Systolic/diastolic Blood Pressure (systolic/diastolic + blood_pressure)

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Selected Abstracts

Prevalence and projections of diabetes and pre-diabetes in adults in Sri Lanka,Sri Lanka Diabetes, Cardiovascular Study (SLDCS)

P. Katulanda
Abstract Aims To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) in adults in Sri Lanka. Projections for the year 2030 and factors associated with diabetes and pre-diabetes are also presented. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged , 18 years was selected by a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Fasting plasma glucose was tested in all participants and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in non-diabetic subjects. Prevalence was estimated for those > 20 years of age. Results Response rate was 91% (n = 4532), males 40%, age 46.1 15.1 years (mean standard deviation). The age,sex standardized prevalence (95% confidence interval) of diabetes for Sri Lankans aged , 20 years was 10.3% (9.4,11.2%) [males 9.8% (8.4,11.2%), females 10.9% (9.7,12.1%), P = 0.129). Thirty-six per cent (31.9,40.1%) of all diabetic subjects were previously undiagnosed. Diabetes prevalence was higher in the urban population compared with rural [16.4% (13.8,19.0%) vs. 8.7% (7.8,9.6%); P < 0.001]. The prevalence of overall, urban and rural pre-diabetes was 11.5% (10.5,12.5%), 13.6% (11.2,16.0%) and 11.0% (10.0,12.0%), respectively. Overall, 21.8% (20.5,23.1%) had some form of dysglycaemia. The projected diabetes prevalence for the year 2030 is 13.9%. Those with diabetes and pre-diabetes compared with normal glucose tolerance were older, physically inactive, frequently lived in urban areas and had a family history of diabetes. They had higher body mass index, waist circumference, waist,hip ratio, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Insulin was prescribed to 4.4% (2.7,6.1%) of all diabetic subjects. Conclusions One in five adults in Sri Lanka has either diabetes or pre-diabetes and one-third of those with diabetes are undiagnosed. [source]

Ten-Year Echo/Doppler Determination of the Benefits of Aerobic Exercise after the Age of 65 Years

Alexander J. Muster M.D.
As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (3) and 77 (2) years (mean SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO2max and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events. (Echocardiography 2010;27:5-10) [source]

Effect of mivazerol, a ,2 -agonist, on striatal norepinephrine concentration during transient forebrain ischemia in rats,

Background: We have previously reported that mivazerol, a ,2 -agonist, possibly provides neuroprotection against transient forebrain ischemia in rats. This study was designed to investigate the ability of mivazerol to attenuate ischemia-induced increase in striatal norepinephrine concentration after transient forebrain ischemia in rats. Methods: Male Sprague,Dawley rats, anesthetized with halothane, were assigned to one of three groups (n=10 each); control (C, normal saline 1 ml/kg), mivazerol 20 ,g/kg (M20), and 40 ,g/kg (M40) groups. Monitored variables included temporal muscle temperature (maintained at 37.50.1 C), electroencephalogram, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, and blood glucose concentrations. Thirty minutes after subcutaneous drug administration, forebrain ischemia was induced with hemorrhagic hypotension (systolic arterial pressure: 40,50 mmHg) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10 min, and then the brain was reperfused. Norepinephrine concentration in the interstitial fluids in the striatum was analyzed using in vivo microdialysis in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Ischemia resulted in a prompt increase in norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum in all groups. However, there were no significant differences in norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum between the three groups at any period. Conclusions: Our results indicate that mivazerol did not attenuate ischemia-induced increase in striatal norepinephrine concentration. This suggests that the possible neuroprotective property of mivazerol is not related to inhibition of norepinephrine release in the brain. [source]

Testosterone and obesity in men under the age of 40 years

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 2 2009
N. P. Goncharov
Summary The study assessed anthropometric and laboratory variables, in particular testosterone (T) in a group of obese men of <40 years. Of 60 men with a body mass index (BMI) of >27 kg m,2, 34 met the criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Twenty men <40 years (with a BMI <25 kg m,2) were studied for comparison. It was found that with increasing BMI, levels of serum leptin, triglycerides, insulin, the ratio high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol/low-density liporotein (LDL) cholesterol, the waist circumference (WC), the area of visceral fat and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were higher, whereas insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and serum T were lower. Obesity (BMI 27,30 kg m,2) was associated with a decline in plasma T, but not with a decline in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The latter was the case in more severe obesity (>30 kg m,2) qualifying as MS. In patients with MS, 58% variability of T levels could be predicted by combination of independent factors , SHBG, ratio LDL/HDL, insulin and leptin. On the other hand, in men with MS, 80% variance of concentrations of SHBG were predicted by triglycerides, HDL, glucose, leptin and surface of visceral adipose tissue. It is concluded that plasma T is significantly correlated with a number of features of the MS and, therefore, plasma T could serve as a marker of the MS. [source]