Surface EMG Signal (surface + emg_signal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Quantification of surface EMG signals to monitor the effect of a Botox treatment in six healthy ponies and two horses with stringhalt: Preliminary study

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
I. D. Wijnberg
Summary Reasons for performing the study: Therapeutic options for stringhalt in horses are limited, whereas medical experiences with botulinum toxin type A (Botox) have been positive. To evaluate its effectiveness in horses, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals before and after injection need to be quantified. Hypothesis: Treatment of healthy ponies and cases with Botox should reduce muscle activity in injected muscles and reduce spastic movements without adverse side effects. Methods: Unilaterally, the extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum lateralis and lateral vastus muscles of 6 healthy mature Shetland ponies and 2 talented Dutch Warmblood dressage horses with stringhalt were injected (maximum of 400 iu per pony and 700 iu per case; 100 iu in 5 ml NaCl divided into 5 injections) with Botox under needle EMG guidance. Surface EMG data were evaluated using customised software, and in the individuals gait was analysed using Proreflex. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models and independent sample t test (P<0.05). Results: Surface EMG signals were quantified using customised software. The area under the curve (integrated EMG) in time was used as variable. It became significantly reduced in injected muscles after injection of Botox in normal ponies (P<0.05). This effect was present from Day 1 until Day 84 after injection. In the 2 cases, after injection of 3 muscles, the integrated EMG in time became significantly reduced in all 3 muscles. Kinematic measurements confirmed reduction of frequency and amplitude of hyperflexing or hyperabducting strides of the affected hindlimbs. The duration of effect was also seen in the cases until around 12 weeks after injection. Conclusions and potential relevance: After EMG guided injections of Botox, sEMG signals recorded from injected muscle were reduced, which proves this to be a useful tool in statistically evaluating a treatment effect. The positive results of this pilot study encourage further research with a larger group of clinical cases. [source]


Non-invasive assessment of motor unit anatomy in jaw-elevator muscles

JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 10 2005
T. CASTROFLORIO
summary The estimation of fibre length in jaw-elevator muscles is important for modelling studies and clinical applications. The objective of this study was to identify, from multi-channel surface EMG recordings, the main innervation zone(s) of the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, and to estimate the fibre length of these muscles. Surface EMG signals were collected from 13 subjects with a 16-electrode linear array. The innervation zones of the masseter and anterior temporalis were identified and their variability intra- and inter-subject outlined. More than one main innervation zone location was identified in the masseter of all subjects and in the temporalis anterior of 12 subjects. Average estimated fibre lengths, for the right (left) side, were (mean SD) 273 24 mm (270 17 mm) and 259 23 mm (266 16 mm), for the superficial masseter and temporalis anterior muscle, respectively. The range of innervation zone locations was up to approximately 50% of the fibre length, both within and between subjects. Fibre length estimates well matched with published data on cadavers. It was concluded that multi-channel surface EMG provides important and reliable information on the anatomy of single motor units in jaw-elevator muscles. [source]


Motor unit recruitment and bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram during a sustained contraction

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 6 2008
Zachary A. Riley MS
Abstract Bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during a sustained contraction have been interpreted as corresponding to the transient recruitment of motor units, but this association has never been confirmed. The current study compared the timing of trains of action potentials discharged by single motor units during a sustained contraction with the bursts of activity detected in the surface EMG signal. The 20 motor units from 6 subjects [recruitment threshold, 35.3 11.3% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force] that were detected with fine wire electrodes discharged 2,9 trains of action potentials (7.2 5.6 s in duration) when recruited during a contraction that was sustained at a force below its recruitment threshold (target force, 25.4 10.6% MVC force). High-pass filtering the bipolar surface EMG signal improved its correlation with the single motor unit signal. An algorithm applied to the surface EMG was able to detect 75% of the trains of motor unit action potentials. The results indicate that bursts of activity in the surface EMG during a constant-force contraction correspond to the transient recruitment of higher-threshold motor units in healthy individuals, and these results could assist in the diagnosis and design of treatment in individuals who demonstrate deficits in motor unit activation. Muscle Nerve, 2008 [source]


Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment induced by brief increase in contraction amplitude of the human trapezius muscle

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
C. Westad
The activity pattern of low-threshold human trapezius motor units was examined in response to brief, voluntary increases in contraction amplitude (,EMG pulse') superimposed on a constant contraction at 4,7% of the surface electromyographic (EMG) response at maximal voluntary contraction (4,7% EMGmax). EMG pulses at 15,20% EMGmax were superimposed every minute on contractions of 5, 10, or 30 min duration. A quadrifilar fine-wire electrode recorded single motor unit activity and a surface electrode recorded simultaneously the surface EMG signal. Low-threshold motor units recruited at the start of the contraction were observed to stop firing while motor units of higher recruitment threshold stayed active. Derecruitment of a motor unit coincided with the end of an EMG pulse. The lowest-threshold motor units showed only brief silent periods. Some motor units with recruitment threshold up to 5% EMGmax higher than the constant contraction level were recruited during an EMG pulse and kept firing throughout the contraction. Following an EMG pulse, there was a marked reduction in motor unit firing rates upon return of the surface EMG signal to the constant contraction level, outlasting the EMG pulse by 4 s on average. The reduction in firing rates may serve as a trigger to induce derecruitment. We speculate that the silent periods following derecruitment may be due to deactivation of non-inactivating inward current (,plateau potentials'). The firing behaviour of trapezius motor units in these experiments may thus illustrate a mechanism and a control strategy to reduce fatigue of motor units with sustained activity patterns. [source]


Quantification of surface EMG signals to monitor the effect of a Botox treatment in six healthy ponies and two horses with stringhalt: Preliminary study

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
I. D. Wijnberg
Summary Reasons for performing the study: Therapeutic options for stringhalt in horses are limited, whereas medical experiences with botulinum toxin type A (Botox) have been positive. To evaluate its effectiveness in horses, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals before and after injection need to be quantified. Hypothesis: Treatment of healthy ponies and cases with Botox should reduce muscle activity in injected muscles and reduce spastic movements without adverse side effects. Methods: Unilaterally, the extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum lateralis and lateral vastus muscles of 6 healthy mature Shetland ponies and 2 talented Dutch Warmblood dressage horses with stringhalt were injected (maximum of 400 iu per pony and 700 iu per case; 100 iu in 5 ml NaCl divided into 5 injections) with Botox under needle EMG guidance. Surface EMG data were evaluated using customised software, and in the individuals gait was analysed using Proreflex. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models and independent sample t test (P<0.05). Results: Surface EMG signals were quantified using customised software. The area under the curve (integrated EMG) in time was used as variable. It became significantly reduced in injected muscles after injection of Botox in normal ponies (P<0.05). This effect was present from Day 1 until Day 84 after injection. In the 2 cases, after injection of 3 muscles, the integrated EMG in time became significantly reduced in all 3 muscles. Kinematic measurements confirmed reduction of frequency and amplitude of hyperflexing or hyperabducting strides of the affected hindlimbs. The duration of effect was also seen in the cases until around 12 weeks after injection. Conclusions and potential relevance: After EMG guided injections of Botox, sEMG signals recorded from injected muscle were reduced, which proves this to be a useful tool in statistically evaluating a treatment effect. The positive results of this pilot study encourage further research with a larger group of clinical cases. [source]