Band Area (band + area)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Infrared Microscopic Imaging of Bone: Spatial Distribution of CO32,

H. Ou-Yang
Abstract This article describes a novel technology for quantitative determination of the spatial distribution of CO32, substitution in bone mineral using infrared (IR) imaging at ,6 ,m spatial resolution. This novel technology consists of an IR array detector of 64 × 64 elements mapped to a 400 ,m × 400 ,m spot at the focal plane of an IR microscope. During each scan, a complete IR spectrum is acquired from each element in the array. The variation of any IR parameter across the array may be mapped. In the current study, a linear relationship was observed between the band area or the peak height ratio of the CO32, v3 contour at 1415 cm,1 to the PO43, v1,v3 contour in a series of synthetic carbonated apatites. The correlation coefficient between the spectroscopically and analytically determined ratios (R2 = 0.989) attests to the practical utility of this IR area ratio for determination of bone CO32, levels. The relationship forms the basis for the determination of CO32, in tissue sections using IR imaging. In four images of trabecular bone the average CO32, levels were 5.95 wt% (2298 data points), 6.67% (2040 data points), 6.66% (1176 data points), and 6.73% (2256 data points) with an overall average of 6.38 ± 0.14% (7770 data points). The highest levels of CO32, were found at the edge of the trabeculae and immediately adjacent to the Haversian canal. Examination of parameters derived from the phosphate v1,v3 contour of the synthetic apatites revealed that the crystallinity/perfection of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals was diminished as CO32, levels increased. The methodology described will permit evaluation of the spatial distribution of CO32, levels in diseased and normal mineralized tissues. [source]

Measurement of lesion area and volume by three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR imaging in osteonecrosis of the femoral head

Yuki Kishida
Abstract The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the diagnostic ability of three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo (3D SPGR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in cases of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), and to determine the accuracy of 3D SPGR imaging in area and volume measurement of ONFH. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) and 3D SPGR imaging were performed on 20 femoral heads obtained from patients with ONFH. After MR imaging, the femoral heads were cut parallel to the imaging plane and were evaluated histologically. Areas and volumes of necrotic lesions were measured with a computer program and the deviation between MR images and anatomical measurements was evaluated. A low signal intensity band on 3D SPGR MR images was observed in all femoral heads and corresponded histologically to repaired marrow with viable fibrous mesenchymal tissue. The area proximate to the low band area coincided with the necrotic region. Both area and volume measurements by T1-weighted SE and 3D SPGR images showed a strong correlation to histological measurements. The discrepancies between histological and imaging results were minimal in 3D SPGR imaging, especially at the anterior and posterior portions of the femoral head. Three-dimensional SPGR imaging provides more accurate measurements of the area and volume of a necrotic lesion than T1-weighted SE imaging. © 2003 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of drugs: quantitative analysis of 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-5-pyrazolone-4-methylaminomethane sodium sulfonate: (dipyrone)

Antônio O. Izolani
Abstract Several drugs provided by the pharmaceutical industry and containing dipyrone as the active principle have different mass percentages of the letter. We describe a procedure for the quantitative analysis of several tablets containing dipyrone (or other solid active principles). The results of Fourier transform Raman band analysis (band area and band height) agree well with the stated contents of dipyrone in the tablets. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Monitoring of biomass composition from microbiological sources by means of FT-IR spectroscopy

Arthur M.A. Pistorius
Abstract An FT-IR spectroscopic method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of biomacromolecular components in biomass, originating from various microbiological sources. For the determination of protein, lipid and carbohydrate content, creatine phosphokinase, egg phosphatidyl choline and starch hydrolysate were chosen as external standards. This selection was based on spectral similarity and ease of availability. Protein content was based on the area under the amide II band profile around 1,545 cm,1. Because of the heterogeneous lipid composition in the different species, lipid content was determined using integration over the CH stretching vibrational population between 2,984 and 2,780 cm,1. Carbohydrate content was determined using integration over a CO and COC stretching band area between 1,180 and 1,133 cm,1. Linear regression analysis provided three calibration lines, according to which biomasses from ten species were analyzed. This approach showed good intra-batch reproducibility. With this method we could demonstrate good reproducibility between batches of the same species with similar growth conditions while large differences in biomass composition were observed between the various species. Protein content as determined by FT-IR spectroscopy compared well with the results obtained from elemental analysis. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;103: 123,129. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Near-IR spectroscopic imaging for skin hydration: The long and the short of it

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 2 2002
E. Michael Attas
Abstract Near-IR spectroscopic methods have been developed to determine the degree of hydration of human skin in vivo. Noncontact reflectance spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the distribution of skin moisture as a function of location. A human study in a clinical setting has generated quantitative data showing the effects of a drying agent and a moisturizer on delineated regions of the forearms of eight volunteers. Two digital imaging systems equipped with liquid-crystal tunable filters were used to collect stacks of monochromatic images at 10-nm intervals over the 650,1050 and 960,1700 nm wavelength bands. Synthetic images generated from measurements of water absorption band areas at three different near-IR wavelengths (970, 1200, and 1450 nm) showed obvious differences in the apparent distribution of water in the skin. Changes resulting from the skin treatments were much more evident in the long-wavelength images than in the short-wavelength ones. The variable sensitivity of the method at different wavelengths has been interpreted as being the result of different penetration depths of the IR light used in the reflectance studies. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 67: 96,106, 2002 [source]