Surface CO2 Efflux (surface + co2_efflux)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Vertical partitioning of CO2 production within a temperate forest soil

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
ERIC A. DAVIDSON
Abstract The major driving factors of soil CO2 production , substrate supply, temperature, and water content , vary vertically within the soil profile, with the greatest temporal variations of these factors usually near the soil surface. Several studies have demonstrated that wetting and drying of the organic horizon contributes to temporal variation in summertime soil CO2 efflux in forests, but this contribution is difficult to quantify. The objectives of this study were to partition CO2 production vertically in a mixed hardwood stand of the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, and then to use that partitioning to evaluate how the relative contributions of CO2 production by genetic soil horizon vary seasonally and interannually. We measured surface CO2 efflux and vertical soil profiles of CO2 concentration, temperature, water content, and soil physical characteristics. These data were applied to a model of effective diffusivity to estimate CO2 flux at the top of each genetic soil horizon and the production within each horizon. A sensitivity analysis revealed sources of uncertainty when applying a diffusivity model to a rocky soil with large spatial heterogeneity, especially estimates of bulk density and volumetric water content and matching measurements of profiles and surface fluxes. We conservatively estimate that the O horizon contributed 40,48% of the total annual soil CO2 efflux. Although the temperature sensitivity of CO2 production varied across soil horizons, the partitioning of CO2 production by horizon did not improve the overall prediction of surface CO2 effluxes based on temperature functions. However, vertical partitioning revealed that water content covaried with CO2 production only in the O horizon. Large interannual variations in estimates of O horizon CO2 production indicate that this layer could be an important transient interannual source or sink of ecosystem C. [source]


Long-term carbon exchange in a sparse, seasonally dry tussock grassland

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
John E. Hunt
Abstract Rainfall and its seasonal distribution can alter carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange and the sustainability of grassland ecosystems. Using eddy covariance, CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and a sparse grassland was measured for 2 years at Twizel, New Zealand. The years had contrasting distributions of rain and falls (446 mm followed by 933 mm; long-term mean=646 mm). The vegetation was sparse with total above-ground biomass of only 1410 g m,2. During the dry year, leaf area index peaked in spring (November) at 0.7, but it was <0.2 by early summer. The maximum daily net CO2 uptake rate was only 1.5 g C m,2 day,1, and it occurred before mid-summer in both years. On an annual basis, for the dry year, 9 g C m,2 was lost to the atmosphere. During the wet year, 41 g C m,2 was sequestered from the atmosphere. The net exchange rates were determined mostly by the timing and intensity of spring rainfall. The components of ecosystem respiration were measured using chambers. Combining scaled-up measurements with the eddy CO2 effluxes, it was estimated that 85% of ecosystem respiration emanated from the soil surface. Under well-watered conditions, 26% of the soil surface CO2 efflux came from soil microbial activity. Rates of soil microbial CO2 production and net mineral-N production were low and indicative of substrate limitation. Soil respiration declined by a factor of four as the soil water content declined from field capacity (0.21 m3 m,3) to the driest value obtained (0.04 m3 m,3). Rainfall after periods of drought resulted in large, but short-lived, respiration pulses that were curvilinearly related to the increase in root-zone water content. Coupled with the low leaf area and high root : shoot ratio, this sparse grassland had a limited capacity to sequester and store carbon. Assuming a proportionality between carbon gain and rainfall during the summer, rainfall distribution statistics suggest that the ecosystem is sustainable in the long term. [source]


Relationship between stem CO2 efflux, stem sap velocity and xylem CO2 concentration in young loblolly pine trees

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 8 2006
CHRIS A. MAIER
ABSTRACT We measured diel patterns of stem surface CO2 efflux (Es, Ámol m,2 s,1), sap velocity (vs, mm s,1) and xylem CO2 concetration ([CO2]) (Xs, %) in 8-year-old loblolly pine trees during the spring to determine how vs and Xs influence Es. All trees showed a strong diel hysteresis between Es and stem temperature, where at a given temperature, Es was lower during the day than at night. Diel variations in temperature-independent Es were correlated with vs (R2 = 0.54), such that at maximum vs, Es was reduced between 18 and 40%. However, this correlation may not represent a cause-and-effect relationship. In a subset of trees, vs was artificially reduced by progressively removing the tree canopy. Reducing vs to near zero had no effect on Es and did not change the diel hysteretic response to temperature. Diel Xs tended to decrease with vs and increase with Es, however, in defoliated trees, large increases in Xs, when vs , 0, had no effect on Es. We conclude that at this time of the year, Es is driven primarily by respiration of cambium and phloem tissues and that sap flow and xylem transport of CO2 had no direct influence on Es. [source]


Vertical partitioning of CO2 production within a temperate forest soil

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
ERIC A. DAVIDSON
Abstract The major driving factors of soil CO2 production , substrate supply, temperature, and water content , vary vertically within the soil profile, with the greatest temporal variations of these factors usually near the soil surface. Several studies have demonstrated that wetting and drying of the organic horizon contributes to temporal variation in summertime soil CO2 efflux in forests, but this contribution is difficult to quantify. The objectives of this study were to partition CO2 production vertically in a mixed hardwood stand of the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, and then to use that partitioning to evaluate how the relative contributions of CO2 production by genetic soil horizon vary seasonally and interannually. We measured surface CO2 efflux and vertical soil profiles of CO2 concentration, temperature, water content, and soil physical characteristics. These data were applied to a model of effective diffusivity to estimate CO2 flux at the top of each genetic soil horizon and the production within each horizon. A sensitivity analysis revealed sources of uncertainty when applying a diffusivity model to a rocky soil with large spatial heterogeneity, especially estimates of bulk density and volumetric water content and matching measurements of profiles and surface fluxes. We conservatively estimate that the O horizon contributed 40,48% of the total annual soil CO2 efflux. Although the temperature sensitivity of CO2 production varied across soil horizons, the partitioning of CO2 production by horizon did not improve the overall prediction of surface CO2 effluxes based on temperature functions. However, vertical partitioning revealed that water content covaried with CO2 production only in the O horizon. Large interannual variations in estimates of O horizon CO2 production indicate that this layer could be an important transient interannual source or sink of ecosystem C. [source]