Surface Anatomy (surface + anatomy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Selecting Nanotechnology-Based Composites Using Colorimetric and Visual Analysis for the Restoration of Anterior Dentition: A Case Report

ABSTRACT Currently it is possible to use direct composites and layering techniques to replicate the complex internal structures, visible shape, color, and surface anatomy of natural teeth. To do so, however, requires dentists to understand the principles of nature and the science of dental materials to determine the most suitable restorative material for a specific indication. By incorporating relatively new technologies,colorimetric analysis, which provides computerized shade guide definitions of a tooth and essential information to verify shade mapping, and a new nanotechnology-based direct composite,into composite layering techniques, dentists can more predictably replicate the esthetics of natural teeth. This article presents a case in which both technologies, used in combination with a composite layering technique, contributed to the esthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary central incisors. [source]

Virtual reality and brain anatomy: a randomised trial of e-learning instructional designs

Anthony J Levinson
Context, Computer-aided instruction is used increasingly in medical education and anatomy instruction with limited research evidence to guide its design and deployment. Objectives, To determine the effects of (a) learner control over the e-learning environment and (b) key views of the brain versus multiple views in the learning of brain surface anatomy. Design, Randomised trial with 2 phases of study. Participants Volunteer sample of 1st-year psychology students (phase 1, n = 120; phase 2, n = 120). Interventions, Phase 1: computer-based instruction in brain surface anatomy with 4 conditions: (1) learner control/multiple views (LMV); (2) learner control/key views (LKV); (3) programme control/multiple views (PMV); (4) programme control/key views (PKV). Phase 2: 2 conditions: low learner control/key views (PKV) versus no learner control/key views (SKV). All participants performed a pre-test, post-test and test of visuospatial ability. Main outcome measures, A 30-item post-test of brain surface anatomy structure identification. Results The PKV group attained the best post-test score (57.7%) and the PMV group received the worst (42.2%), with the 2 high learner control groups performing in between. For students with low spatial ability, estimated scores are 20% lower for those who saw multiple views during learning. In phase 2, students with the most static condition and no learner control (SKV) performed similarly to those students in the PKV group. Conclusions Multiple views may impede learning, particularly for those with relatively poor spatial ability. High degrees of learner control may reduce effectiveness of learning. [source]

Three-dimensional deformation-based hippocampal surface anatomy, projected on MRI images

Robert Gardner
Abstract The objectives of the present study were to illustrate three-dimensional hippocampal surface anatomy using deformation-based composite segmentations, superimposed on two-dimensional MRI (magnetic resonance images) in standard and oblique planes. The hippocampi from five normal volumetric MRI studies were segmented using a semiautomated, deformation-based technique. Segmentations were then processed to combine hippocampal surfaces, generating a composite (or average) deformation for each of the five left and five right hippocampi. Composite hippocampal surfaces were then projected on two-dimensional MRIs, with verification of projections using three-dimensional coordinate data. Composite hippocampal surfaces show anatomical details of hippocampal substructures, including the pes hippocampi, intralimbic gyrus, and uncinate gyrus. Projection on two-dimensional MRI helps to define hippocampal anatomy in relationship to surrounding structures. Composite images highlight specific features of normal hippocampal surface anatomy, and demonstrate the structural relationship of the hippocampus to surrounding structures on MRI. Clin. Anat. 18:481,487, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]