Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Taking

  • history taking
  • perspective taking
  • risk taking

  • Terms modified by Taking

  • taking account
  • taking medication
  • taking place
  • taking placebo

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2007
    T. F. MORRIS
    I offer an exegesis of a few pages of the Concluding Unscientific Postscript and explain how going to Deer Park religiously fits into the general structure of Kierkegaard's thought. Because desiring God requires passion, and passion requires energy, there is a limit to how long any individual person can maintain a continuous desire for God. Kierkegaard discusses how a person who is at that limit can maintain a less intense love of God as he allows himself to desire temporal things. [source]

    What Do Data Say About Monetary Policy, Bank Liquidity and Bank Risk Taking?

    ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 2 2007
    Marcella Lucchetta
    This paper tests empirically the linkage between banks' investment and interbank lending decisions in response to interest rate changes. We draw conclusions for the monetary policy, which uses the interest rate as its main tool. Across European countries we find that the risk-free (i.e. monetary policy) interest rate negatively affects the liquidity retained by banks and the decision of a bank to be a lender in the interbank market. Instead, the interbank interest rate has a positive impact on these decisions. We also find that banks who lend show less risk-taking behaviour and tend to be smaller than those who are borrowers. Most importantly, the risk-free interest rate is positively correlated with loans investment and bank risk-taking behaviour. [source]

    Does smoking in adolescence affect body mass index, waist or height?

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2007
    Findings from a longitudinal study
    ABSTRACT Aim To assess the effect of smoking uptake on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and height during adolescence. Design Five-year longitudinal study. Setting Thirty-six schools in South London, England, selected by a stratified random sampling procedure designed to ensure ethnic and socio-economic diversity. Participants A total of 5863 students took part in the HABITS (Health and Behaviour in Teenagers) Study between 1999 and 2003. Measurements Self-reported smoking behaviour, saliva cotinine concentrations and measured weight, waist circumference and height were obtained, along with information on gender, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation, pubertal status, self-reported exercise and dieting. Students were examined annually from school year 7 (ages 11,12) to year 11 (ages 15,16), with response rates ranging from 74 to 84%. A total of 2665 never smokers at year 7 with complete data for years 7 and 11 were included in the analyses. Findings Adjusting for year 7 BMI and other potential confounders, regular smokers (more than six cigarettes a week) at year 11 had significantly lower BMI (P = 0.002) than other students. Smokers defined by a cotinine above 15 ng/ml also had lower BMI (P < 0.0001). Waist circumferences were lower in regular smokers (P = 0.014) and cotinine-defined smokers (P < 0.011). No consistent association was found between smoking and height. The adjusted difference in weight between regular smokers and other students amounted to 1.8 kg (95% CI, 0.52,3.17) for an average-height student. Conclusion Taking up regular smoking during adolescence may result in a lower BMI, but the effect is small and of uncertain significance. [source]

    Particularity and Perspective Taking: On Feminism and Habermas's Discourse Theory of Morality

    HYPATIA, Issue 4 2004
    Charles WrightArticle first published online: 16 DEC 200
    Seyla Benhabib's critique of Jürgen Habermas's moral theory claims that his approach is not adequate for the needs of a feminist moral theory. I argue that her analysis is mistaken. I also show that Habermas's moral theory, properly understood, satisfies many of the conditions identified by feminist moral philosophers as necessary for an adequate moral theory. A discussion of the compatibility between the model of reciprocal perspective taking found in Habermas's moral theory and that found in Maria Lugones's essay "Playfulness,,World'-Travelling, and Loving Perception" reinforces the claim that his moral theory holds as yet unrecognized promise for feminist moral philosophy. [source]

    Construction of consumer choice in the market: challenges for environmental policy

    Johanna Moisander
    Abstract Drawing from the literature on the analytics of government, the paper discusses marketing as a form of government, elaborating and illustrating the many ways in which consumer choice is shaped, modified and directed in the market through practices and techniques of consumer marketing. The aim is to critically reflect upon and render problematic the individualistic ideas of the green consumer as a powerful market force and to provoke discussion on the conceptualization , and construction , of consumer subjectivity and social problems in marketing. Taking examples particularly from the fashion and clothing industry, the paper discusses the ways in which marketing activities come to shape consumer conduct by operating through the choice of individuals who freely pursue their needs and desires, and by working on the environment within which this freedom of choice is exercised. The paper contributes to the literature on green consumerism by systematically interrogating and elaborating on the modes and practices of marketing thought and expertise through which consumers and consumption are rendered intelligible and actionable in the market. [source]

    Cultural Background and Individualistic,Collectivistic Values in Relation to Similarity, Perspective Taking, and Empathy

    Miriam S. Heinke
    A path model testing antecedents and consequences of perceived similarity was examined for Asian and European Australian participants (N = 240). Cultural background and values were measured, and participants read scenarios describing a target in distress acting according to individualistic or collectivistic values. Consistent with past research, feeling similar to the target was linked to perspective taking and empathy. Moreover, Asian participants were more collectivistic, and collectivistic values were linked to higher empathy. In the present data, however, both endorsed higher levels of collectivism than individualism; individualism scores were equal; and the two values were positively correlated. Moreover, neither cultural background nor values were consistently linked to similarity. Implications are discussed for research on cultural background, values, and social interactions. [source]

    The Theory of Planned Behavior and Ecstasy Use: Roles for Habit and Perceived Control Over Taking Versus Obtaining Substances

    Sheina Orbell
    Despite increasing use of the illicit substance known as ecstasy, there is a paucity of research concerning psychosocial correlates of its use. A prospective study examined the ability of variables specified by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict ecstasyuse intentions and behavior. Regression analyses showed that theory of reasoned action and TPB variables provided good prediction of intentions to use the substance. Moreover, support was obtained for a distinction between perceptions of behavioral control over taking ecstasy vs. control over obtaining the substance in the prediction of intentions. Habit contributed additional variance to the prediction of intentions, and reduced the effects of perceived behavioral control over taking ecstasy to nonsignificance. Ecstasy use over 2 months was directly predicted from intentions to use the substance. [source]

    The (Cuban) Voice of the (Curaçaoan) People: The Making (And Taking) of a Collective Memory

    At the turn of the 20th century, Afro-Curaçaoans developed an affinity for Cuban culture that influenced the manner to which they came to define their own collective memory. Cuba was raised to mythological status, appropriated and adapted to fit Curaçaoan daily life, enabling a new and inventive sense of belonging. This essay speaks to the intricacies involved in memory-making, with the Cuban-inspired memory of memories on Curaçao introduced as a relative category. It points to the variegated and tenuous nature of memory, showing how the past, when negotiated with the present, can shape group goals and demarcate membership. [source]

    Level of Concern and Precaution Taking Among Australians Regarding Travel During Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: Results From the 2009 Queensland Social Survey

    Background. Global disease outbreaks, such as the recent Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (the so-called Swine flu), may have an impact on travel, including raising the concerns of travelers. The objective of this study was to examine the level of concern of Australians regarding travel during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and how this impacted on their travel. Methods. Data were collected by interviews as part of the Queensland Social Survey (QSS) 2009. Specific questions were incorporated regarding travel and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze associations between demographic variables and concern and likelihood of cancelling travel. Results. There were 1,292 respondents (41.5% response rate). The sample was nearly equally divided between males and females (50.2% vs 49.8%). Younger people (18,34 y) were under-represented in the sample; older people (>55y) were over-represented in the sample. About half (53.2%) of respondents indicated some level of concern about Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 when traveling and just over one-third (35.5%) indicated they would likely cancel their air travel if they had a cough and fever that lasted more than one day. When cross-tabulating these responses, people who expressed concern regarding Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 when they traveled were more likely than those without concern to cancel their air travel if they had a cough and fever lasting more than one day (44.7% vs 27.7%, ,2 = 33.53, p < 0.001). People with higher levels of education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.651], people with higher incomes (AOR: 0.528) and people living outside of metropolitan Southeast Queensland (AOR: 0.589) were less likely to be concerned about Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 when traveling, and younger people (AOR: 0.469) were less likely than others to cancel travel if they had a cough and fever. Conclusions. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was of some concern to more than half of Queensland travelers. None-the-less, the majority of Queenslanders would not have postponed their own travel, even if they exhibited symptoms consistent with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. [source]

    Of Clues and Signs: The Dead Body and Its Evidential Traces

    Zoe¨ Crossland
    ABSTRACT Taking the conflict over the remains of Ned Kelly as a starting point, in this article I trace the various conceptions of the, body as evidence within the intertwined histories of anthropology, criminology, and medicine to explore how anthropological practice brings the dead into being through exhumation and analysis. I outline the popular rhetorical tropes within which evidentiary claims are situated, exploring how the agency of people after death is understood within the framework of present-day forensic anthropological practice and how this is underwritten by a particular heritage of anatomical analysis. [Keywords: archaeology, forensic anthropology, materiality, semiotics of the body] [source]

    Death is That Man Taking Names

    Karla Momberger
    Death is That Man Taking Names Robert A. Burt (Berkeley: University of California Press; New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 2002) [source]

    The Political Fallout of Taking a Stand: The President, Congress, and the Schiavo Case

    Federal government involvement in the case of terminally ill Terri Schiavo provides an interesting opportunity to explore the potential impact of specific institutional actions on public approval of those institutions. We analyze national survey data from the period of federal intervention and a poll conducted several months later. Our analyses, which account for time and exposure to political news, suggest that presidential and congressional actions in the case were associated with a decline in approval for the president and congressional leaders. Thus, the president and Congress can pay a political price when they take high-profile actions a significant majority of the public opposes. [source]

    Taking Rights less Seriously.

    RATIO JURIS, Issue 4 2007
    A Structural Analysis of Judicial Discretion
    The strengths and weaknesses of both Dworkin and Hart are analysed, and in view of these, it is argued that a full picture of judicial discretion is between the two extremes. Thus, a moderate theory of judicial discretion is maintained which is based on achievements by Robert Alexy (2002b). The article develops a balancing model of discretion and relates it to the theory of legal argumentation. The limits of discretion and the relation between structural (strong) and epistemic (weak) discretion are addressed in detail, both with illustrations from the jurisdiction of the German Federal Constitutional Court. [source]

    The Effect of Attending a Small Class in the Early Grades on College-test Taking and Middle School Test Results: Evidence from Project Star

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 468 2001
    Alan B. Krueger
    This paper provides a long-term follow-up analysis of students who participated in the Tennessee STAR experiment. In this experiment, students and their teachers were randomly assigned to small, regular-size, or regular-size classes with a teacher aide in the first four years of school. We analyse the effect of past attendance in small classes on student test scores and whether they took the ACT or SAT college entrance exam. Attending a small class in the early grades is associated with an increased likelihood of taking a college-entrance exam, especially among minority students, and somewhat higher test scores. [source]

    Taking ,Big Government Conservatism' Seriously?

    The Bush Presidency Reconsidered
    This article reflects on the ongoing debate about the ideological direction of the Bush presidency and what it means for the future of US conservatism in domestic policy. The paper considers the dual nature of US conservatism and then goes on to explore the ,conservative promise' of the 2000 presidential election and the debate over what critiques of the Bush administration have come to call ,big government conservatism'. Finally, the article studies two examples of how this alleged ,big government conservatism' has been manifested. First, the article contemplates the administration's fiscal policy. Second it looks at the 2003 reform of the Medicare system. We argue that, although these two cases provide some ground to the idea of ,big government conservatism', in the end this phenomenon does not add up to a coherent policy vision. Overall, beyond tax cuts, the Bush administration has failed to implement a bold conservative agenda. [source]

    Entrepreneurship and Risk Taking

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Anna Macko
    According to the definition of entrepreneurship and everyday observation, entrepreneurs are perceived as more risk prone than other people. However, laboratory studies do not provide conclusive support for this claim. In our study, three groups of students served as subjects. One group of students did not express any intention of starting up their own business in the near future. The second group consisted of students who had participated in a special course designed for future entrepreneurs. The third group consisted of students or alumni who became entrepreneurs before graduating. In accordance with Knight's claim, we found that actual entrepreneurs revealed the highest, and students who did not express an intention of starting their own business the lowest, level of self-confidence of all groups participating in the experiment. On the other hand, in well-defined risky situations we did not confirm a hypothesis that would-be entrepreneurs or actual entrepreneurs were more risk prone than students with no intention of starting a business. Yet, in naturalistic-business risky situations we found more risky choices among entrepreneurs than among non-entrepreneurs. Conformément à la définition même de l'esprit d'entreprise et à l'observation quotidienne, les entrepreneurs sont perçus comme étant plus enclins que les autres personnes à prendre des risques. Seulement, les recherches expérimentales ne confirment pas de façon définitive cette conception. Notre étude a porté sur trois groupes d'étudiants. L'un des groupes n'avait aucunement l'intention de créer une entreprise dans un avenir prévisible. Le deuxième groupe était composé d'étudiants qui suivaient un cours spécialement destiné aux futurs entrepreneurs. Le troisième groupe rassemblait des étudiants ou d'anciens étudiants qui devinrent entrepreneurs avant d'être diplômés. En accord avec les propositions de Knight, on a constaté que les entrepreneurs étaient ceux qui avaient la plus forte confiance en eux-mêmes et les jeunes qui n'éprouvaient aucune vocation d'entrepreneur la plus faible. D'autre part, face à des situations de risque bien précises, il fut impossible de corroborer l'hypothèse que les aspirants entrepreneurs ou les chefs d'entreprise étaient plus portés sur le risque que les étudiants n'ayant aucunement l'intention de fonder une entreprise. Toutefois, devant des décisions risquées dans des situations concrètes industrielles ou commerciales, on a observé plus de choix aventureux chez les entrepreneurs que chez ceux qui ne l'étaient pas. [source]

    The relation between two polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor gene and body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol in obese patients

    Anna Maria Di Blasio
    Summary objective ,We have recently reported that, in healthy elderly Dutch individuals, a N363S polymorphism in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is associated with higher sensitivity to low-dose dexamethasone (0·25 mg), evaluated as both cortisol suppression and insulin response, and with an increased body mass index (BMI). In the present study we investigated the role of the N363S polymorphism, and a BclI restriction site polymorphism in a group of Italian patients with severe obesity. design Two hundred and seventy-nine patients (mean BMI 45·9 ± 0·9 kg/m2) were genotyped using both PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and Taqman Sequence Detection System. Determination of several metabolic and antropometric parameters was also performed in order to correlate them to the genotype. results In this group of obese patients, 13 subjects (eight female, five males) were heterozygous for the N363S variant (allelic frequency 2·3%) and had significantly higher BMI (P < 0·04), resting energy expenditure (P < 0·03) and food intake (P < 0·01) when compared to wild-type homozygotes. When the data were analysed according to sex, female heterozygotes for the N363S allele had significantly higher BMI (P = 0·04), resting energy expenditure (P = 0·03) and food intake (P = 0·008) than obese women with the wild-type 363 GR gene. Male carriers of this variant also had higher values for these variables although the differences did not reach statistical significance. A case,control study with homozygous wild-type obese subjects which were age-, sex- and BMI-matched, revealed no difference in resting energy expenditure and food intake. The allele frequency of the BclI variant was 27% (89 females and 41 males out of 269 subjects). No differences in anthropometric and metabolic parameters were found between subjects heterozygous or homozygous for this variant GR in this obese population. However, when we studied the effect of the presence of the BclI polymorphism and the N363S variant in the same individual, we found that the subjects who carried both polymorphisms had a tendency towards higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significantly higher total and LDL-cholesterol levels (P = 0·005 and P = 0·05, respectively). discussion Taking the results of this study and those obtained in the Dutch population, we speculate that heterozygous carriers of the N363S variant who develop obesity, may become even more obese, possibly because they have a hypersensitive insulin response and thus, via activation of lipogenesis, store fat more efficiently. Furthermore, these data suggest that N363S carriers who carry the BclI polymorphism as well, tend to have a slightly unfavourable cardiovascular profile. [source]

    OpenMP-oriented applications for distributed shared memory architectures

    Ami Marowka
    Abstract The rapid rise of OpenMP as the preferred parallel programming paradigm for small-to-medium scale parallelism could slow unless OpenMP can show capabilities for becoming the model-of-choice for large scale high-performance parallel computing in the coming decade. The main stumbling block for the adaptation of OpenMP to distributed shared memory (DSM) machines, which are based on architectures like cc-NUMA, stems from the lack of capabilities for data placement among processors and threads for achieving data locality. The absence of such a mechanism causes remote memory accesses and inefficient cache memory use, both of which lead to poor performance. This paper presents a simple software programming approach called copy-inside,copy-back (CC) that exploits the data privatization mechanism of OpenMP for data placement and replacement. This technique enables one to distribute data manually without taking away control and flexibility from the programmer and is thus an alternative to the automat and implicit approaches. Moreover, the CC approach improves on the OpenMP-SPMD style of programming that makes the development process of an OpenMP application more structured and simpler. The CC technique was tested and analyzed using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks on SGI Origin 2000 multiprocessor machines. This study shows that OpenMP improves performance of coarse-grained parallelism, although a fast copy mechanism is essential. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mediator mentors: Improving school climate, nurturing student disposition

    Pamela S. Lane-Garon
    Mediator Mentors, a collaborative research and service project, was begun by California State University-Fresno faculty and the staff of an elementary school (K,8) in the Central San Joaquin Valley. The purpose of the research was to assess conflict resolution program effects on students (N = 300) and school climate. Cross-age mentoring is an important component of this collaborative project. University students preparing for roles in helping professions served as mentors to elementary students. Impacts on student cognitive and affective perspective taking were assessed and student perceptions of school safety were explored. [source]

    GOOD GIFTS FOR THE COMMON GOOD: Blood and Bioethics in the Market of Genetic Research

    This article is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted with the Indian community in Houston, as part of a NIH,NHGRI-sponsored ethics study and sample collection initiative entitled "Indian and Hindu Perspectives on Genetic Variation Research." At the heart of this research is one central exchange,blood samples donated for genetic research,that draws both the Indian community and a community of researchers into an encounter with bioethics. I consider the meanings that come to be associated with blood donation as it passes through various hands, agendas, and associated ethical filters on its way to the lab bench: how and why blood is solicited, how the giving and taking of blood is rationalized, how blood as material substance is alienated, processed, documented, and made available for the promised ends of basic science research. Examining corporeal substances and asking what sorts of gifts and problems these represent, I argue, sheds some light on two imbricated tensions expressed by a community of Indians, on the one hand, and of geneticists and basic science researchers, on the other hand: that gifts ought to be free (but are not), and that science ought to be pure (but is not). In this article, I explore how experiences of bioethics are variously shaped by the histories and habits of Indic giving, prior sample collection controversies, commitments to "good science" and the common "good of humanity," and negotiations of the sites where research findings circulate. [source]

    The Good Russian Prisoner: Naturalizing Violence in the Caucasus Mountains

    Bruce Grant
    Beginning with a fabled narrative poem by Aleksandr Pushkin from 1822 entitled "Prisoner of the Caucasus," this article is an exploration of how the idiom of kidnapping in the ritual seizure, taking, and most importantly, giving of bodies across perceived cultural lines has been central to Russians understanding of their troubled relations with the mountainous land holdings to their south for over 200 years. By juxtaposing classic ethnographic sources on Caucasian bride-kidnapping and the hostage taking of military figures as proxies in ritualized violence, alongside multiple renderings of Pushkin's "good prisoner" story in poetry, prose, opera, ballet, and film, these seemingly apolitical artifacts of Russian popular culture work to generate a powerful symbolic economy of Russian belonging in the Caucasus Mountains. [source]

    Targeted screening for undiagnosed diabetes reduces the number of diagnostic tests.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2004
    Abstract Aims To determine the cost and performance of a Danish risk score, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and HbA1c as single screening tests and in combination with targeted screening. Subjects and methods In the Inter99 study, 12 934 inhabitants of Copenhagen County were invited to participate. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and a 75-g standardized oral glucose tolerance test [N = 6784 (52.5%)]. Results Of the 6117 individuals included in the analysis, 252 (4.1%) had previously undiagnosed diabetes. As a stand-alone test, the FPG had the highest performance expressed by a significantly higher area under the receiver,operating curve [0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86, 0.99] compared with the Danish risk score (0.78; 95% CI 0.76, 0.81) and HbA1c (0.76; 95% CI 0.72, 0.80). Targeted screening where the initial test was a risk score reduced the FPG measurements by 72% (100% vs. 27.8%). Using FPG in population-based screening, the cost per newly diagnosed diabetic individual was 583 euro compared with 270 euro if screened by questionnaire followed by FPG. The sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 87.7% for FPG, and 61.5% and 89.2% for the combination of the questionnaire and FPG, respectively. Conclusions The performance of FPG was superior to a questionnaire and HbA1c used as single tests. However taking into account workload, the burden on the population and the cost per identified person with undiagnosed diabetes, targeted screening using a questionnaire followed by FPG appears to be the strategy of choice. Diabet. Med. (2004) [source]

    The role of the family in preventing and intervening with substance use and misuse: a comprehensive review of family interventions, with a focus on young people

    Abstract The family plays a key part in both preventing and intervening with substance use and misuse, both through inducing risk, and/or encouraging and promoting protection and resilience. This review examines a number of family processes and structures that have been associated with young people commencing substance use and later misuse, and concludes that there is significant evidence for family involvement in young people's taking up, and later misusing, substances. Given this family involvement, the review explores and appraises interventions aimed at using the family to prevent substance use and misuse amongst young people. The review concludes that there is a dearth of methodologically highly sound research in this area, but the research that has been conducted does suggest strongly that the family can have a central role in preventing substance use and later misuse amongst young people. [source]

    Predictive Clinical Factors for the Differential Diagnosis of Childhood Extratemporal Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2005
    András Fogarasi
    Summary:,Purpose: To describe predictive clinical factors for the differentiation between childhood frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE). Methods: Two independent, blinded investigators analyzed 177 seizures from 35 children (aged 11 months to 12 years) with extratemporal epilepsy selected by postoperative seizure-free outcome. Semiologic seizure components and different periictal signs were observed. Age at onset, auras, seizure frequency, and nocturnal dominance, as well as surgical and histopathologic data, were collected from medical charts. Results: Twenty patients had FLE, and 15 had PCE. Patients from both groups had daily seizures without significant differences in frequency but with higher nocturnal dominance in children with FLE (p < 0.05). Visual aura, nystagmus, and versive seizure were observed exclusively in the PCE group, whereas somatosensory aura and hypermotor seizures appeared only in FLE. Tonic seizures were significantly more frequent in FLE (p < 0.01), whereas the presence of clonic seizure (FLE; p = 0.07) and postictal nose-wiping (PCE; p = 0.05) showed only a trend to localize the seizure-onset zone. Myoclonic seizures, epileptic spasms, psychomotor seizures, atonic seizures, oral and manual automatisms, as well as vocalization and eye deviation appeared in both groups without significant differences in their frequency. Conclusions: Characteristic features described in adults' extratemporal epilepsies were frequently missing during childhood seizures, especially in infants and preschool children. Ictal features help only a little in differentiating childhood FLE from PCE. Nocturnal appearance and the type of aura have high localizing value; therefore an accurate history taking is still an essential element of pediatric presurgical evaluation. [source]

    Interventions to improve adherence to medication in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the role of nurses

    Deputy Director, H Hearnshaw BSc, PhD Reader in Primary Care
    Abstract Summary Nurses now provide the majority of education and support for people with diabetes both in community and hospital settings. However, there are very few studies on nurse-led interventions to improve adherence to medication, a crucial element of the self-management of diabetes. The four studies reviewed formed a subgroup of a Cochrane review on interventions to improve adherence to medication in people with type 2 diabetes. Search terms were ,type 2 diabetes mellitus' and ,compliance' or ,adherence'. Studies were included if they assessed adherence to medical treatment specifically, rather than other aspects of self-management. Out of the 21 studies selected for review, four described an intervention delivered by a nurse. All four studies were from the USA and used an intervention delivered by telephone. Different interventions (two educational programmes, one automated telephone management system, one tracking system for health service and medication use) were backed up by a scripted nurse call. While patients in two studies reported improvements in self-care behaviour, only one measured a significant improvement in blood glucose control. Although some studies asked patients to report on their adherence to medication taking, responses from patients were not explicitly presented. The studies reviewed show the potential for generating evidence for the effectiveness of nurse-led diabetes management programmes. Further high-quality studies into this area are desperately needed, and they should consider new ways of evaluating complex interventions to generate more evidence. Copyright © 2006 FEND. [source]

    RESEARCH FOCUS ON COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOUR IN ANIMALS: An animal model of compulsive food-taking behaviour

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Andrea Heyne
    ABSTRACT The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has promoted research aimed at understanding the aetiology of abnormal eating behaviours. Apart from metabolic factors, obesity is caused by overeating. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviours when consuming palatable foods, and compulsive eating plays a similar dominant role in obesity as compulsive drug taking does in drug addiction. The progress made in the development of treatment strategies for obesity is limited, in part, because the physiological and neurological causes and consequences of compulsive eating behaviour are not clearly understood and cannot readily be studied in human subjects. We have developed experimental approaches that reflect the functioning of the components of eating control, including compulsive food taking in rats. Rats that are given free choice between standard chow and a palatable, chocolate-containing ,Cafeteria Diet' (CD) develop distinct signs of compulsive food taking that appear at an early stage. These include the inability to adapt intake behaviour in periods of limited or bitter-tasting CD access, continued food intake during resting phases and changes in fine structure of feeding (duration, distribution and recurrence of feeding bouts). The model will help examine the neurobiological underpinnings of compulsive food seeking and food taking and provides a possibility to study the effects of novel anti-obesity compounds on compulsive eating and other components of food-taking behaviour in detail. For future use of genetic models, the possibility of a transfer to a mouse was discussed. [source]

    EFNS guideline on the diagnosis and management of alcohol-related seizures: report of an EFNS task force

    G. Bråthen
    Despite being a considerable problem in neurological practice and responsible for one-third of seizure-related admissions, there is little consensus as to the optimal investigation and management of alcohol-related seizures. The final literature search was undertaken in September 2004. Consensus recommendations are given graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. To support the history taking, use of a structured questionnaire is recommended. When the drinking history is inconclusive, elevated values of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and/or gammaglutamyl transferase can support a clinical suspicion. A first epileptic seizure should prompt neuroimaging (CT or MRI). Before starting any carbohydrate containing fluids or food, patients presenting with suspected alcohol overuse should be given prophylactic thiamine parenterally. After an alcohol withdrawal seizure (AWS), the patient should be observed in hospital for at least 24 h and the severity of withdrawal symptoms needs to be followed. For patients with no history of withdrawal seizures and mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms, routine seizure preventive treatment is not necessary. Generally, benzodiazepines are efficacious and safe for primary and secondary seizure prevention; diazepam or, if available, lorazepam, is recommended. The efficacy of other drugs is insufficiently documented. Concerning long-term recommendations for non-alcohol dependant patients with partial epilepsy and controlled seizures, small amounts of alcohol may be safe. Alcohol-related seizures require particular attention both in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. Benzodiazepines should be chosen for the treatment and prevention of recurrent AWS. [source]

    Differential involvement of the prelimbic cortex and striatum in conditioned heroin and sucrose seeking following long-term extinction

    E. Donné Schmidt
    Abstract Relapse to drug taking is triggered by stimuli previously associated with consumption of drugs of misuse (cues) and involves brain systems controlling motivated behaviour towards natural reinforcers. In this study, we aimed to identify and compare neuronal pathways in corticostriatal systems that control conditioned heroin or natural reward (sucrose) seeking. To that end, rats were trained to self-administer heroin or sucrose in association with an identical compound cue. After more than 3 weeks of abstinence during extinction training, cue exposure robustly reinstated heroin and sucrose seeking, but induced distinct and even opposing changes in the expression of the neuronal activation marker zif268 in the prelimbic cortex and striatal complex, respectively. Because in the prelimbic area zif268 expression was enhanced during cue-induced heroin seeking but unaffected during sucrose seeking, a pharmacological intervention was aimed at this prefrontal region. Injection of a GABA agonist mixture within the prelimbic area enhanced conditioned heroin seeking, but had no effect on conditioned sucrose seeking. Our findings suggest a differential role of the prelimbic area and the striatum in the persistence of heroin vs. sucrose seeking following long-term extinction. [source]

    Effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery on maxillary sinus physiology

    Nicolaas M. Timmenga
    In a prospective study, the effects of elevation surgery of the maxillary sinus floor on maxillary sinus physiology were assessed. Seventeen consecutive patients without preoperative anamnestic, clinical and radiological signs of maxillary sinusitis underwent sinus floor elevation surgery with iliac crest bone grafts. All patients were subjected to unilateral endoscopic examination of the maxillary sinus, taking of a biopsy specimen from the sinus floor mucosa, and collection of a sinus lavage-fluid aspirate. This triad of evaluations was performed immediately preceding the elevation procedure, and 3 months (at implant insertion) and 9 months (at uncovering of implants) postoperatively. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Preoperatively, three out of 17 patients showed pre-existing mucosal pathology endoscopically, while the 3- and 9-month results revealed the presence of mucosal pathology in four and two patients, respectively. The 3-month microbiological evaluation showed a significant increase in cultures with bacterial growth, while the 9-month culture results were comparable to the preoperative status of the maxillary sinus. Morphologically, neither fibrosis nor an altered inflammatory response or thickening of the epithelium and lamina propria was observed postoperatively. The number of goblet cells in the epithelial layer was increased. From this study it is concluded that the effect of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with autogenous bone grafts does not appear to have clinical consequences in patients without signs of pre-existing maxillary sinusitis. [source]