Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Supportive

  • supportive behaviour
  • supportive breeding
  • supportive care
  • supportive cell
  • supportive clinical management
  • supportive data
  • supportive environment
  • supportive evidence
  • supportive intervention
  • supportive measure
  • supportive network
  • supportive periodontal therapy
  • supportive policy
  • supportive relationships
  • supportive role
  • supportive services
  • supportive therapy
  • supportive treatment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Spatial characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal molecular diversity at the submetre scale in a temperate grassland

    Daniel L. Mummey
    Abstract Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form spatially complex communities in terrestrial ecosystems, the scales at which this diversity manifests itself is poorly understood. This information is critical to the understanding of the role of AMF in plant community composition. We examined small-scale (submetre) variability of AMF community composition (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting) and abundance (extraradical hyphal lengths) in two 1 m2 plots situated in a native grassland ecosystem of western Montana. Extraradical AMF hyphal lengths varied greatly between samples (14,89 m g soil,1) and exhibited spatial structure at scales <30 cm. The composition of AMF communities was also found to exhibit significant spatial autocorrelation, with correlogram analyses suggesting patchiness at scales <50 cm. Supportive of overall AMF community composition analyses, individual AMF ribotypes corresponding to specific phylogenetic groups exhibited distinct spatial autocorrelation. Our results demonstrate that AMF diversity and abundance can be spatially structured at scales of <1 m. Such small-scale heterogeneity in the soil suggests that establishing seedlings may be exposed to very different, location dependent AMF communities. Our results also have direct implications for representative sampling of AMF communities in the field. [source]

    The relevance of organizational subculture for motivation to transfer learning

    Toby Marshall Egan
    Although human resource development practitioners and researchers emphasize organizational culture as a major contributor to employee learning and development, results from this study suggest organizational subculture has greater influence on employee-related learning motivation. The relationships among organizational culture, organizational subculture, leadership style, and motivation to transfer learning are examined in this study of 354 randomly selected health care providers from a population of 1,255 employees of three of the largest health care organizations in the United States. Study findings indicate that organizational subculture was highly associated with employee motivation to transfer learning,far higher than organizational culture overall. Supportive and innovative subcultures have clear positive relationships, while bureaucratic subcultures negatively influenced motivation to transfer learning. Findings also support the differences between leadership style types and particular subculture types in relation to motivation to transfer learning. In terms of leadership style, a consideration style had a stronger relationship to motivation to transfer learning than did structuring style. Implications for HRD research and practice are explored. [source]

    The Birmingham International Workshop on Supportive, Palliative, and End-of-Life Care Research

    CANCER, Issue 4 2006
    Neil A. Hagen MD
    The authors outline the context, discussions, and recommendations of the International Symposium on Supportive, Palliative, and End of Life Care, which was held October 5 and 6, 2005 in Birmingham, England. The potential benefits and challenges of international collaborative research activities are highlighted in supportive, palliative, and end-of-life care within the broader health care research community. [source]

    Organization and Management in an Anglo-French Consortium: The Case of Transmanche-Link

    Graham M. Winch
    This paper presents the results of a comparative organizational assessment of the behaviour and organization of the British and French managers who constructed the Channel Tunnel. In the context of a common adhocratic organization, a principal components analysis of the survey results differentiates the British and French respondents on five dimensions: fonceur/procedural; competitive/collegial; involved/distanced; individualistic/supportive; and stress. These quantitative results are supported by qualitative data from interviews and open-ended questions. A preliminary explanation of the results in terms of a configurational analysis of the differences between the British and French managers surveyed is then offered. The paper argues that an organizational assessment methodology is compatible with societal approaches which attempt to understand nationally distinctive configurations of organization and management. [source]

    Recent advances in the management and prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus infection

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2001
    A Greenough
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of morbidity, particularly in prematurely born infants who have had chronic lung disease. Current therapy is essentially supportive. Overall, the results of randomized trials do not support the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids or Ribavirin. Nitric oxide and exogenous surfactant may improve the respiratory status of those infants who require ventilatory support. Nosocomial infection can be reduced by appropriate handwashing. There is no safe and effective vaccine for use in infants. Immunoprophylaxis reduces hospitalization and requirement for intensive care. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is preferred to RSV immune globulin as the immunoprophylactic agent. Immunoprophylaxis should be reserved for infants at highest risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection, if this strategy is to be used most cost-effectively. [source]

    Islam and CSR: a study of the compatibility between the tenets of Islam, the UN Global Compact and the development of social, human and natural capital

    John Zinkin
    Abstract Previous research has found that Muslims score elements that are assumed to matter in determining socially responsible business behaviour less highly than people of other religions. This paper looks at whether the tenets of Islam are the reason for this lower score by comparing and contrasting the UN Global Compact's ten principles with those of Islam in the affected areas. In so doing, the paper reconstructs the principles according to their impact on social, human and natural capital and explores whether Islam is supportive of responsible behaviour in these three areas. The paper concludes that, with the possible exception of Islam's focus on personal responsibility and non-recognition of the corporation as a legal person, which could undermine the concept of corporate responsibility, there is no divergence between the tenets of the religion and the principles of the UN Global Compact. Focusing on this convergence of values could help avert the threatened ,clash of civilizations'. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    How can you help organizations change to meet the corporate responsibility agenda?

    David Lyon
    As corporate responsibility (CR) has developed over the past decade, companies have developed and communicated their formal values relating to environment, employees, stakeholders and governance through public statements. Many of these companies have produced formal reports covering their performance on environmental and social issues. Continued improvement and delivery of commitments depends on buy-in not just from senior management (and the CR manager), but from managers and staff across the organization. This is only possible if there is a culture that is supportive of corporate responsibility. One key aspect of making this change is understanding how the company's culture affects corporate responsibility performance. This paper discusses some areas of organizational culture that affect CR performance including rewards and recognition, learning and managing change, awareness and involvement, questioning culture and flexibility underpinned by mutual respect. It also provides an overview of our approach for assessing and fostering a supportive culture. This is based on working with clients to manage their licence to operate in addition to extensive experience in innovation culture and safety culture. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    Elko Kleinschmidt
    Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed, functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program performance is shown to result from an effective IT/Communication strength and the commitment components of the firm's internal environment, which are hypothesized to moderate this relationship. IT/Communication strength is identified in this study in terms of two components including the IT/Comm Infrastructure and IT/Comm Capability of the firm, whereas the moderating internal environment of the firm incorporates Resource Commitment and Senior Management Involvement. Data from a major empirical study of international NPD programs (382 SBUs) are used to develop and test this model. Based on a hierarchical regression analysis, the results are substantially supportive, with some unexpected findings. These shed light on the complex relationships of the firm's internal environment, OIP competency, and global NPD program performance. [source]

    Sector Approaches, Sustainable Livelihoods and Rural Poverty Reduction

    Jim Gilling
    This article examines the relationship between sector-wide approaches (SWAps), sustainable livelihoods approaches (SLAs) and rural poverty reduction. The authors suggest that SLAs provide one means by which SWAps can focus more effectively on poverty reduction, whilst SWAps provide an entry point via which government and donor initiatives can be made supportive of the livelihoods of the poor. The article puts forward guidelines indicating the core issues upon which donors should focus to enhance the poverty impact of sector-wide approaches. [source]

    Targeted group antenatal prevention of postnatal depression: a review

    M.-P. Austin
    Objective:, To review the efficacy of antenatal group interventions aimed at reducing postnatal depression (PND) in ,at risk' women. Method:, Medline, Psyclit, HEALTHSTAR, EMBASE, Cochrane library, UK National Research Register and CINHAL searches were performed from 1960 to December 2001 focussing on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results:, As statistical synthesis of the studies was not feasible, a qualitative review is provided. All five studies reviewed suffer from substantial limitations including small numbers; unrealistic effect sizes; large attrition rates; lack of a systematic approach in identifying those ,at risk' and thus clinically heterogenous samples. Three of the studies used unvalidated interventions that were educational or supportive in approach. While one such study reported a benefit of intervention, the largest study using a structured intervention, reported no effect. A very small study using interpersonal therapy, was promising but needs replication with an adequate sample size. Conclusion:, There is currently little evidence from RCTs to support the implementation of antenatal group interventions to reduce PND in ,at risk' women. Further studies addressing the significant methodological limitations are recommended before concluding that antenatal targeted interventions have no place in maternity care. [source]

    "There Must be Mouse Dirt with the Pepper": A Lutheran Approach to Choosing Songs1

    DIALOG, Issue 4 2009
    Gertrud Tönsing
    Abstract:, This paper stems from my doctoral research on the question, "What is a good song?" It is a response to the Praise and Worship movement, which started within the charismatic churches, but also has spread to many mainline churches, including my own in South Africa. While I am supportive of much that is good in this movement, I am also critical of the content and theology of many of the songs. This paper focuses on what we as Lutherans can learn from our founder when it comes to choosing what and how to sing in our services. [source]

    Evidence-based policy or policy-based evidence?

    The role of evidence in the development, implementation of the Illicit Drug Diversion Initiative
    Abstract Issues. Evidence-based policy is promoted as the ideal in drug policy, yet public policy theorists suggest that policy-based evidence may be a more fitting analogy, where evidence is used selectively to support a predetermined policy direction. Approach. The following paper assesses the resonance of this notion to the development of the Illicit Drug Diversion Initiative (IDDI), an apparently pragmatic reform adopted in Australia in 1999 through the Federal Coalition ,Tough on Drugs' strategy. It utilises interviews with key informants from the Australian drug policy arena conducted in 2005 to assess the role of evidence in the design and implementation of the IDDI. Key Findings. The current paper shows that while policy-makers were generally supportive of the IDDI and viewed drug diversion as a more pragmatic response to drug users, they contend that implementation has suffered through a selective and variable emphasis upon evidence. Most notably, the IDDI is not premised upon best-practice objectives of reducing harm from drug use, but instead on ,Tough on Drugs' objectives of reducing drug use and crime. Implications. This paper contends that policy-based evidence may facilitate the adoption of pragmatic reforms, but reduce the capacity for effective reform. It therefore has both functional and dysfunctional elements. Conclusion. The paper concludes that greater attention is needed to understanding how to mesh political and pragmatic objectives, and hence to maximise the benefits from policy-based evidence. [Hughes CE. Evidence-based policy or policy-based evidence? The role of evidence in the development and implementation of the Illicit Drug Diversion Initiative. Drug Alcohol Rev 2007;26:363,368] [source]

    The eye of the freshwater prosobranch gastropod Viviparus viviparus: ultrastructure, electrophysiology and behaviour

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2006
    Valery V. Zhukov
    Abstract We used light and electron microscopy to study the retinal organization of the eye of Viviparus viviparus. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were used to investigate the electrophysiological responsiveness to flashes of light of varying intensity and colour, behavioural observations were made of phototactic reactions, and optical measurements and calculations related to the path of light rays in the eye were made. The retina contains principally two types of cells: first, photoreceptor cells with both microvilli and cilia, and second, cells, often strongly pigmented, that are supportive in nature. The ERGs obtained were essentially similar in form, amplitude and duration to those known from other gastropods that have exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Spectral sensitivity curves closely fitted the absorption spectrum of a rhodopsin-like pigment. The spectral sensitivity peak was at 475 nm. Measurements of the refractive indices of the lens gave values of 1.55 for the outer layer and 1.57 for the lens core. None of the snails tested exhibited a ,defensive reflex' and although no preference between light and dark regions was expressed, we nevertheless argue that, on the basis of optical measurements and calculations, the eye of V. viviparus is well-adapted for seeing under water. Our main conclusion is that in the eye of V. viviparus with its ,mixed photoreceptor' cell type, there is an equal probability for microvilli and cilia to function as principal photoreceptive elements. [source]

    Direct preputial hernia associated with a ventral abdominal wall defect in a two-year-old gelding

    T. O'Brien
    Summary The case of a 2-year-old gelding with acute onset of preputial swelling and prolapse is presented. After initiating conservative management using a penile repulsion device, the horse repeatedly displayed signs of mild abdominal discomfort with sudden deterioration to an episode of violent colic after 5 days of hospitalisation. Ultrasonographic examination of the preputial swelling at that time demonstrated the presence of small intestine between the internal and external laminae of the prepuce and led to the diagnosis of a direct preputial hernia. The contents of the hernia were readily reduced through a defect in the ventral abdominal wall after the anaesthetised horse was placed in dorsal recumbency. The historical information, clinical progression and surgical findings were supportive of an acquired ventral abdominal wall defect. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a direct preputial hernia associated with an acquired ventral abdominal wall defect. [source]

    Foraging for Work and Age-Based Polyethism: The Roles of Age and Previous Experience on Task Choice in Ants

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 11 2004
    Frederic Tripet
    In social insects, colonies commonly show temporal polyethism in worker behavior, such that a worker follows a predictable pattern of changes between tasks as it ages. This pattern usually leads from workers first doing a safe task like brood care, to ending their lives doing the most dangerous tasks like foraging. Two mechanisms could potentially underlie this pattern: (1) age-based task allocation, where the aging process itself predisposes workers to switch to more dangerous tasks; and (2) foraging for work, where ants switch to tasks that need doing from tasks which have too many associated workers. We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms by establishing nests of Camponotus floridanus with predetermined combinations of workers of known age and previous task specialization. The results supported both mechanisms. Nests composed of entirely brood-tending workers had the oldest workers preferentially switching to foraging. However, in nests initially composed entirely of foragers, the final distribution of tenders and foragers was not different from random task-switching and therefore supportive of foraging for work. Thus, it appears that in C. floridanus there is directionality to the mechanisms of task allocation. Switching to more dangerous tasks is age-influenced, but switching to less dangerous tasks is age-independent. The results also suggest that older workers are more flexible in their task choice behavior. Younger workers are more biased towards choosing within-nest tasks. Finally, there are effects of previous experience that tend to keep ants in familiar tasks. Task allocation based on several mechanisms may balance between: (1) concentrating the most worn workers into the most dangerous tasks; (2) increasing task performance levels; and (3) maintaining behavioral flexibility to respond to demographic perturbations. The degree to which behavior is flexible may correlate to the frequency of such perturbations in a species. [source]

    Psychodrama: helping families to adapt to childhood diabetes

    B Bektas RN.
    Abstract Effective management of diabetes in children requires a holistic approach that takes into account the roles of diabetes education, treatment and disease management, and the integral role of family relationships. Psychodrama is a group-based psychological support technique that aims to improve the acceptance and understanding of diabetes within the families of diagnosed children. Through group improvisation, role plays and feedback sessions, the families of children with diabetes participate in a cathartic process that helps them to share their problems, benefit from others' insight and feedback and to discuss behavioural changes that will avoid similar problems in the future. The families that participated in this study reported an enhanced understanding of the contribution that relationships with their children have on the successful management of their diabetes. Through recognition of the reasons for their anxieties about their children's diabetes, they were able to address fixed behavioural patterns in a supportive, non-judgmental arena, and to work towards positive change. Their children benefited indirectly through changes in their parents' behaviour and improved communication within their families. A reduction in the children's HbA1c levels was observed through the course of the study, although this could not be considered a direct result of psychodrama. Copyright © 2006 FEND. [source]

    Improving the quality of clinical teaching in a restorative clinic using student feedback

    Callum Youngson
    Abstract Introduction:, A large proportion of the undergraduate curriculum is spent within Restorative Dentistry at the University of Liverpool. As well as supportive "phantom head" courses the undergraduates receive significant amounts of teaching within the clinics themselves. In 2004, to help inform the clinical tutors as to their areas of strengths and weaknesses, undergraduates were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire on the quality of teaching they received from their clinical supervisors. This process has been repeated subsequently in 2005 and 2006. Method:, A 19 parameter questionnaire, employing a 5-point Likert scale and space for open comments, was circulated to every clinical undergraduate student. Questionnaires were returned anonymously and all data collected by one researcher. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and the staff provided with individual feedback within the context of the overall departmental profile. The pooled data from each of the years was then compared to determine if any changes had occurred. Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis tests to determine whether these were statistically significant. Results:, Although the range varied, median scores of 4 (agree) were gained for each question each year. Following statistical analysis 18 of the parameters showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) between 2004 and 2006 with only one remaining constant throughout. Conclusion:, It would appear that the use of a questionnaire based feedback system can result in a tangible and demonstrable improvement in the delivery of clinical teaching. [source]

    From ,welfare without work' to ,buttressed liberalization': The shifting dynamics of labor market adjustment in France and Germany

    Scholars blame this disease on dysfunctional political arrangements, deep insider-outsider cleavages and failed systems of social partnership. As a result, the two countries are said to be more or less permanently mired in a context of high unemployment that is highly resistant to remediation. This article departs from this conventional wisdom in two important respects. First, it argues that France and Germany have undertaken major reforms of their labor market policies and institutions during the past decade and remediated many of their longstanding employment traps. Second, it shows that the political arrangements that adherents of the ,welfare without work' thesis identify as reasons for sclerosis have evolved quite dramatically. The article supports these arguments by exploring some of the most significant recent labor market reforms in the two countries, as well as the shifting political relationships that have driven these changes. In both countries, recent labor market reforms have followed a trajectory of ,buttressed liberalization'. This has involved, on the one hand, significant liberalization of labor market regulations such as limits on overtime and worker protections such as unemployment insurance. On the other hand, it has entailed a set of supportive, ,buttressing' reforms involving an expansion of active labor market policies and support for workers' efforts to find jobs. The article concludes that these developments provide reasons for optimism about the countries' economic futures and offer important lessons about how public policy can confront problems of labor market stagnation. [source]

    Exploring Triangulation in Infancy: Two Contrasted Cases

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2006
    Two contrasted father-mother-infant interactions are observed longitudinally during trilogue play. They illustrate the contribution of recent research to the exploration of triangulation in infancy: namely, the infant's capacity to handle triangular interactions and share her affects with her two parents, and the way that this capacity is recruited in functional versus problematic alliances. It is likely that an infant under stress when interacting with one parent will protest at that parent and also at the other. Such is the case when, for example, the father acts intrusively while playing with his baby. The infant is then driven to avert and turns to the mother. The regulation of this dyadic intrusion-avoidance pattern at family level depends on the family alliance. When coparenting is supportive, the mother validates the infant's bid for help without interfering with the father. Thus, the problematic pattern is contained in the dyad, and the infant's triangular capacities remain in the service of her own developmental goals. But when coparenting is hostile-competitive, the mother ignores the infant's bid or engages with her in a way that interferes with her play with her father. In this case, the infant's triangular capacities are used to relieve the tension between the parents. The importance of tracing family process back to infancy for family therapy is discussed. [source]

    Kinetic and crystallographic analysis of complexes formed between elastase and peptides from ,-casein

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2001
    Penny A. Wright
    Human ,-casomorphin-7 (NH2 -Tyr-Pro-Phe-Val-Glu-Pro-Ile-CO2H) is a naturally occurring peptide inhibitor of elastase that has been shown to form an acyl-enzyme complex stable enough for X-ray crystallographic analysis at pH 5. To investigate the importance of the N-terminal residues of the ,-casomorphin-7 peptide for the inhibition of elastase, kinetic and crystallographic analyses were undertaken to identify the minimum number of residues required for effective formation of a stable complex between truncated ,-casomorphin-7 peptides and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). The results clearly demonstrate that significant inhibition of PPE can be effected by simple tri-, tetra-and pentapeptides terminating in a carboxylic acid. These results also suggest that in vivo regulation of protease activity could be mediated via short peptides as well as by proteins. Crystallographic analysis of the complex formed between N -acetyl-Val-Glu-Pro-Ile-CO2H and PPE at pH 5 (to 1.67 Å resolution) revealed an active site water molecule in an analogous position to that observed in the PPE/,-casomorphin-7 structure supportive of its assignment as the ,hydrolytic water' in the deacylation step of serine protease catalysis. [source]

    The Determinants and Implications of Mutual Fund Cash Holdings: Theory and Evidence

    Xuemin (Sterling) Yan
    In this article, I examine the determinants and implications of equity mutual fund cash holdings. In cross-sectional tests, I find evidence generally supportive of a static trade-off model developed in the article. In particular, small-cap funds and funds with more-volatile fund flows hold more cash. However, I do not find that fund managers with better stock-picking skills hold less cash. Aggregate cash holdings by equity mutual funds are persistent and positively related to lagged aggregate fund flows. Aggregate cash holdings do not forecast future market returns, suggesting that equity funds as a whole do not have market timing skills. [source]

    Crustal structure of central Tibet as derived from project INDEPTH wide-angle seismic data

    W. Zhao
    Summary In the summer of 1998, project INDEPTH recorded a 400 km long NNW,SSE wide-angle seismic profile in central Tibet, from the Lhasa terrane across the Banggong-Nujiang suture (BNS) at about 89.5°E and into the Qiangtang terrane. Analysis of the P- wave data reveals that (1) the crustal thickness is 65 ± 5 km beneath the line; (2) there is no 20 km step in the Moho in the vicinity of the BNS, as has been suggested to exist along-strike to the east based on prior fan profiling; (3) a thick high-velocity lower crustal layer is evident along the length of the profile (20,35 km thick, 6.5,7.3 km s,1); and (4) in contrast to the southern Lhasa terrane, there is no obvious evidence of a mid-crustal low-velocity layer in the P- wave data, although the data do not negate the possibility of such a layer of modest proportions. Combining the results from the INDEPTH III wide-angle profile with other seismic results allows a cross-section of Moho depths to be constructed across Tibet. This cross-section shows that crustal thickness tends to decrease from south to north, with values of 70,80 km south of the middle of the Lhasa terrane, 60,70 km in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane and the Qiangtang terrane, and less than 60 km in the Qaidam basin. The overall northward thinning of the crust evident in the combined seismic observations, coupled with the essentially uniform surface elevation of the plateau south of the Qaidam basin, is supportive of the inference that northern Tibet until the Qaidam basin is underlain by somewhat thinner crust, which is isostatically supported by relatively low-density, hot upper mantle with respect to southern Tibet. [source]

    Enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in the absence of microglia T cell interaction and microglia activation in the murine running wheel model

    GLIA, Issue 10 2009
    Marta Olah
    Abstract Recently, activated microglia have been shown to be involved in the regulation of several aspects of neurogenesis under certain experimental conditions both in vitro and in vivo. A neurogenesis supportive microglia phenotype has been suggested to arise from the interaction of microglia with homing encephalitogenic T cells. However, a unified hypothesis regarding the exact nature of microglia activity that is supportive of neurogenesis is yet missing from the field. Our aim was to investigate the connection between microglia activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiological conditions. To address this question we compared the level of microglia activation in the hippocampus of mice, which had access to a running wheel for 10 days and that of sedentary controls. Suprisingly, despite elevated levels of proliferation of neural precursors and survival of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus microglia remained in a "resting" state morphologically, antigenically, and at the transcriptional level. Moreover, neither T cells nor MHCII expressing microglia were present in the hippocampal brain parenchyma. Though microglia in the dentate gyrus of the runners proliferated at a higher level than in the sedentary controls, this difference was also present in non-neurogenic sites. Therefore, our findings suggest that classical signs of microglia activation and microglia activation arising from interaction with T cells in particular are not a prerequisite for the activity-induced increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in C57Bl/6 mice. Thus, our results draw attention on the species and model differences that might exist regarding the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Astrocytic calcium signals induced by neuromodulators via functional metabotropic receptors in the ventral respiratory group of neonatal mice

    GLIA, Issue 8 2009
    Kai Härtel
    Abstract A controlled, periodic exchange of air between lungs and atmosphere requires a neuronal rhythm generated by a network of neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of the brainstem. Glial cells, e.g. astrocytes, have been shown to be supportive in stabilizing this neuronal activity in the central nervous system during development. In addition, a variety of neuromodulators including serotonin (5-HT), Substance P (SP), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulate respiratory neurons directly. If astrocytes in the VRG, like their neuronal neighbors, are also directly stimulated by neuromodulators, they might indirectly affect the respiratory neurons and consequently the respiratory rhythm. In the present study, we provide support for this concept by demonstrating expression of NK1-R, TRH-R, and 5-HT2 -R in astrocytes of the VRG with immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we showed that the external application of the neuromodulators 5-HT, SP, and TRH activate calcium transients in VRG astrocytes. Consequently, we postulate that in the VRG of the neonatal mouse, neuromodulation by SP, TRH, and serotonin also involves astrocytic calcium signaling. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Non-supportive interactions in the experience of women family caregivers

    Anne Neufeld RN PhD
    Abstract The purpose of this ethnographic study was to identify and describe types of non-supportive interactions perceived by 59 women family caregivers in four diverse situations. Participants included 15 mothers of infants born prematurely, 14 mothers of a child with a chronic disease (asthma or diabetes), and women caring for an adult family member with either cancer (15) or dementia (15). Data collection methods included an initial in-depth interview with all women, followed by a second interview with a smaller group of caregivers including a card sort exercise that was based on thematic content analysis of the first interview data. A typology of non-supportive interactions was developed from analysis of the first two interviews and confirmed in a final interview with a subset of study participants. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Women in all caregiving situations described experience with three types of non-supportive interactions. These interactions were negative, ineffective, or lacking expected support. The women's appraisal of interactions as supportive or non-supportive was rooted in their personal expectations and the context of their situation. Information about types of non-supportive interactions can sensitise professionals, family and friends to mismatches between their assistance and caregivers' requirements, potentially avoiding negative consequences. [source]

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis: pathogenesis to treatment

    John T Reilly
    Abstract Idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) is the least common of the chronic myeloproliferative disorders and carries the worst prognosis with a median survival of 4 years. It is a clonal haematopoietic stem-cell disorder and, although the pathogenesis remains unclear, approximately 50% of cases are known to possess an activating JAK2 V617F mutation. In contrast, the characteristic stromal proliferation is a reactive, or secondary, event that results from the aberrant release of a variety of growth factors from megakaryocytes and monocytes. Treatment for most cases is supportive, although androgens, recombinant erythropoietin, steroids and thalidomide are effective modalities for the amelioration of anaemia. Myelosuppression, splenectomy and irradiation are valuable therapeutic modalities for specific clinical situations. Prognostic scores are available to aid the identification of cases for whom bone marrow transplantation should be considered. Recently, the use of reduced intensity conditioning has resulted in prolonged survival and lower transplant-related mortality. This review summarises the recent advances in the disease's pathogenesis and discusses the role of the various therapeutic options. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Are transient environmental agents involved in the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis?

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Evidence from space, time clustering analysis
    The cause of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is unclear. Both genetic and environmental factors are likely to contribute. Some studies have suggested that one or more infectious agents may be involved. To examine whether infections may contribute to the cause of PBC, we have analyzed for space,time clustering using population-based data from northeast England over a defined period (1987,2003). Space,time clustering is observed when excess cases of a disease are found within limited geographical areas at limited periods of time. If present, it is suggestive of the involvement of one or more environmental components in the cause of a disease and is especially supportive of infections. A second-order procedure based on K -functions was used to test for global space,time clustering using residential addresses at the time of diagnosis. The Knox method determined the spatiotemporal range over which global clustering was strongest. K -function tests were repeated using nearest neighbor thresholds to adjust for variations in population density. Individual space,time clusters were identified using Kulldorff's scan statistic. Analysis of 1015 cases showed highly statistically significant space,time clustering (P < 0.001). Clustering was most marked for cases diagnosed within 1,4 months of one another. A number of specific space,time clusters were identified. In conclusion, these novel results suggest that transient environmental agents may play a role in the cause of PBC. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    A best choice among asset pricing models?

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 2 2004
    The Conditional Capital Asset Pricing Model in Australia
    Abstract We use Australian data to test the Conditional Capital Asset Pricing Model (Jagannathan and Wang, 1996). Our results are generally supportive: the model performs well compared with a number of competing asset pricing models. In contrast to the study by Jagannathan and Wang, however, we find that the inclusion of the market for human capital does not save the concept of the time-independent market beta (it remains insignificant). We find support for the role of a small-minus-big factor in pricing the cross-section of returns and find grounds to disagree with Jagannathan and Wang's argument that this factor proxies for misspecified market risk. [source]

    The effect of human resource management practices on the job retention of former welfare clients

    John R. Deckop
    Why should an employer hire a former welfare client?What human resource management practices can help employers retain former welfare clients? This study addresses these questions against the backdrop of changes in welfare legislation in the United States that have lessened support to welfare clients and their families and emphasized movement into the workplace. We conducted a large-scale empirical study of the effectiveness of a wide range of HRM practices and found that higher wages, better financial and health benefits, and development opportunities were positively associated with job retention. Unexpectedly, supervisory training had no relationship to retention, and appraising supervisors on providing a supportive and inclusive work environment showed a negative relationship. We provide suggestions to employers for improving the job retention of former welfare recipients along with directions for additional research. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Employer responses to union organising: patterns and effects

    Edmund Heery
    This article presents original research on employer responses to trade union organising campaigns in the United Kingdom. The evidence indicates that there is no single response, with employers in some cases seeking to block and in others support union activity. These different patterns are strongly path dependent and reflect the prior degree of exposure to trade unionism of workplaces targeted for organising. Another finding is that employer responses co-vary with union approaches to organising, such that when the employer adopts adversarial tactics so does the union. The militancy of both parties, it seems, is mutually reinforcing. Finally, the evidence points to substantial influence of employer responses over the outcomes of organising. When employers are supportive then campaigns tend to be more successful, measured on a range of criteria. When the employer is hostile unions find it difficult to make progress and encounter particular difficulties in securing recognition. [source]