of hippocampal-sensitive learning tasks. Further, the differential effects of ABT-239 in FAE offspring compared to controls raises questions about the impact of fetal ethanol exposure on histaminergic neurotransmission in affected offspring. [source]

    Strain Differences in Behavioral Inhibition in a Go/No-go Task Demonstrated Using 15 Inbred Mouse Strains

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Noah R. Gubner
    Background:, High levels of impulsivity have been associated with a number of substance abuse disorders including alcohol abuse. Research has not yet revealed whether these high levels predate the development of alcohol abuse. Methods:, The current study examined impulsivity in 15 inbred strains of mice (A/HeJ, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, C58/J, CBA/J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, NZB/B1NJ, PL/J, SJL/J, SWR/J, and 129P3/J) using a Go/No-go task, which was designed to measure a subject's ability to inhibit a behavior. Numerous aspects of response to ethanol and other drugs of abuse have been examined in these strains. Results:, There were significant strain differences in the number of responses made during the No-go signal (false alarms) and the extent to which strains responded differentially during the Go and No-go signals (d,). The rate of responding prior to the cue did not differ among strains, although there was a statistically significant correlation between false alarms and precue responding that was not related to basal activity level. Interstrain correlations suggested that false alarms and rate of responding were associated with strain differences in ethanol-related traits from the published literature. Conclusions:, The results of this study do support a link between innate level of impulsivity and response to ethanol and are consistent with a genetic basis for some measures of behavioral inhibition. [source]

    Increased Activation of the ACC During a Spatial Working Memory Task in Alcohol-Dependence Versus Heavy Social Drinking

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
    Sabine Vollstädt-Klein
    Background:, Activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in a spatial working memory task has been associated with risk factors for alcohol use disorders such as low alcohol effects and positive alcohol expectations in adolescents. To transfer these results into adults, we used the same task in adults. Methods:, During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 12 light social, 7 heavy social, and 11 non-abstinent-dependent alcohol drinkers performed a spatial working memory task and completed measures of automatic alcohol-related thoughts and behavior (Obsessive,Compulsive Drinking Scale,OCDS), alcohol use of the last 90 days, and general intelligence. Results:, Behavioral performance in the spatial working memory task was not significantly different in all 3 groups. Controlling for differences in general intelligence alcohol-dependent participants showed a higher task-related activation of the dorsal ACC (dACC) in comparison with light and heavy social drinkers. Measures of the OCDS were positively correlated with the activation in the left hippocampus and right thalamus in all participants. Conclusions:, Our results support the findings of increased dACC activation during a spatial working memory task as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. Increased task-related activation in the dACC was only observed in alcohol-dependent participants and not in heavy social drinkers with comparable alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the absence of behavioral performance differences between groups as well as an association between dACC activation and working memory performance indicates subtle working memory deficits. Low capacity of working memory has been linked to more automatic and less self-regulated behavior in studies on natural reward processing. Therefore, additional neural activation during performance of the non-alcohol-related working memory task in participants with higher OCDS values in the left hippocampus and the right thalamus may be a consequence of decreased neural capacity because of distracting alcohol-related thoughts. [source]