Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Synthesis

  • Catalyze synthesis
  • Copper-Catalyze one-pot synthesis
  • Copper-Catalyze synthesis
  • Diversity-Orient synthesis
  • Microwave-Assist synthesis
  • Palladium-Catalyze synthesis
  • Regiocontroll synthesis
  • Stereocontroll synthesis
  • acetylcholine synthesis
  • acid Catalyze synthesis
  • acid synthesis
  • albumin synthesis
  • alternative synthesis
  • amide synthesis
  • amino acid synthesis
  • androgen synthesis
  • antibody synthesis
  • assist synthesis
  • asymmetric synthesis
  • asymmetric total synthesis
  • atom-economic synthesis
  • atp synthesis
  • automate synthesis
  • batch synthesis
  • benign synthesis
  • best evidence synthesis
  • biaryl synthesis
  • bile acid synthesis
  • biodiesel synthesis
  • biomimetic synthesis
  • brain serotonin synthesis
  • camp synthesis
  • cascade synthesis
  • catalyst synthesis
  • catalyst-free synthesis
  • catalytic asymmetric synthesis
  • catalytic enantioselective synthesis
  • catalytic synthesis
  • catecholamine synthesis
  • cdna synthesis
  • cell wall synthesis
  • cellulose synthesis
  • chemical synthesis
  • chemical vapor synthesis
  • chemo-enzymatic synthesis
  • chemoenzymatic synthesis
  • chemoselective synthesis
  • chiral synthesis
  • cholesterol synthesis
  • clean synthesis
  • collagen synthesis
  • colloidal synthesis
  • combinatorial synthesis
  • combustion synthesis
  • compound synthesis
  • concise asymmetric synthesis
  • concise synthesis
  • concise total synthesis
  • control synthesis
  • controllable synthesis
  • controlled synthesis
  • controller synthesis
  • convenient one-pot synthesis
  • convenient synthesis
  • convergent synthesis
  • copper-catalyzed synthesis
  • cytokine synthesis
  • d synthesis
  • data synthesis
  • de novo protein synthesis
  • de novo synthesis
  • decreased synthesis
  • design synthesis
  • diastereoselective synthesis
  • difference fourier synthesis
  • direct synthesis
  • divergent synthesis
  • diversity synthesis
  • diversity-oriented synthesis
  • dna synthesis
  • domino synthesis
  • dopamine synthesis
  • e2 synthesis
  • easy synthesis
  • eco-friendly synthesis
  • effective synthesis
  • efficient Copper-Catalyze synthesis
  • efficient asymmetric synthesis
  • efficient enantioselective synthesis
  • efficient one-pot synthesis
  • efficient one-step synthesis
  • efficient stereoselective synthesis
  • efficient synthesis
  • efficient total synthesis
  • electrochemical synthesis
  • enantioselective synthesis
  • enantioselective total synthesis
  • enantiospecific synthesis
  • endogenous synthesis
  • enhanced synthesis
  • enzymatic synthesis
  • enzyme synthesis
  • ester synthesis
  • ethanol synthesis
  • ether synthesis
  • ethylene synthesis
  • evidence synthesis
  • expedient synthesis
  • expeditious synthesis
  • extracellular matrix synthesis
  • facile one-pot synthesis
  • facile one-step synthesis
  • facile regioselective synthesis
  • facile stereoselective synthesis
  • facile synthesis
  • factor synthesis
  • fast synthesis
  • fatty acid synthesis
  • first synthesis
  • first total synthesis
  • fischer indole synthesis
  • fischer-tropsch synthesis
  • flexible synthesis
  • flow synthesis
  • flux synthesis
  • formal synthesis
  • formal total synthesis
  • four-component synthesis
  • four-step synthesis
  • fourier synthesis
  • gaba synthesis
  • gag synthesis
  • gel synthesis
  • general synthesis
  • glucan synthesis
  • glutathione synthesis
  • glycogen synthesis
  • glycosaminoglycan synthesis
  • green synthesis
  • gsh synthesis
  • heterocyclic synthesis
  • high yield synthesis
  • high-level synthesis
  • high-pressure synthesis
  • high-temperature synthesis
  • high-yield synthesis
  • highly diastereoselective synthesis
  • highly efficient synthesis
  • highly enantioselective synthesis
  • highly regioselective synthesis
  • highly stereoselective synthesis
  • hormone synthesis
  • host protein synthesis
  • hyaluronan synthesis
  • hydrothermal synthesis
  • ige synthesis
  • igg synthesis
  • il-10 synthesis
  • immunoglobulin synthesis
  • improved synthesis
  • increased synthesis
  • indole synthesis
  • intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis
  • ionothermal synthesis
  • large scale synthesis
  • large-scale synthesis
  • leukotriene synthesis
  • library synthesis
  • lipid synthesis
  • local synthesis
  • low-temperature synthesis
  • material synthesis
  • matrix synthesis
  • mechanochemical synthesis
  • mediated synthesis
  • melanin synthesis
  • melatonin synthesis
  • methanol synthesis
  • microbial protein synthesis
  • microwave synthesis
  • microwave-assisted synthesis
  • mild synthesis
  • mixture synthesis
  • modular synthesis
  • mrna synthesis
  • multi-step synthesis
  • multicomponent synthesis
  • multistep synthesis
  • muscle protein synthesis
  • nanoparticle synthesis
  • narrative synthesis
  • natural product synthesis
  • new one-pot synthesis
  • new protein synthesis
  • new synthesis
  • nitric oxide synthesis
  • no synthesis
  • novel stereoselective synthesis
  • novel synthesis
  • novo protein synthesis
  • novo synthesis
  • nucleic acid synthesis
  • nucleotide synthesis
  • oligonucleotide synthesis
  • oligosaccharide synthesis
  • one-pot synthesis
  • one-pot three-component synthesis
  • one-step synthesis
  • optimal synthesis
  • organic synthesis
  • organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis
  • organocatalytic synthesis
  • oxidative synthesis
  • oxide synthesis
  • p&g synthesis
  • parallel synthesis
  • particle synthesis
  • peptide synthesis
  • peptidoglycan synthesis
  • pge2 synthesis
  • phase peptide synthesis
  • phase synthesis
  • photochemical synthesis
  • plasma synthesis
  • polyamine synthesis
  • polymer synthesis
  • pot synthesis
  • practical synthesis
  • prebiotic synthesis
  • precursor synthesis
  • pressure synthesis
  • process synthesis
  • product synthesis
  • prostaglandin e2 synthesis
  • prostaglandin synthesis
  • protein synthesis
  • proteoglycan synthesis
  • quantitative synthesis
  • quinoline synthesis
  • racemic mixture synthesis
  • rapid synthesis
  • rational synthesis
  • regioselective synthesis
  • regiospecific synthesis
  • research synthesis
  • rna synthesis
  • room temperature synthesis
  • scale synthesis
  • selective synthesis
  • self-propagating high-temperature synthesis
  • serotonin synthesis
  • shape-selective synthesis
  • short synthesis
  • simple synthesis
  • single-step synthesis
  • situ synthesis
  • sol-gel synthesis
  • solid phase peptide synthesis
  • solid phase synthesis
  • solid-phase peptide synthesis
  • solid-phase synthesis
  • solid-state synthesis
  • solution synthesis
  • solution-phase parallel synthesis
  • solution-phase synthesis
  • solvent-free synthesis
  • solvothermal synthesis
  • sonochemical synthesis
  • starch synthesis
  • step synthesis
  • stereocontrolled synthesis
  • stereodivergent synthesis
  • stereoselective one-pot synthesis
  • stereoselective synthesis
  • stereoselective total synthesis
  • stereospecific synthesis
  • steroid synthesis
  • straightforward synthesis
  • successful synthesis
  • tandem synthesis
  • temperature synthesis
  • template synthesis
  • template-directed synthesis
  • template-free synthesis
  • templated synthesis
  • their synthesis
  • theoretical synthesis
  • three-component one-pot synthesis
  • three-component synthesis
  • three-step synthesis
  • tissue synthesis
  • total chemical synthesis
  • total synthesis
  • translesion synthesis
  • triglyceride synthesis
  • two-step synthesis
  • unexpected synthesis
  • urea synthesis
  • vapor synthesis
  • versatile synthesis
  • vitamin d synthesis
  • vitro synthesis
  • vivo synthesis
  • wall synthesis
  • wet chemical synthesis
  • yield synthesis
  • zeolite synthesis

  • Terms modified by Synthesis

  • synthesis activity
  • synthesis algorithm
  • synthesis approach
  • synthesis capacity
  • synthesis condition
  • synthesis formula
  • synthesis gas
  • synthesis inhibition
  • synthesis inhibitor
  • synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide
  • synthesis lead
  • synthesis machinery
  • synthesis mechanism
  • synthesis method
  • synthesis methodology
  • synthesis methods
  • synthesis mixture
  • synthesis model
  • synthesis parameter
  • synthesis pathway
  • synthesis problem
  • synthesis procedure
  • synthesis process
  • synthesis protocol
  • synthesis rate
  • synthesis reaction
  • synthesis route
  • synthesis step
  • synthesis strategy
  • synthesis system
  • synthesis technique
  • synthesis techniques
  • synthesis technology
  • synthesis time

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2007
    Massimo Pigliucci
    The Modern Synthesis (MS) is the current paradigm in evolutionary biology. It was actually built by expanding on the conceptual foundations laid out by its predecessors, Darwinism and neo-Darwinism. For sometime now there has been talk of a new Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES), and this article begins to outline why we may need such an extension, and how it may come about. As philosopher Karl Popper has noticed, the current evolutionary theory is a theory of genes, and we still lack a theory of forms. The field began, in fact, as a theory of forms in Darwin's days, and the major goal that an EES will aim for is a unification of our theories of genes and of forms. This may be achieved through an organic grafting of novel concepts onto the foundational structure of the MS, particularly evolvability, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance, complexity theory, and the theory of evolution in highly dimensional adaptive landscapes. [source]

    SYNTHESIS: Life history change in commercially exploited fish stocks: an analysis of trends across studies

    Diana M. T. Sharpe
    Abstract Age and size at maturation have declined dramatically in many commercial fish stocks over the past few decades , changes that have been widely attributed to fishing pressure. We performed an analysis of such trends across multiple studies, to test for the consistency of life history changes under fishing, and for their association with the intensity of exploitation (fishing mortality rate). We analyzed 143 time series from 37 commercial fish stocks, the majority of which originated from the North Atlantic. Rates of phenotypic change were calculated for two traditional maturation indices (length and age at 50% maturity), as well as for probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). We found that all three indices declined in heavily exploited populations, and at a rate that was strongly correlated with the intensity of fishing (for length at 50% maturity and PMRNs). These results support previous assertions that fishing pressure is playing a major role in the life history changes observed in commercial fish stocks. Rates of change were as strong for PMRNs as for age and size at 50% maturity, which is consistent with the hypothesis that fishing-induced phenotypic changes can sometimes have a genetic basis. [source]

    SYNTHESIS: Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

    Robin S. Waples
    Abstract Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forged during recurrent episodes of Pleistocene glaciation. In northwestern North America, dominant habitat features have been relatively stable for the past 5000 years, but salmon ecosystems remain dynamic because of disturbance regimes (volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, variations in marine and freshwater productivity) that occur on a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These disturbances both create selective pressures for adaptive responses by salmon and inhibit long-term divergence by periodically extirpating local populations and creating episodic dispersal events that erode emerging differences. Recent anthropogenic changes are replicated pervasively across the landscape and interrupt processes that allow natural habitat recovery. If anthropogenic changes can be shaped to produce disturbance regimes that more closely mimic (in both space and time) those under which the species evolved, Pacific salmon should be well-equipped to deal with future challenges, just as they have throughout their evolutionary history. [source]

    SYNTHESIS: Evolutionary consequences of fishing and their implications for salmon

    Jeffrey J. Hard
    Abstract We review the evidence for fisheries-induced evolution in anadromous salmonids. Salmon are exposed to a variety of fishing gears and intensities as immature or maturing individuals. We evaluate the evidence that fishing is causing evolutionary changes to traits including body size, migration timing and age of maturation, and we discuss the implications for fisheries and conservation. Few studies have fully evaluated the ingredients of fisheries-induced evolution: selection intensity, genetic variability, correlation among traits under selection, and response to selection. Most studies are limited in their ability to separate genetic responses from phenotypic plasticity, and environmental change complicates interpretation. However, strong evidence for selection intensity and for genetic variability in salmon fitness traits indicates that fishing can cause detectable evolution within ten or fewer generations. Evolutionary issues are therefore meaningful considerations in salmon fishery management. Evolutionary biologists have rarely been involved in the development of salmon fishing policy, yet evolutionary biology is relevant to the long-term success of fisheries. Future management might consider fishing policy to (i) allow experimental testing of evolutionary responses to exploitation and (ii) improve the long-term sustainability of the fishery by mitigating unfavorable evolutionary responses to fishing. We provide suggestions for how this might be done. [source]

    EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Systematic review of current executive function measures in adults with and without cognitive impairments

    Sabrina Pickens PhDc MSN ANP-BC GNP-BC
    Abstract Background, Executive function pertains to higher cognitive processes historically linked to frontal lobes. Several measures are available to screen for executive function; however, no gold standard exists. The difficulty in assessing executive function is the existence of its many subsets. Objectives, To evaluate the psychometric properties of executive function measures and determine the most effective measure(s) through a systematic review of the literature. Search strategy, The search strategy utilised a comprehensive literature review of articles written in the English language published from January 2003 to September 2009. The following electronic databases were searched: SCOPUS, PUBMED, Medline Ovid, PsychArticles and CINAHL Plus. Initial key words used were ,executive function', ,measures', ,reliability' and ,validity' followed by the addition of ,traumatic brain injury'. The initial search elicited 226 articles, of which 28 were retrieved. After further exclusion 19 were included in the review. Results, Eight measures underwent factor analysis and 18 underwent various forms of reliability and/or validity testing. Factor analysis showed different aspects of executive functions. According to preset evaluation criteria, only the Test of Practical Judgment performed all of the recommended reliability and validity testing. Reviewer's conclusion, Of the recently developed measures, several show promise for future use yet further validity and reliability testing is warranted. Future tool development should measure all subsets of executive function rather than only a few and include the recommended components of reliability and validity testing. [source]

    EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Appropriateness of using a symbol to identify dementia and/or delirium

    Sonia Hines RN BN
    Abstract Aim, The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate any published and unpublished evidence regarding the appropriateness of developing a symbol for dementia and/or delirium, which could be used in a variety of settings to indicate that a person has dementia and/or delirium. Methods, Using the methods of the Joanna Briggs Institute, we conducted a systematic search of a wide range of databases, Internet resources and unpublished literature. Papers meeting the inclusion criteria were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted, using the standardised tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute, from those papers considered to be of sufficient quality. Because of significant methodological heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was possible and results are presented narratively instead. Results, From a total of 37 retrieved papers, 18 were found to be of sufficient relevance and quality to be included in the review. There was general consensus among the literature that a symbol for dementia is appropriate in the acute care setting. It was also clear from the research that an abstract symbol, as opposed to one that explicitly attempts to depict dementia, was most acceptable to staff, people with dementia and their carers. Conclusions, Both staff and health consumers seem to have largely positive perceptions and attitudes towards the use of a symbol for dementia. Families and carers of people with dementia are frequently concerned about their loved one wandering away and becoming lost and unable to identify themselves, and these concerns seem to outweigh any reservations they hold about the use of a symbol or some other identifier. In healthcare settings the use of symbols to indicate special needs seems well established and widely accepted. However, regarding the use of a symbol for dementia in the broader community, there remain concerns about issues such as stigmatisation and the potential for victimisation of this vulnerable population and so further research is indicated. [source]

    Improving Diagnostic Accuracy Using an Evidence-Based Nursing Model

    Rona F. Levin PhD
    Diagnósticos de enfermagem; prática baseada em evidências; precisão diagnóstica Exactitud diagnóstica; práctica basada en la evidencia; diagnósticos de enfermería PURPOSE. To propose an evidence-based model (EBM) to improve diagnostic accuracy in nursing. DATA SOURCES. Published literature, experience, and expertise of authors. DATA SYNTHESIS. Using an EBM directs clinicians on how to use the best available evidence from the literature to determine the best fit between cues and diagnoses, integrate this evidence with clinician expertise and patient preferences, and conduct a self-evaluation of the process. CONCLUSIONS. Use of an EBM to teach nurses how to ask relevant diagnostic questions and provide a framework for nurse educators to teach evidenced-based practice may lead to developing more competent diagnosticians and improving diagnostic accuracy in nursing. OBJETIVO. Propor um modelo baseado em evidências (MBE) para melhorar a precisão diagnóstica na enfermagem. FONTE DE DADOS. Literatura publicada, experiência e conhecimento das autoras. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS. A utilização de um BEM orienta as enfermeiras clínicas sobre como utilizar a melhor evidência disponível na literatura para determinar o melhor ajuste entre as pistas obtidas e os diagnósticos, integrando esta evidência com o conhecimento clínico da enfermeira e as preferências do paciente, e conduzindo a uma auto-avaliação do processo. CONCLUSÕES. O uso de um modelo de prática baseado em evidências para ensinar as enfermeiras a formular perguntas relevantes e oferecer aos educadores de enfermagem uma estrutura para o ensino da prática baseada em evidências pode levar ao desenvolvimento de dianosticadoras mais competentes e melhorar a precisão diagnóstica na enfermagem. PROPÓSITO. Proponer un modelo basado en la evidencia (MBE) para mejorar la exactitud diagnóstica en enfermería. FUENTES DE DATOS. Bibliografía publicada, experiencia y especialización de los autores. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS. Utilizando un MBE guía a los clínicos en cómo utilizar la mejor evidencia disponible en la bibliografía para determinar el mejor encaje entre los datos y los diagnósticos, integrar esta evidencia con la especialidad clínica y las preferencias del paciente y llevar a cabo una auto-evaluación del proceso. CONCLUSIONES. El uso de un modelo de práctica basada en la evidencia para enseñar a las enfermeras cómo hacer preguntas diagnósticas pertinentes y proporcionar un marco de trabajo para que las enfermeras docentes enseñen la práctica basada en la evidencia, puede llevar a desarrollar mayor competencia al diagnosticar y mejoras en la exactitud diagnóstica. [source]

    Environmental Nursing Diagnoses: A Proposal for Further Development of Taxonomy II

    Pauline M. Green PhD
    PURPOSE. To propose further development of environmental diagnoses and to offer recommendations for expanding Taxonomy II to include more diagnostic labels that encompass the environmental domain. SOURCES. Literature in the disciplines of nursing, biology, toxicology, public health, sociology, and anthropology. DATA SYNTHESIS. Nurses need language to describe the human responses of individuals, families, communities, and global society to environmental health threats. CONCLUSIONS. New environmental diagnoses will lead to refinement of language that describes the contribution of nursing to an emerging international and community health priority. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Environmental diagnostic labels will allow nurses to name responses and plan interventions that respond to instances or risks of exposure to threats from the physical and sociocultural environment. Search terms: Environmental contamination, environmental health threats, exposure, nursing diagnoses [source]

    Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Theory: Exploration of Factors Inhibiting and Supporting Simultaneous Use

    FAAN, Noreen C. Frisch PhD
    PURPOSE. To explore the values and philosophies of nursing theories that inhibit the simultaneous use of nursing diagnosis and nursing theory. SOURCES.Published articles, books, book chapters. DATA SYNTHESIS. Four factors in the literature and reflected in practice may have had a negative influence on the use of nursing diagnoses: (a) commitment to the uniqueness of each person, (b) an abandonment of the nursing process, (c) a perspective that nursing care is an evolving interaction, and (d) a belief that theory-derived language is more articulate and precise than standard classifications. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.Strategies for combining theory and diagnoses include emphasizing the diagnostic terms as professional shorthand and permitting flexibility in modifying diagnoses as needed; widely disseminating the concept that classification can be used effectively with newer iterations of the nursing process reflecting circular, simultaneous, and intuitive processes; developing classification language based on concepts of hypothesis and perception; and including diagnostic categories associated with theoretical perspectives. Search terms:Nursing classifications, nursing diagnoses, nursing theory Diagnostics infirmiers et théories de soins: Exploration des facteurs qui freinent et soutiennent leur utilisation simultanée BUT.Explorer les valeurs et les conceptions à la base des théories de soins qui inhibent I'utilisation des diagnostics infirmiers avec les théories de soin. SOURCES.Articles, manuels, chapitres d'ouvrages. SYNTHÈSE DES DONNÉES.Les données de la littérature professionnelle et l'examen de la pratique ont permis d'identifier quatre facteurs qui ont pu avoir une influence négative sur l'utilisation des diagnostics infirmiers: (a) l'importance donnée au caractère unique de chaque personne; (b) l'abandon de la démarche de soins; (c) l'idée que le soin est fait d'interactions en évolution constante; (d) la croyance que le langage découlant de la théorie est plus précis et articulé que les classifications normalisées. IMPLICATIONS POUR LA PRATIQUE.Quelques stratégies pourraient faciliter la combinaison de la théorie et des diagnostics, notamment: souligner le fait que les termes des diagnostics constituent une sorte de sténographie professionnelle et permettre la flexibilité pour les modifier; disséminer le fait que les classifications peuvent être utiles dans une démarche de soin rénovée, reflétant les aspects circulaires, simultanés et intuitifs du raisonnement; développer un langage basé sur les concepts d'hypothéses et de perceptions et inclure des catégories diagnostiques associées à des courants théoriques. Mots-clés:Classifications de soins, diagnostics infirmiers, théories de soins Diagnóstico de enfermagem e teoria de enfermagem: Exploração dos fatores inibidores e estimuladores do seu uso simultâneo OBJETIVO.Explorar os valores e filosofias das teorias de enfermagem que inibem o uso simultâneo dos diagnósticos de enfermagem e das teorias de enfermagem. FONTES.Artigos publicados, livros, capítulos de livros. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS.Quatro fatores citados na literatura e refletidos na prática podem ter tido uma influência negativa no uso dos diagnóstics de enfermagem: (a) compromisso com a singularidade de cada pessoa, (b) um abandono do processo de enfermagem, (c) uma perspectiva de que o cuidado de enfermagem é uma interação que evolui e (d) uma crença de que uma linguagem derivada da teoria é mais articulada e precisa do que classificações padronizadas. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA.Estratégias para combinar teoria e diagnósticos incluem enfatizar os termos diagnóstics como uma taquigrafia profissional e permitir flexibilidade para modificar diagnósticos sempre que necessário, disseminando amplamente o conceito de que a classificação pode ser usada efetivamente com novas repetições do processo de enfermagem, refletindo processos circulares, simultâneos e intuitivos; desenvolver uma linguagem de classificação baseada em conceitos de hipótese e percepção; e incluir categorias diagnósticas associadas com perspectivas teóricas. Palavras para busca:Classificações de enfermagem, diagnóstico de enfermagem, teoria de enfermagem Diagnóstico enfermero y teoría enfermera: Exploración de factores que inhiben y apoyan una utilización simultánea PROPÓSITO.Explorar los valores y filosofías de teorías enfermeras, que inhiben la utilización simultánea de diagnósticos y teorías enfermeras. FUENTES.Artículos publicados, libros, capítulos de libros. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS.Cuatro factores reflejados en la práctica y en la bibliografía, pueden haber tenido una influencia negativa en la utilizatión de los diagnósticos de enfermería: (a) compromiso a la singularidad de cada persona, (b) abandono del proceso de enfermería, (c) una perspectiva de que los cuidados de enfermería son una interacción que evoluciona y (d) una creencia de que el lenguaje derivado de la teoría, es más preciso y expresa mejor que las clasificaciones estándar. IMPLICACIONES PARA LA PRÁCTICA.Las estrategias para combinar la teoría y los diagnósticos enfermeros, incluyen: Dar énfasis a los términos diagnósticos como una abreviatura profesional, permitir ser flexible al modificar diagnósticos si es necesario, diseminar ampliamente el concepto de que la clasificación puede usarse eficazmente con nuevas iteraciones del proceso enfermero que reflejen procesos circulares, simultáneos e intuitivos, desarrollar lenguajes de clasificación basados en los conceptos de hipótesis y percepción, Incluir categorías diagnósticas asociadas con perspectivas teóricas. Términos de búsqueda:Diagnósticos enfermeros, clasificaciones enfermeras y teoría enfermera [source]

    Ineffective Family Participation in Professional Care: A Concept Analysis of a Proposed Nursing Diagnosis

    Aeran Lee MS
    PURPOSE. To discuss the label, definition, defining characteristics, and related factors of a proposed nursing diagnosis, "ineffective family participation in professional care." DATA SOURCES. Published research articles, clinical handbooks, textbooks. DATA SYNTHESIS. Although a number of familyrelated nursing diagnoses exist, none really addresses the problems encountered if family members are unwilling or unable to participate in patient care. This is critical because the bulk of care occurs outside the hospital setting. CONCLUSIONS. A new nursing diagnosis, "Ineffective family participation in professional care" is needed. This diagnosis has been submitted to the Nursing Diagnosis Extension and Classification for consideration. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. With this diagnosis nurses could encourage family participation in care more effectively by focusing on assessment and interventions. Participation familiale inefficace aux soins professionnels: Analyse conceptuelle d'un diagnostic infirmier proposé BUTS. Discuter du titre, de la définition, des caractéristiques et des facteurs favorisants d'un nouveau diagnostic infirmier: "participation familiale inefficace aux soins professionnels". SOURCES. Articles de recherche, extraits d'ouvrages cliniques. RÉSULTATS. Malgré la présence d'un certain nombre de diagnostics infirmiers centrés sur la famille, aucun d'entre eux ne désigne les problèmes posés par les familles qui ne souhaitent pas ou ne sont pas capables de participer aux soins du patient. Ce phénomène est important, compte tenu de la grande quantité de soins extrahospitaliers. CONCLUSIONS. II semble nécessaire de disposer d'un nouveau diagnostic infirmier "Participation familiale inefficace aux soins professionnels". Ce diagnostic a été soumis au Groupe d'Extension et de Classification des Diagnostics Infirmiers, afin qu'il soit étudié. IMPLICATIONS PRATIQUES. L'utilisation de ce diagnostic devrait permettre aux infirmières de focaliser l'évaluation et les interventions de soins, afin d'impliquer plus efficacement la famille dans les soins. Participação familiar ineficaz no cuidado profissional: Análise de conceito de um diagnóstico de enfermagem proposto OBJETIVO. Discutir o titulo, definição, características definidoras e fatores relacionados de um diagnóstico de enfermagem proposto, "participação familiar ineficaz no cuidado profissional". FONTES DE DADOS.Artigos de pesquisa publicados, manuais clínicos, livros-texto. ACHADOS.Embora exista um certo número de diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados à família, nenhum deles trata realmente dos problemas encontrados quando membros da família não desejam ou não conseguem participar do cuidado do paciente. Isto é crítico, porque uma grande parte dos cuidados ocorre fora do ambiente hospitalar. CONCLUSãO.É necessário um novo diagnóstico de "Participação familiar eficaz no cuidado profissional". Este diagnóstico foi submetido à apreciação da Extensão e Classificação de Diagnósticos de Enfermagem. IMPLICAÇõES PARA A PRÁTICA.Com este diagnóstico, as enfermeiras podem encorajar a participação da família no cuidado de maneira mais efetiva, com enfoque em levantamento de dados e intervenções. Palavras para busca:Análise de conceito, diagnóstico de enfermagem, participação familiar Participación familiar ineficaz en cuidados profesionales: Análisis de concepto de este diagnóstico enfermero que se ha propuesto PROPÓSITO.Discutir la etiqueta, definición, características definitorias y factores relacionados del diagnóstico propuesto "participation familiar ineficaz en cuidados profesionales." FUENTES DE DATOS.Artículos de investigación publicados, manuales clínicos, libros de texto. RESULTADOS.Aunque existen varios diagnóstics enfermeros relacionados con la familia, ninguno realmente enfoca los problemas encontrados, si las familias no quieren o no pueden participar en el cuidado del paciente. Esto es crítico, porque la mayor parte de los cuidados tienen lugarfuera del entorno del hospital. CONCLUSIONES.Se necesita un nuevo diagnóstico de enfermería "participación familiar ineficaz en cuidados profesionales". Este diagnóstico ha sido presentado a Nursing Diagnosis Extension and Classification para su consideración. IMPLICACIONES PARA LA PRÁCTICA.Con este diagnóstico, las enfermeras podrían animar la participación familiar en los cuidados más eficazmente, centrándose en la valoración y las intervenciones. Términos de búsqueda:Análisis de concepto, diagnóstico enfermero, participación familiar [source]

    Spirituality and Religiousness: Differentiating the Diagnoses Through a Review of the Nursing Literature

    Lisa Burkhart PhD(c)
    PURPOSE. To differentiate the definitions of spirituality and religiousness as used in nursing literature. DATA SOURCES. Journal articles, books, book chapters. DATA SYNTHESIS. The nursing literature has been inconsistent in defining spirituality and religiousness. The spirituality literature defines spirituality as the broader concept, with religiousness as a subconcept, while the religiousness literature defines religiousness as the broader concept, with spirituality as a subconcept. CONCLUSIONS. Spirituality and religiousness are two separate nursing diagnoses with some common elements to both. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The growth of parish nursing as an ANA-recognized specialty practice has heightened the awareness of caring for the human spirit. Clarity is needed in the terms used to define this specialty. [source]


    JANA S. RO
    First page of article [source]


    Ines Drumond
    Abstract In order to survey the mechanisms through which the introduction of Basel II bank capital requirements is likely to accentuate the procyclical tendencies of banking, this paper brings together the theoretical literature on the bank capital channel of propagation of exogenous shocks and the literature on the regulatory framework of capital requirements under the Basel Accords. We conclude that the theoretical models that revisit the bank capital channel under the new accord generally support the Basel II procyclicality hypothesis and that the magnitude of the procyclical effects essentially depends on (i) the composition of banks' asset portfolios, (ii) the approach adopted by banks to compute their minimum capital requirements, (iii) the nature of the rating system used by banks, (iv) the view adopted concerning how credit risk evolves through time, (v) the capital buffers over the regulatory minimum held by the banking institutions, (vi) the improvements in credit risk management and (vii) the supervisor and market intervention under Basel II. The recent events and instability in financial markets all over the world have led the procyclicality issue to enter the agendas of several political international,fora,and some measures to mitigate procyclicality are being put forward. The bank capital channel literature should now play an important role in evaluating their effectiveness. [source]


    ABSTRACT Glucosyltransferases can be applied in the synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Enzymatic synthesis using acceptors can be used to obtain these carbohydrates. When maltose is the acceptor, oligosaccharides containing one maltose moiety and up to eight glucose units linked by ,-1,6-glycosidic bonds are obtained as the product of dextransucrase acceptor reaction. In this work, the enzymatic synthesis of isomalto-oligosaccharides using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F was optimized by response surface methodology. The effect of maltose and sucrose concentrations on the acceptor reaction was evaluated in a batch reactor system. Partially purified enzyme was used to reduce the enzyme purification cost. The results showed that high sucrose concentrations in conjunction with high maltose levels enhanced the isomalto-oligosaccharide synthesis. A productivity of 42.95 mmol/L.h of isomalto-oligosaccharides was obtained at the optimal operating condition (100 mmol/L of sucrose and 200 mmol/L of maltose). PRATICAL APPLICATIONS Oligosaccharides as prebiotic have a large application in food formulations, and their beneficial role in human health have been extensively studied. Although the acceptor mechanism of dextransucrase has already been extensively studied, an industrial process has not been developed yet for enzyme synthesis of isomalto-oligosaccharide. The process studied in this work allows the large-scale preparation of isomalto-oligosaccharide using partially purified enzyme. [source]


    ABSTRACT Plant phenolics are secondary metabolites that confer beneficial properties to the plants that produce them. Extracts made from plants that produce these phytochemicals are increasingly being recognized for their antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated extracts made from high-phenolics-producing clonal lines of oregano and thyme for potential as elicitors of phenolic antioxidant production in dark-germinated mungbean (Vigna radiata,). Mungbean was dark-germinated under the rationale that any energy stored in the bean seed in the form of starch may potentially be utilized for enhanced phenolics production, since without a light source the dark-germinated seedling may not stimulate the development of photosynthetic components. Wafer-based herb extracts showed the greatest ability to stimulate phenolic content in dark-germinated mungbeans. Three of the oregano extracts were investigated further and showed an ability to stimulate glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and antioxidant activity. These results suggest that the extracts contain an active elicitor that stimulates phenolic antioxidant content, as well as activity of the pentose-phosphate pathway. In addition, the results of this study suggest that extracts of high-phenolics-producing clonal plants may have potential in the food and agriculture industry as seed treatments for preventing bacterial infection in germinating sprouts by stimulating phenolic antioxidant-producing pathways, as well as for increasing the nutritional value of sprouts for human consumption. [source]

    Sensitivity of superficial cultures in lower extremity wounds,

    Chayan Chakraborti MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Superficial wound cultures are routinely used to guide therapy, despite a lack of clear supporting evidence. PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review of the correlation between superficial wound cultures and the etiology of skin and soft tissue infections. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus. STUDY SELECTION: Articles published between January 1960 and August 2009 involving superficial wound cultures and deeper comparison cultures. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently searched for abstracted information pertaining to the microbiology of lower extremity wounds sufficient to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of superficial wound cultures versus comparison cultures. DATA SYNTHESIS: Data pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Of 9032 unique citations, 8 studies met all inclusion criteria. Inter-rater reliability was substantial (Kappa = 0.78). Pooled test sensitivity for superficial wound swabs was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-61%], and specificity was 62% (95% CI, 51-74%). The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) were 1.1 (95% CI, 0.71-1.5) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.52-0.82). The median number of isolates for surface cultures (2.7, interquartile range [IQR] 1.8-3.2) was not significantly different than that for comparison cultures, (2.2, IQR 1.7-2.9) (P = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Few studies show a strong relationship between superficial wound swabs and deep tissue cultures, and the current data demonstrate poor overall sensitivity and specificity. The positive and negative LRs were found to provide minimal utility in influencing pretest probabilities. Results of this analysis show that wound cultures should not be used in lieu of local antibiograms to guide initial antibiotic therapies. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2010;5:415,420. © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    Effect of hospitalist attending physicians on trainee educational experiences: A systematic review,

    Pradeep Natarajan MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Trainees receive much of their inpatient education from hospitalists. PURPOSE: To characterize the effects of hospitalists on trainee education. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Database of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database (last searched October 2008) databases using the term "hospitalist", and meeting abstracts from the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) (2002-2007), Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) (2001-2007), and Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) (2000-2007). STUDY SELECTION: Original English language research studies meeting all of the following: involvement of hospitalists; comparison to nonhospitalist attendings; evaluation of trainee knowledge, skills, or attitudes. 711 articles were reviewed, 32 retrieved, and 6 included; 7,062 meeting abstracts were reviewed, 9 retrieved, and 2 included. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors reviewed articles to determine study eligibility. Three authors independently reviewed included articles to abstract data elements and classify study quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seven studies were quasirandomized one was a noncontemporaneous comparison. All citations only measured trainee attitudes. In all studies comparing hospitalists to nonhospitalists, trainees were more satisfied with hospitalists overall, and with other aspects of their teaching, but ratings were high for both groups. One of 2 studies that distinguished nonhospitalist general internists from specialists showed that trainees preferred hospitalists, but the other did not demonstrate a hospitalist advantage over general internists. CONCLUSIONS: Trainees are more satisfied with inpatient education from hospitalists. Whether the increased satisfaction translates to improved learning is unclear. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2009;4:490,498. © 2009 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    Effects of rapid response systems on clinical outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Sumant R. Ranji MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND A rapid response system (RRS) consists of providers who immediately assess and treat unstable hospitalized patients. Examples include medical emergency teams and rapid response teams. Early reports of major improvements in patient outcomes led to widespread utilization of RRSs, despite the negative results of a subsequent cluster-randomized trial. PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of RRSs on clinical outcomes through a systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and CINAHL searches through August 2006, review of conference proceedings and article bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and before-after studies reporting effects of an RRS on inpatient mortality, cardiopulmonary arrests, or unscheduled ICU admissions. DATA EXTRACTION Two authors independently determined study eligibility, abstracted data, and classified study quality. DATA SYNTHESIS Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria: 1 cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT), 1 interrupted time series, and 11 before-after studies. The RCT showed no effects on any clinical outcome. Before-after studies showed reductions in inpatient mortality (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74-0.91) and cardiac arrest (RR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.65-0.83). However, these studies were of poor methodological quality, and control hospitals in the RCT reported reductions in mortality and cardiac arrest rates comparable to those in the before-after studies. CONCLUSIONS Published studies of RRSs have not found consistent improvement in clinical outcomes and have been of poor methodological quality. The positive results of before-after trials likely reflects secular trends and biased outcome ascertainment, as the improved outcomes they reported were of similar magnitude to those of the control group in the RCT. The effectiveness of the RRS concept remains unproven. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2007;2:422,432. © 2007 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Michael H. Graham
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Shi-Yan Li
    Although red algae are known to be obligatory photoautotrophs, the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was shown to assimilate and metabolize floridoside. A pulse-chase experiment with [14C]floridoside showed that at the end of a 240-min pulse, 70% of total 14C-uptake by the cells remained in the floridoside fraction. To evaluate the assimilation of floridoside by Porphyridium sp. cells, we exposed Porphyridium sp. not only to [14C]floridoside but also to its constituents, [14C]glycerol and [14C]galactose, as compared with [14C]bicarbonate. The extent of incorporation of [14C] galactose by the Porphyridium sp. cells was insignificant (50,80 dpm·mL,1), whereas uptake of 14C from [14C]glycerol into the algal cells was evident (2.4 × 103 dpm·mL,1) after 60 min of the pulse. The pattern of 14C distribution among the major constituent sugars, xylose, glucose and galactose, of the labeled soluble polysaccharide was dependent on the 14C source. The relative content of [14C]galactose in the soluble polysaccharide was highest (28.8%) for [14C]floridoside-labeled culture and lowest (19.8%) for the [14C]glycerol-labeled culture. Upon incubation of [14C]floridoside with a crude extract of a cell-free system prepared from nonlabeled cells of Porphyridium sp., the label was indeed found to be incorporated into the sulfated polysaccharide. Our results suggested that the carbon metabolic pathway in Porphyridium sp. passes through the low molecular weight photoassimilatory product,floridoside,toward sulfated cell-wall polysaccharide production. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Vis, M. L., Hall, M. M., Machesky, N. J. & Miller, E. J. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 USA The freshwater red alga Batrachospermum helminthosum was collected from eleven streams throughout the species range in eastern North America as follows: three stream reaches from Ohio, and one each from Michigan, Indiana, Tennessee, Louisiana, North Carolina, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The molecular marker technique of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and sequence data from the plastid encoded rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL), the mitochondrial COX2-COX3 gene spacer region, and the nuclear region of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 were employed to examine biogeographic trends in this alga. Analysis of the rbcL sequence revealed 5 genotypes with one genotype representing individuals from seven stream reaches. Data from the ISSR molecular markers gave a distinct banding pattern for each of 165 individuals examined. ISSR results showed all individuals within a reach clustered together but did not provide well-defined groupings based on stream reach. The sequence data for the COX2-COX3 gene spacer was invariant among individuals from a stream reach. The individuals from Connecticut, Rhode Island and 2 Ohio stream reaches were identical and similarly the individuals from the North Carolina and another Ohio location did not vary in sequence so that seven genotypes were recorded among the individuals from the eleven stream reaches. Analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region showed sequence variation not only among individuals from different streams but also among individuals from the same reach. The utility and congruency of these data sets to answer biogeographic questions will be discussed. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    In this essay, I analyze von Balthasar's ecclesiology against the backdrop of Vatican II and identify its ecumenical challenges. I demonstrate how von Balthasar's ecclesiology reflects the last council particularly in terms of its integration of ecclesiology and mariology, its gendered conceptualization of the church and its hierarchy, and its reaffirmation of papal primacy. From a Protestant perspective, I have, however, a number of critical questions. First, I question von Balthasar's sacred sociology, which ultimately privileges the magisterium as the decisive source of divine revelation. Second, I point out the peculiarities of von Balthasar's typological interpretation of scripture and its consequences for his ecclesiological vision. Finally, I take issue with his outdated binary gender anthropology. [source]


    Kuo-Jung Lan
    ABSTRACT The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most important tools for measuring atomic resolution. The AFM system maintains constant force between a tip and the sample in order to track the sample topography. The controller that maintains the constant interaction force plays a significant role in measurement accuracy. This paper presents a ,-synthesis controller design to deal with model uncertainty and establish a measurement error bound. The system's nonlinearity and the set-point drift are lumped into a multiplicative uncertainty. The performance bound allows specification of the error magnitude over the frequency range. Simulation results show that the proposed control can tolerate uncertainties. The error spectrum from the experiments shows consistency with the design specifications. Images were taken to compare ,-synthesis control with a well-tuned PID control at a 480,m/s scan rate. The results verify the outstanding performance of the ,-controller. [source]

    Tetranuclear Manganese Complexes with [MnII4] and [MnII2MnIII2] Units: Syntheses, Structures, Magnetic Properties, and DFT Study,

    Lucjan B. Jerzykiewicz
    Abstract Two tetranuclear manganese compounds, [Mn4(,3,,2 -L)4Br4(LH)4] (1) and [Mn4(,3,,2 -L)2(,,,2 -L)4L2Br2] (2), with cubane and defect dicubane-like cores were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, and DFT calculations (LH = 2-methoxyethanol). The magnetic properties of the resulting [Mn4] building blocks are presented and discussed in detail. In particular, in 2 the MnIII,O,MnIII angle 103.12(8)° is the largest observed to date for such a system. The conjunction of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions within the tetranuclear mixed-valent MnII2MnIII2 complexes results in an unusual ST = 1 ground state. [source]

    Syntheses, Crystal Structures, and the Phase Transformation of Octacyanometallate-Based LnIII,WV Bimetallic Assemblies with Two-Dimensional Corrugated Layers

    Ai-Hua Yuan
    Abstract The reactions between Ln(NO3)3·nH2O and (Bu3NH)3[W(CN)8]·H2O have led to two series of octacyanometallate-based complexes: Ln(H2O)5[W(CN)8] [Ln = La(1), Pr(2), Nd(3), Eu(4), Gd(5)] and Ln(H2O)4[W(CN)8] [Ln = Ho(6), Er(7), Tm(8), Lu(9)]. The crystal structures of 1,9 have two-dimensional corrugated layers in which the LnIII and WV centres are linked in an alternating fashion. Thermogravimetric (TG) and powder XRD results reveal the presence of a phase transformation in the LnIII,WV system with increasing atomic number of the LnIII atoms. [source]

    Syntheses, Structures and Magnetic Properties of Trinuclear CuIIMIICuII (M = Cu, Ni, Co and Fe) and Tetranuclear [2×1+1×2] CuIIMnII,2CuII Complexes Derived from a Compartmental Ligand: The Schiff Base 3-Methoxysalicylaldehyde Diamine Can also Stabilize a Cocrystal

    Arpita Biswas
    Abstract The present investigation describes syntheses, characterization and studies of the mononuclear compound [CuIIL,(H2O)] (1), the triangular, trinuclear monophenoxido-bridged compounds [{CuIIL}2MII(H2O)2](ClO4)2·nH2O [2 (M = Cu, n = 0), 3 (M = Ni, n = 3), 4 (M = Co, n = 0), 5 (M = Fe, n = 0)] and the tetrametallic self-assembled complex [{CuIILMnII(H2O)3}{CuIIL}2](ClO4)2·H2O (6) derived from compartmental Schiff base ligand, H2L, which is the [2+1] condensation product of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde and trans -1,2-diaminocyclohexane. Single-crystal X-ray structures of 2, 5 and 6 were determined. Two pairs of terminal···central metal ions in the trinuclear cores in 2 and 5 are monophenoxido-bridged. Interestingly, the CuO6 and FeO6 environments have tetragonally compressed octahedral geometries. On the other hand, the structure of 6 reveals that it is a [2×1+1×2] cocrystal of one diphenoxido-bridged dinuclear [CuIILMnII(H2O)3]2+ dication and two mononuclear [CuIIL] moieties. Cocrystallization in 6 takes place as a result of water encapsulation. The variable-temperature (2,300 K) magnetic susceptibilities of compounds 2,6 have been measured. The exchange integrals obtained are: the CuII3 compound 2, J = ,78.9 cm,1; the CuIINiIICuII compound 3, J = ,22.8 cm,1; the CuIICoIICuII compound 4, J = ,7.8 cm,1; the CuIIFeIICuII compound 5, J = ,3.0 cm,1; the CuII3MnII compound 6, J = ,15.1 cm,1. The monophenoxido-bridging core in 3 and 4 has been proposed after comparison of the structures and magnetic properties of these two compounds with those of 2, 5 and related other compounds. This paper presents rare examples of monophenoxido-bridged CuIIMIICuII (M = Cu, Ni, Co and Fe) compounds, provides an understanding of the structures from magnetic exchange integrals, and, most importantly, reports on the first example of a cocrystal derived from a 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde diamine compartmental ligand. [source]

    Reactions of [Et4N][Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2­(CuSCN)2] with Nitrogen Donor Ligands: Syntheses, Structures, and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties

    Zhen-Hong Wei
    Abstract Reactions of the preformed cluster [Et4N][Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2(CuSCN)2] (1) with pyridine (py), 4,4,-bipyridine (4,4,-bipy), or 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) led to the formation of three neutral [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2]-based compounds [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(SCN)(py)2] (2), [{Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(SCN)}2(4,4,-bipy)]·3.5H2O (3·3.5H2O), and [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(SCN)(bpp)]2 (4), respectively. Compounds 2,4 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV/Vis spectra, 1H NMR, and X-ray analysis. There are two linkage isomers [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(SCN)(py)2] and [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(NCS)(py)2], each of which has its own enantiomeric pair in the crystal of 2. Compound 3 has a double butterfly-shaped structure in which two [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(SCN)] fragments are linked with a single 4,4,-bipy bridge. For 4, the two butterfly-shaped [Tp*W(,3 -S)(,-S)2Cu2(SCN)] fragments are interconnected by a pair of bpp bridges. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) performances of 2,4 in DMF were also investigated by Z -scan techniques.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Syntheses, Structures and Theoretical Investigations of [Li(thf)4]2[Ti2Cu8S4(SPh)10] and [Ti2Ag6S6Cl2(PPhiPr2)6]

    Heino Sommer
    Abstract The reaction of CuOAc (OAc = acetate) with TiCl4·2thf and LiSPh in thf leads to the formation of tiny deep-red crystals of [Li(thf)4]2[Ti2Cu8S4(SPh)10]. The silver/titanium cluster complex [Ti2Ag6S6Cl2(PPhiPr2)6] was synthesized by the reaction of TiCl4·2thf with AgPhCO2 and S(SiMe3)2 in the presence of PPhiPr2. The crystal structures of the compounds were determined by X-ray analysis of single crystals. Additionally, theoretical investigations were performed to assign the proper chlorine/sulfur atomic positions and to rationalize the bonding situation in 1 and 2. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Syntheses and Characterization of Lead(II) N,N -Bis[1(2)H -tetrazol-5-yl]amine Compounds and Effects on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Perchlorate

    Weitao Wang
    Abstract Three new lead(II) N,N -bis[1(2)H -tetrazol-5-yl]amine (H2bta) compounds, [Pb(bta)(H2O)2]n (1), [Pb2(bta)2(bpy)2] (2), and [Pb2(bta)2(phen)2]·2H2O (3), were synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound 1 has a 1D polymeric zigzag chain structure, whereas compounds 2 and 3 have binuclear structures. In addition, compounds 1,3 were explored as additives to promote the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate by differential scanning calorimetry. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Nickel Complexes and Cobalt Coordination Polymers with Organochalcogen (S, Se) Ligands Bearing an N -Methylimidazole Moiety: Syntheses, Structures, and Properties,

    Wei-Guo Jia
    Abstract The organochalcogen ligands (S, Se) derived from 3-methylimidazole-2-thione/selone groups mbit (2a), mbis (2b), ebit (2c), and ebis (2d) [mbit = 1,1,-methylenebis(1,3-dihydro-3-methyl-2H -imidazole-2-thione), mbis = 1,1,-methylenebis(1,3-dihydro-3-methyl-2H -imidazole-2-selone), ebit = 1,1,-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis(1,3-dihydro-3-methyl-1H -imidazole-2-thione), ebis = 1,1,-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis(1,3-dihydro-3-methyl-1H -imidazole-2-selone)] were synthesized and characterized. Mononuclear NiII complexes NiBr2mbit (3a), NiBr2mbis (3b), NiBr2ebit (3c), and NiBr2ebis (3d) were obtained by the reactions of Ni(PPh3)2Br2 with 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d, respectively. However, when the corresponding ligands 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d were treated with CoCl2 in thf solution CoII 1D coordination polymers (CoCl2mbit)n (4a), (CoCl2mbis)n (4b), (CoCl2ebit)n (4c), and (CoCl2ebis)n (4d) were obtained. All compounds were fully characterized by IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The crystal structures of 2c, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a, 4b, and 4c were determined by X-ray crystallography. The local geometry around the nickel atom in complexes 3a,c was distorted tetrahedron with coordinated S(Se) and two Br atoms, and the organochalcogen ligands form an eight- or a nine-membered ring with the nickel atom included. The cobalt atom coordination polymers 4a and 4b coexist as left-handed and right-handed helical chains, but 4c formed a zigzag chain with a CH3CN solvent molecule taken up in the channel structure. After activation with methylaluminoxane (MAO), the nickel complexes exhibited high activities for addition polymerization of norbornene (1.42,×,108 g,PNBmol,1,Nih,1 for 3a). The effects of the Al/Ni ratio, reaction temperature, and reaction time to norbornene polymerization were also investigated.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]