Suppressor Gene (suppressor + gene)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Suppressor Gene

  • candidate tumor suppressor gene
  • metastasis suppressor gene
  • putative tumor suppressor gene
  • tumor suppressor gene
  • tumour suppressor gene

  • Selected Abstracts

    In vitro Ruthenation of Human Breast Cancer Suppressor Gene 1 (BRCA1) by the Antimetastasis Compound RAPTA-C and Its Analogue CarboRAPTA-C

    Adisorn Ratanaphan
    Abstract The interaction of two ruthenium,arene,1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane compounds ([Ru(,6 - p -cymene)Cl2(pta)] and [Ru(,6 - p -cymene)(C6H6O4)(pta)], termed RAPTA-C (3) and carboRAPTA-C (4), resp.) with the DNA sequence of the human breast-cancer suppressor gene 1 (BRCA1) has been studied using a range of techniques that probe conformation, cross-linking, base specificity, restriction analysis, and in vitro inhibition of DNA polymerization. The study demonstrates that substitution of the two labile chloride ligands in 3 by the more stable cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate ligand onto the RAPTA framework reduces the rate of reaction with DNA in a similar manner to the analogous Pt-based drug pair cisplatin (1) and carboplatin (2), suggesting that hydrolysis may be a prerequisite to DNA binding with the Ru compounds. Moreover, the rate of DNA interaction for 3 is in a similar range to that of 2, despite the fact that these compounds have a different therapeutic profile. The similar rates of reaction contrasting with the different modes of activity suggests that the RAPTA compounds may be clinically useful against cancer cells that have developed resistance to Pt-based therapies, particularly involving excision,repair mechanisms. [source]

    The taurine transporter: mechanisms of regulation

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1-2 2006
    X. Han
    Abstract Taurine transport undergoes an adaptive response to changes in taurine availability. Unlike most amino acids, taurine is not metabolized or incorporated into protein but remains free in the intracellular water. Most amino acids are reabsorbed at rates of 98,99%, but reabsorption of taurine may range from 40% to 99.5%. Factors that influence taurine accumulation include ionic environment, electrochemical charge, and post-translational and transcriptional factors. Among these are protein kinase C (PKC) activation and transactivation or repression by proto-oncogenes such as WT1, c-Jun, c-Myb and p53. Renal adaptive regulation of the taurine transporter (TauT) was studied in vivo and in vitro. Site-directed mutagenesis and the oocyte expression system were used to study post-translational regulation of the TauT by PKC. Reporter genes and Northern and Western blots were used to study transcriptional regulation of the taurine transporter gene (TauT). We demonstrated that (i) the body pool of taurine is controlled through renal adaptive regulation of TauT in response to taurine availability; (ii) ionic environment, electrochemical charge, pH, and developmental ontogeny influence renal taurine accumulation; (iii) the fourth segment of TauT is involved in the gating of taurine across the cell membrane, which is controlled by PKC phosphorylation of serine 322 at the post-translational level; (iv) expression of TauT is repressed by the p53 tumour suppressor gene and is transactivated by proto-oncogenes such as WT1, c-Jun, and c-Myb; and (v) over-expression of TauT protects renal cells from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [source]

    Maspin controls mammary tumor cell migration through inhibiting Rac1 and Cdc42, but not the RhoA GTPase

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 5 2007
    Heidi Y. Shi
    Abstract Rac1 and Cdc42 are members of the Rho family of small GTPases that play essential roles in diverse cellular functions, including cell migration. The activities of these Rho family proteins are controlled by growth factor receptor activation and cell-ECM interactions. Here, we show that maspin, a well-documented tumor suppressor gene, also controls cell motility through inhibiting Rac1/Cdc42 activity. Using the GST-PAK and GST-Rho binding protein pull-down assays for GTP-bound Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, we showed that treatment of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells with recombinant maspin for a short time period significantly inhibited the activity of Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA. The reactive site loop (RSL) within maspin protein is the functional domain involved in the inhibition. Maspin mutants with the RSL deleted or a point mutation in the RSL region lost their inhibitory activity. We further examined the ability of maspin to inhibit Rac1- and Cdc42-mediated signaling pathways and transcription factors. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with maspin led to the inhibition of JNK kinase activity as assayed by immuno-kinase assays. In addition, the AP-1 transcription activity downstream of JNK kinase pathway was also reduced. Together, we have identified Rac1 and Cdc42 as the downstream targets that mediate the inhibition of mammary tumor cell migration by maspin. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    RNAi knockdown of the focal adhesion protein TES reveals its role in actin stress fibre organisation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2005
    Elen Griffith
    Abstract TES was originally identified as a candidate tumour suppressor gene and has subsequently been found to encode a novel focal adhesion protein. As well as localising to cell-matrix adhesions, TES localises to cell-cell contacts and to actin stress fibres. TES interacts with a variety of cytoskeletal proteins including zyxin, mena, VASP, talin and actin. There is evidence that TES may function in actin-dependent processes as overexpression of TES results in increased cell spreading and decreased cell motility. Together with TES's interacting partners, these data suggest that TES might be involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, for the first time, we have used RNAi to successfully knockdown TES in HeLa cells and we demonstrate that loss of TES from focal adhesions results in loss of actin stress fibres. Similarly, and as previously reported, RNAi-mediated knockdown of zyxin results in loss of actin stress fibres. TES siRNA treated cells show reduced RhoA activity, suggesting that the Rho GTPase pathway may be involved in the TES RNAi-induced loss of stress fibres. We have also used RNAi to examine the requirement of TES and zyxin for each other's localisation at focal adhesions, and we propose a hierarchy of recruitment, with zyxin being first, followed by VASP and then TES. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 60:140,152, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    TSC-box is essential for the nuclear localization and antiproliferative effect of XTSC-22

    Akiko Hashiguchi
    Transforming growth factor- ,1-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22) encodes a leucine zipper-containing protein that is highly conserved among various species. Mammalian TSC-22 is a potential tumor suppressor gene. It translocates into nuclei and suppresses cell division upon antiproliferative stimuli. In human colon carcinoma cells, TSC-22 inhibits cell growth by upregulating expression of the p21 gene, a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor. We previously showed that the Xenopus laevis homologue of the TSC-22 gene (XTSC-22) is required for cell movement during gastrulation through cell cycle regulation. In this report, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the antiproliferative effect of XTSC-22. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis suggested that XTSC-22 did not affect the expression levels of the p21 family of Cdk inhibitors or other cell cycle regulators. Analysis of deletion mutants of XTSC-22 revealed that nuclear localization of the N-terminal TSC-box is necessary for cell cycle inhibition by XTSC-22. Further experiments suggested that p27Xic1, a key Cdk inhibitor in Xenopus, interacts with XTSC-22. Because p27Xic1 is a cell cycle inhibitor with a nuclear localization signal, it is possible that XTSC-22 suppresses cell division by translocating into the nucleus with p27Xic1, where it may potentiate the intranuclear action of p27Xic1. [source]

    Spontaneous mutation in mice provides new insight into the genetic mechanisms that pattern the seminal vesicles and prostate gland

    Paul C. Marker
    Abstract The seminal vesicles and prostate gland are anatomically adjacent male sex-accessory glands. Although they arise from different embryonic precursor structures and express distinct sets of secretory proteins, these organs share common features in their developmental biology. A key shared developmental feature is the elaboration of complex secretory epithelia with tremendous surface area from simple precursor structures with juxtaposed epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this study, new insight into the nature of the biological processes that underlie glandular morphogenesis is achieved by analyzing the phenotypes present in mice that harbor a spontaneous mutation, seminal vesicle shape (svs), previously identified for causing altered seminal vesicle morphology in adults. An examination of seminal vesicle development in svs mice provides the first evidence that the concurrent processes of epithelial branching and epithelial infolding are distinct processes under separate genetic control. It also provides the first direct evidence that the thickness and topology of the smooth muscle layer in the seminal vesicles are determined by interaction with the glandular epithelium during the branching process. In addition, the seminal vesicle phenotype in svs mice is shown to phenocopy the morphologic form present in certain other mammals such as the guinea pig, raising the possibility that the svs mutation is the sort of variant that arises during evolution. By also including an investigation of the prostate gland, this study also identifies previously unrecognized phenotypes in svs prostates, including increased gland size and dramatically reduced levels of branching morphogenesis. Finally, this study advances the goal of identifying the svs gene by mapping the svs mutation relative to known molecular markers and testing Fgfr2 as a candidate gene. The finding that the svs mutation maps to a genomic region syntenic to a region frequently deleted in human prostate tumors, together with the prostatic phenotype present in svs mice, further raises the interesting possibility that the svs mutation will identify a candidate prostate tumor suppressor gene. Developmental Dynamics 226:643,653, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of DNA repair gene Ku80 in lymphoid neoplasm

    Tsai-Yun Chen
    Abstract:,Objectives:,Ku, a heterodimer of KU70 and Ku80 that binds to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and activates the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) when DNA is bound, is essential in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. Ku80 is a putative tumor suppressor gene that might play an important role in drug resistance. Our aim was to determine the role of Ku80 in lymphoid malignancy. Patients and methods:,Competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays were performed and the expression levels of Ku80 were measured in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n = 9) and malignant cells from 25 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (14 children, 11 adults), and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 6). The Ku80 transcripts were sequencing for the possibility of mutation. Results:,No mutation or Ku80 variant at the RNA level was seen in any patient samples or in the Raji or CCRF-CEM cell lines. In Ku80 expression, 8.8-, 1.9-, and 6.2-fold mean increases were seen in adult, pediatric ALL, and chronic lymphoid malignancies compared with the control. The Ku80 was significantly higher in adult than in pediatric ALL (P = 0.02). The amount of Ku80 expression in ALL was moderately correlated with peripheral white blood cell counts, but not with Ki67 labeling index. High Ku80 expressers (higher than the mean of all patients with ALL) tended to respond poorly to therapy: Only 22% of high Ku80 expressers achieved durable complete remission compared to 62% of low expressers. Conclusions:,Our study suggests that Ku80 might contribute to generally poor prognoses in adult ALL. [source]

    Cytogenetic, FISH, and molecular studies in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with karyotypic evolution

    Christian Chena
    Abstract:, We report the clinical, cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular findings in a 54-yr-old male patient diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), who showed progression to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Richter's syndrome). Genetic studies were performed at diagnosis and during the Richter's transformation (RT). A clonal karyotype with two dicentric chromosomes, psu dic(12,21)(q24;q10) and dic(17,18)(p11.2;p11.2), was found. Both rearrangements were confirmed by FISH. Molecular cytogenetics analysis using p53 probe showed monoallelic loss of this tumor suppressor gene in 43.8% and 77.3% of cells for the first and the second studies, respectively). In both studies, deletions of D13S319 (18% and 12% of cells) and D13S25 loci (13% and 12% of cells) at 13q14 were found. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the MBR/JH rearrangement of the bcl-2 gene. FISH studies using LSI bcl-2/IgH probe allowed quantifying the clonal cell population with this rearrangement (4% and 6.6% of cells at diagnosis and RT, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first case with a psu dic(12,21) described in B-CLL. The low percentage of cells with the 13q14 deletion and bcl-2/IgH rearrangement suggests that they were secondary events that resulted from clonal evolution. Our patient had a short survival (9 months) and a clear lack of response to several therapeutic agents, confirming the association of p53 gene deletion and karyotypic evolution with disease progression. [source]

    Fc,RIIB deficiency with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmune disease

    Kaori Yajima
    Abstract MRL.Faslpr/lpr mice, a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and arthritis in humans, have a Fas mutation that results in spontaneous development of systemic autoimmune diseases and a short life span. Half of them die by 5,6,months of age due to massive progression of systemic autoimmune diseases, such as lupus nephritis. However, C57BL/6 (B6).Faslpr/lpr strain does not develop such disorders within the normal life span, indicating that suppressor gene(s) in B6 mice may control the onset and exacerbation of disease. Here, we show that the gene for a unique inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (Fc,RIIB) is a critical SLE suppressor. Fc,RIIB-deficient B6.Faslpr/lpr (B6.IIB,/,Faslpr/lpr) mice developed systemic autoimmune diseases, including anti-DNA and anti-type,II collagen autoantibodies and cryoglobulin production, immune complex glomerulonephritis and arthritis. They were short-lived, due to enhanced autoantibody production by B cells culminating in fatal lupus nephritis. Thus, Fc,RIIB deletion with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmunity in B6 mice. The inhibitory signaling cascade via Fc,RIIB may be critical for suppressing SLE in humans. [source]

    Molecular analyses of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    Fredrik Enlund
    Deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 6 are a characteristic feature of all major subtypes of malignant salivary gland tumors. Moreover, a subgroup of adenoid cystic carcinomas have t(6;9)(q23-25;p21-24) translocations with breakpoints located within the commonly deleted region. Here we have examined the possible involvement of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in these deletions and translocations. Northern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of a series of 27 salivary gland tumors revealed no significant changes in the gene expression or rearrangements of PLAGL1. FISH analysis also demonstrated that the 6q translocation breakpoint in adenoid cystic carcinomas with t(6;9) is proximal to the PLAGL1 locus. Collectively, these results indicate that PLAGL1 is not likely to be the major target gene of the 6q rearrangements in salivary gland tumors. [source]

    The molecular determinants of sunburn cell formation

    G. Murphy
    Abstract: Sunburn cell (SBC) formation in the epidermis is a characteristic consequence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure at doses around or above the minimum erythema dose. SBC have been identified morphologically and biologically as keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis. There is evidence that SBC formation is a protective mechanism to eliminate cells at risk of malignant transformation. The level of DNA photodamage is a major determinant of SBC induction by a process controlled by the tumor suppressor gene p53. However, extra-nuclear events also contribute to SBC formation, such as the activation of death receptors including CD95/Fas. UVR triggers death receptors either by direct activation of these surface molecules or by inducing the release of their ligands such as CD95 ligand or tumor necrosis factor. Oxidative stress also appears to be involved, probably via mitochondrial pathways, resulting in the release of cytochrome C. Pathways which modify SBC formation are now extensively studied given the importance of apoptosis in eliminating irreparably damaged cells. A greater understanding of the mechanisms that induce and prevent UVR-induced apoptosis will contribute to our understanding of mechanisms relevant in genomic integrity. [source]

    The regulation of the endosomal compartment by p53 the tumor suppressor gene

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 8 2009
    Xin Yu
    The endosomal compartment of the cell is involved in a number of functions including: (a) internalizing membrane proteins to multivesicular bodies and lysosomes; (b) producing vesicles that are secreted from the cell (exosomes); and (c) generating autophagic vesicles that, especially in times of nutrient deprivation, supply cytoplasmic components to the lysosome for degradation and recycling of nutrients. The p53 protein responds to various stress signals by initiating a transcriptional program that restores cellular homeostasis and prevents the accumulation of errors in a cell. As part of this process, p53 regulates the transcription of a set of genes encoding proteins that populate the endosomal compartment and impact upon each of these endosomal functions. Here, we demonstrate that p53 regulates transcription of the genes TSAP6 and CHMP4C, which enhance exosome production, and CAV1 and CHMP4C, which produce a more rapid endosomal clearance of the epidermal growth factor receptor from the plasma membrane. Each of these p53-regulated endosomal functions results in the slowing of cell growth and division, the utilization of catabolic resources and cell-to-cell communication by exosomes after a stress signal is detected by the p53 protein. These processes avoid errors during stress and restore homeostasis once the stress is resolved. [source]

    Aberrant methylation impairs low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B tumor suppressor function in gastric cancer

    Yen-Jung Lu
    DNA methylation plays a significant role in tumor progression. In this study, we used CpG microarray and differential methylation hybridization approaches to identify low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a novel epigenetic target in gastric cancer. LRP1B was hypermethylated in four gastric cancer cell lines, and low LRP1B mRNA expression was associated with high methylation levels in gastric cancer cell lines. Addition of a DNA methylation inhibitor (5-Aza-dC) restored the mRNA expression of LRP1B in these cell lines, indicating that DNA methylation is involved in regulating LRP1B expression. In 45 out of 74 (61%) clinical samples, LRP1B was highly methylated; LRP1B mRNA expression was significantly lower in 15 out of 19 (79%, P < 0.001) gastric tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. In addition, ectopic expression of mLRP1B4 in gastric cancer cell lines suppressed cell growth, colony formation and tumor formation in nude mice. These results collectively indicate that LRP1B is a functional tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer and that is regulated by DNA methylation. 2010 Wiley-Liss,Inc. [source]

    Characterization and gene expression profiling in glioma cell lines with deletion of chromosome 19 before and after microcell-mediated restoration of normal human chromosome 19

    Kristen L. Drucker
    Nearly 10% of human gliomas are oligodendrogliomas. Deletion of chromosome arm 19q, often in conjunction with deletion of 1p, has been observed in 65,80% of these tumors. This has suggested the presence of a tumor suppressor gene located on the 19q arm. Chromosome 19 deletion is also of interest due to the better prognosis of patients with deletion, including longer survival and better response to chemotherapy, compared with patients without deletion. Two glioma cell lines with deletion of 19q were used for chromosome 19 microcell-mediated transfer, to assess the effect of replacing the deleted segment. Complementation with chromosome 19 significantly reduced the growth rate of the hybrid cells compared with the parental cell lines. Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Gene Chip analysis was performed to measure and compare the expression of the chromosome 19 genes in the chromosome 19 hybrid cell lines to the parental cell line. Probes were considered significantly different when a P value <0.01 was seen in all of the cell line comparisons. Of 345 probes within the commonly deleted 19q region, seven genes (APOE, RCN3, FLJ10781, SAE1, STRN4, CCDC8, and BCL2L12) were identified as potential candidate genes. RT-PCR analysis of primary tumor specimens showed that several genes had significant differences when stratified by tumor morphology or deletion status. This suggests that one or more of these candidates may play a role in glioma formation or progression. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Reduced levels of miR-34a in neuroblastoma are not caused by mutations in the TP53 binding site,

    Galina Feinberg-Gorenshtein
    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children below the age of 5 years. miR-34a, located in chromosome band 1p36, has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in NB. In addition, it has been shown that miR-34a is activated by TP53 by binding to a TP53 binding site upstream to the mature miR-34a. We studied NB tumors from 57 patients for miR-34a expression levels, 1p status, mutations in the TP53 coding region and mutations of the TP53 binding site. Reduced expression levels of miR-34a were identified in tumors harboring 1p36.3 Loss (P = 0.028). No mutations were identified in the coding region of TP53, or in the TP53 binding site. Thus, mutations in the binding site are not an additional mechanism for the inactivation of miR-34a in NB. Other regulatory mechanisms controlling miR-34a expression and its relationship to TP53 should be further explored. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Inactivation of the cystatin E/M tumor suppressor gene in cervical cancer

    Mysore S. Veena
    We have previously localized a cervical cancer tumor suppressor gene to a 300 kb interval of 11q13. Analysis of candidate genes revealed loss of expression of cystatin E/M, a lysosomal cysteine protease inhibitor, in 6 cervical cancer cell lines and 9 of 11 primary cervical tumors. Examination of the three exons in four cervical cancer cell lines, 19 primary tumors, and 21 normal controls revealed homozygous deletion of exon 1 sequences in one tumor. Point mutations were observed in six other tumors. Two tumors contained mutations at the consensus binding sites for cathepsin L, a lysosomal protease overexpressed in cervical cancer. Introduction of these two point mutations using site directed mutagenesis resulted in reduced binding of mutated cystatin E/M to cathepsin L. Although mutations were not observed in any cell lines, four cell lines and 12 of 18 tumors contained promoter hypermethylation. Reexpression of cystatin E/M was observed after 5,aza 2-deoxycytidiene and/or Trichostatin A treatment of cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa, confirming promoter hypermethylation. Ectopic expression of cystatin E/M in these two cell lines resulted in growth suppression. There was also suppression of soft agar colony formation by HeLa cells expressing the cystatin E/M gene. Reexpression of cystatin E/M resulted in decreased intracellular and extracellular expression of cathepsin L. Overexpression of cathepsin L resulted in increased cell growth which was inhibited by the reintroduction of cystatin E/M. We conclude, therefore, that cystatin E/M is a cervical cancer suppressor gene and that the gene is inactivated by somatic mutations and promoter hypermethylation. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    TNFAIP3 is the target gene of chromosome band 6q23.3-q24.1 loss in ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma

    Keiichiro Honma
    The genomic aberrations in extra nodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma vary according to their anatomical origin. This polarization is a reflection of the participation of different genes in the lymphomagenesis of marginal zone B cell lymphoma. We previously demonstrated by means of genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) that the genomic profile of ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma is distinct from that of pulmonary or nodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. The novel finding was a recurrent deletion of a 2.9-Mb region at chromosome band 6q23.3-q24.1, including homozygous loss, in ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. For a more detailed examination of the deletions of 6q23.3-24.1, we used contig bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array CGH, containing 24 BAC clones covering the 2.9-Mb region, to analyze nine cases with 6q23.3-q24.1 loss. We narrowed the minimal common region down to a length of 586 kb with two genes and four expressed sequence tags (ESTs). All of these genes and ESTs were subjected to RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Correlation between genomic loss and expression level was found only for TNFAIP3, demonstrating that TNFAIP3 is a target gene of 6q deletion in ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. TNFAIP3 is an inhibitor of NF-kB signaling so that loss of this gene may play an important role in lymphomagenesis and suggests that TNFAIP3 may act as a tumor suppressor gene in ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. This article contains Supplementary Material available at 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Characterization of a 3;6 translocation associated with renal cell carcinoma

    Rebecca E. Foster
    The most frequent cause of familial clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is von Hippel,Lindau disease and the VHL tumor suppressor gene (TSG) is inactivated in most sporadic clear cell RCC. Although there is relatively little information on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis of clear cell RCC without VHL inactivation, a subset of familial cases harbors a balanced constitutional chromosome 3 translocation. To date nine different chromosome 3 translocations have been associated with familial or multicentric clear cell RCC; and in three cases chromosome 6 was also involved. To identify candidate genes for renal tumorigenesis we characterized a constitutional translocation, t(3;6)(q22;q16.1) associated with multicentric RCC without evidence of VHL target gene dysregulation. Analysis of breakpoint sequences revealed a 1.3-kb deletion on chromosome 6 within the intron of a 2 exon predicted gene (NT_007299.434). However, RT-PCR analysis failed to detect the expression of this gene in lymphoblast, fibroblast, or kidney tumor cell lines. No known genes were disrupted by the translocation breakpoints but several candidate TSGs (e.g., EPHB1, EPHA7, PPP2R3A RNF184, and STAG1) map within close proximity to the breakpoints. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    WIF1, an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway, is rearranged in salivary gland tumors,

    Lurdes Queimado
    Chromosome rearrangements involving 12q13-15 are frequent among several tumors, including pleomorphic adenomas. The common molecular target for these aberrations is the HMGA2 gene, but various fusion partners of HMGA2 have been reported in tumors. Here we report the identification of the WNT inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) gene as a novel HMGA2 fusion partner in a salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. In normal salivary gland tissue WIF1 is expressed at a high level and HMGA2 is not expressed. However, in the pleomorphic adenoma expressing the HMGA2/WIF1 fusion transcript, we observed re-expression of HMGA2 wild-type transcripts and very low levels of WIF1 expression. These data suggest a possible synergistic effect between upregulation of HMGA2 and downregulation of WIF1. We screened 13 additional benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and detected WIF1 rearrangement in one out of two carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma analyzed. In this malignant tumor, the rearrangement of one WIF1 allele coexists with loss of the other allele, a classic signature of a tumor suppressor gene. WIF1 is an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in human cancer. In transgenic mouse models, Wnt activation leads to a high frequency of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that WIF1 is a recurrent target in human salivary gland oncogenesis and that downregulation of WIF1 plays a role in the development and/or progression of pleomorphic adenomas. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quantitative microsatellite analysis to delineate the commonly deleted region 1p22.3 in mantle cell lymphomas

    Asha Balakrishnan
    The molecular pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphomas (MCL), a subset of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with a poor prognosis, is still poorly understood. In addition to the characteristic primary genetic alteration t(11;14)(q13;q32), several further genetic changes are present in most cases. One of the most frequent genomic imbalances is the deletion of 1p22.1,p31.1 observed in nearly one-third of MCL cases. This might indicate the presence of tumor suppressor gene(s) in this critical region of deletion. Quantitative microsatellite analysis (QuMA) is a real-time PCR-based method to detect DNA copy number changes. Since QuMA has the resolving power to detect subtle genomic alterations, including homozygous deletions, this may help to identify candidate tumor suppressor genes from deleted regions. To gain more insight into the molecular pathogenesis of MCL, QuMA was performed on genomic DNA from 57 MCL cases. Eight microsatellite loci mapping to the chromosomal region 1p22.3 were analyzed. Losses were observed in 51 of the 57 (,89.5%) samples. Two cases showed a homozygous deletion at the locus containing the gene SH3GLB1, which plays a key role in Bax-mediated apoptosis. Two hotspots with copy number losses were detected at chromosomal localizations 85.4 and 86.6 Mb encompassing BCL10 and CLCA2. Both the genes seem to be attractive candidates to study tumor suppressor function in MCL. This article contains Supplementary material available at,2257/suppmat. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Exclusion of SMAD4 mutation as an early genetic change in human pancreatic ductal tumorigenesis

    Hiroko Inoue
    Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is one of the malignant diseases with the poorest prognosis. To develop effective methods for better treatment of pancreatic cancer patients, we tried to analyze the course of multistep carcinogenesis of the pancreatic ductal cells. IPMT (intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor) is thought to be one of the premalignant lesions of the pancreas, which would transform into carcinomas. Loss of 18q at the SMAD4 locus is known to be an early genetic change in pancreatic ductal carcinomas. It is not clear, however, whether or not the target gene for inactivation is SMAD4. Using 18 IPMTs, we analyzed LOH at the SMAD4 locus and observed frequent LOH (7/14, 50%). No mutations were observed in any of the tumors. Moreover, the expression level of the SMAD4 protein did not show a reduction in IPMTs. These results suggested that (i) inactivating mutation of the SMAD4 gene is a rather late genetic change in pancreatic carcinogenesis, and (ii) there may be an unknown tumor suppressor gene in 18q, other than SMAD4, that is involved in pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Haplotype analysis and age estimation of the 113insR CDKN2A founder mutation in Swedish melanoma families

    Jamileh Hashemi
    Germline mutations in the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene located on 9p21 have been linked to development of melanomas in some families. A germline 3-bp insertion in exon 2 of CDKN2A, leading to an extra arginine at codon 113 (113insR), has been identified in 17 Swedish melanoma families. Analysis of 10 microsatellite markers, spanning approximately 1 Mbp in the 9p21 region, showed that all families share a common allele for at least one of the markers closest to the CDKN2A gene, suggesting that the 113insR mutation is an ancestral founder mutation. Differences in the segregating haplotypes, due to meiotic recombinations and/or mutations in the short-tandem-repeat markers, were analyzed further to estimate the age of the mutation. Statistical analysis using a maximum likelihood approach indicated that the mutation arose 98 generations (90% confidence interval: 52,167 generations), or approximately 2,000 years, ago. Thus, 113insR would be expected to have a more widespread geographic distribution in European and North American regions with ancestral connections to Sweden. Alternatively, CDKN2A may lie in a recombination hot spot region, as suggested by the many meiotic recombinations in this narrow ,1-cM region on 9p21. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 4 into HeLa cells suppresses telomerase activity

    Claudia Backsch
    Telomerase activity can be detected in most human cancers and immortal cell lines. In contrast, the lack of telomerase activity in normal diploid fibroblasts has been correlated with progressive reduction of telomere lengths to critically short sizes followed by the cessation of cell division and the onset of senescence. Several investigators have provided evidence for the localization of a telomerase suppressor gene on chromosome 3. The aim of our study was to determine whether other chromosomes are involved in telomerase repression. Beside human chromosome 3 (serving as positive control), chromosomes 4, 6, and 11 were introduced into HeLa cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Telomerase activity from different hybrid cell lysates was determined at an early time point after fusion using a Telomerase ELISA kit. Strong repression of telomerase activity was only found in a subset of HeLa hybrids in which chromosome 3 or chromosome 4 had been introduced. Telomerase suppression induced by chromosome 3 or 4 transfer was paralleled by a high frequency (30% or 43%, respectively) of a senescent-like phenotype. Chromosomes 6 and 11, the functional loss of which is also implicated in cervical cancer, had no effect. These results indicate that normal human chromosomes 3 and 4 carry a gene or genes that suppress telomerase activity and induce cellular senescence in HeLa cells.2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular cytogenetic characterization of early and late renal cell carcinomas in Von Hippel-Lindau disease ,

    John L. Phillips
    Deletions of 3p25, gains of chromosomes 7 and 10, and isochromosome 17q are known cytogenetic aberrations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In addition, a majority of RCCs have loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene located at chromosome band 3p25. Patients who inherit a germline mutation of the VHL gene can develop multifocal RCCs and other solid tumors, including malignancies of the pancreas, adrenal medulla, and brain. VHL tumors follow the two-hit model of tumorigenesis, as LOH of VHL, a classic tumor suppressor gene, is the critical event in the development of the neoplastic phenotype. In an attempt to define the cytogenetic aberrations from early tumors to late RCC further, we applied spectral karyotyping (SKY) to 23 renal tumors harvested from 6 unrelated VHL patients undergoing surgery. Cysts and low-grade solid lesions were near-diploid and contained 1,2 reciprocal translocations, dicentric chromosomes, and/or isochromosomes. A variety of sole numerical aberrations included gains of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 21, and the X chromosome, although no tumors had sole numerical losses. Three patients shared a breakpoint at 2p21,22, and three others shared a dicentric chromosome 9 or an isochromosome 9q. In contrast to the near-diploidy of the low-grade lesions, a high-grade lesion and its nodal metastasis were markedly aneuploid, revealed loss of VHL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and contained recurrent unbalanced translocations and losses of chromosome arms 2q, 3p, 4q, 9p, 14q, and 19p as demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). By combining SKY, CGH, and FISH of multiple tumors from the same VHL kidney, we have begun to identify chromosomal aberrations in the earliest stages of VHL-related renal cell tumors. Our current findings illustrate the cytogenetic heterogeneity of different VHL lesions from the same kidney, which supports the multiclonal origins of hereditary RCCs. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    How does the Schwann cell lineage form tumors in NF1?

    GLIA, Issue 14 2008
    Steven L. Carroll
    Abstract Neurofibromas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve that occur sporadically or in patients with the autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Multiple neurofibroma subtypes exist which differ in their site of occurrence, their association with NF1, and their tendency to undergo transformation to become malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), the most common malignancy associated with NF1. Most NF1 patients carry a constitutional mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Neurofibromas develop in these patients when an unknown cell type in the Schwann cell lineage loses its remaining functional NF1 gene and initiates a complex series of interactions with other cell types; these interactions may be influenced by aberrant expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors and the action of modifier genes. Cells within certain neurofibroma subtypes subsequently accumulate additional mutations affecting the p19ARF -MDM2-TP53 and p16INK4A-Rb signaling cascades, mutations of other as yet unidentified genes, and amplification of growth factor receptor genes, resulting in their transformation into MPNSTs. These observations have been validated using a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models that recapitulate neurofibroma and MPNST pathogenesis. A new generation of mouse models is also providing important new insights into the identity of the cell type in the Schwann cell lineage that gives rise to neurofibromas. Our improving understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurofibromas and MPNSTs raises intriguing new questions about the origin and pathogenesis of these neoplasms and establishes models for the development of new therapies targeting these neoplasms. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A mouse embryonic stem cell model of Schwann cell differentiation for studies of the role of neurofibromatosis type 1 in Schwann cell development and tumor formation

    GLIA, Issue 11 2007
    Therese M. Roth
    Abstract The neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene. One known function of neurofibromin, the NF1 protein product, is to accelerate the slow intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras to increase the production of inactive rasGDP, with wide-ranging effects on p21ras pathways. Loss of neurofibromin in the autosomal dominant disorder NF1 is associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system, particularly neurofibromas, benign lesions in which the major affected cell type is the Schwann cell (SC). NF1 is the most common cancer predisposition syndrome affecting the nervous system. We have developed an in vitro system for differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) that are NF1 wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/,), or null (,/,) into SC-like cells to study the role of NF1 in SC development and tumor formation. These mES-generated SC-like cells, regardless of their NF1 status, express SC markers correlated with their stage of maturation, including myelin proteins. They also support and preferentially direct neurite outgrowth from primary neurons. NF1 null and heterozygous SC-like cells proliferate at an accelerated rate compared to NF1 wild type; this growth advantage can be reverted to wild type levels using an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase (Mek). The mESC of all NF1 types can also be differentiated into neuron-like cells. This novel model system provides an ideal paradigm for studies of the role of NF1 in cell growth and differentiation of the different cell types affected by NF1 in cells with differing levels of neurofibromin that are neither transformed nor malignant. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Allelic imbalances and homozygous deletion on 8p23.2 for stepwise progression of hepatocarcinogenesis,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Yutaka Midorikawa
    Early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) originates from the hepatocytes of chronic liver disease and develops into classical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To identify sequential genetic changes in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, we analyzed molecular karyotypes using oligonucleotide genotyping 50K arrays. First, 1q21.3-44 gain and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p36.21-36.32 and 17p13.1-13.3 were frequently observed in eHCC, but not in chronic liver diseases, suggesting that such chromosomal aberrations are early, possibly causative events in liver cancer. Next, we detected 25 chromosomal loci associated with liver cancer progression in five HCCs with nodule-in-nodule appearance, in which the inner nodule develops within eHCC lesion. Using these chromosomal regions as independent variables, decision tree analysis was applied on 14 early and 25 overt HCCs, and extracted combination of chromosomal gains on 5q11.1-35.3 and 8q11.1-24.3 and LOH on 4q11-34.3 and 8p11.21-23.3 as distinctive attributes, which can classify early and overt HCCs recursively. In these four altered regions identified as late events of hepatocarcinogenesis, two tumors in 32 overt HCCs analyzed in the present study and one in a set of independent samples of 36 overt HCCs in our previous study harbored a homozygous deletion near the CSMD1 locus on 8p23.2. CSMD1 messenger RNA expression was decreased in HCC without 8p23.2 deletion, possibly due to hypermethylation of the CpG islands in its promoter region. Conclusion: 1q gain and 1p and 17p LOH are early molecular events, whereas gains in 5q and 8q and LOH on 4q and 8p only occur in advanced HCC, and inactivation of the putative suppressor gene, CSMD1, may be the key event in progression of liver cancer. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    p53 may positively regulate hepatocyte proliferation in rats

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    Yukiko Inoue
    p53, known as a tumor suppressor gene, is a transcription factor that regulates various cellular functions. Recently, several growth factor gene promoters, including that of transforming growth factor , (TGF-,), were shown to be direct targets of p53-mediated transcription. Hepatic p53 mRNA is up-regulated during liver regeneration in rats. The aim of this study is to examine the role of p53 in hepatocyte proliferation. p53 protein levels were examined in rat hepatocytes cultured in the medium containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). p53 levels began to increase after 6 hours of incubation, reached a maximum at 18 hours, and decreased thereafter. DNA synthesis increased at 12 hours and peaked at 30 hours. When hepatocytes were incubated with p53 antisense oligonucleotide in addition to HGF, increases of p53 and TGF-, levels were suppressed, and DNA synthesis was reduced. The increases of TGF-, levels and DNA synthesis were also suppressed by a chemical inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-,. In rats after two-thirds partial hepatectomy, hepatic p53 increased and reached maximal levels around 16 hours when hepatic HGF levels have been shown to reach a maximum followed by an increase in hepatic TGF-, levels or hepatocyte proliferation. In contrast, sham-operated rats showed minor elevations of hepatic p53 levels. In conclusion, p53 production is stimulated by HGF and may contribute to the proliferation of rat hepatocytes. Considering previous findings indicating the importance of endogenous TGF-, for the proliferation of hepatocytes stimulated by HGF, TGF-, might play a role in HGF-p53 mediated hepatocyte proliferation. [source]

    Prognostic value of p27kip1 expression in adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head region

    HPB, Issue 3 2006
    Jerzy Mielko
    Abstract Background. p27kip1 is a tumour suppressor gene, functioning as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and an independent prognostic factor in breast, colon, and prostate adenocarcinomas. Conflicting data are reported for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to establish the prognostic value of p27kip1 expression in adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head region. Patients and methods. The study included 45 patients (male/female ratio 2:1; mean age 59, range 38,82 years) with adenocarcinomas of the pancreatic head region: 24 , pancreatic head, 18 , periampullary and 3 , uncinate process. The patients underwent the Kausch-Whipple pancreatoduodenectomy (n=39), pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (n=5), or nearly total pancreatectomy (n=1). Eight patients received adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. Follow-up time ranged from 3 to 60 months. Tumours were staged according to the pTNM classification (UICC 1997). Immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin-embedded blocks from tumour sections. Quantitative determination of p27kip1 expression was based on the proportion of p27kip1 -positive cells (< 5%= negative). Survival analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Results. Positive p27kip1 expression was detected in 22 tumours (49%), whereas 23 tumours (51%) were p27kip1 -negative. There were no significant correlations between p27kip1 index and stage or lymph node involvement. Median survival time in patients with p27kip1 -positive tumours was 19 months, whereas in patients with p27kip1 -negative tumours it was 18 months (p=0.53). A significant relationship was found between p27kip1 -negative tumours and radical resection (p=0.04). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that the localization of the tumour (pancreatic head/uncinate process vs periampullary) was the only significant and independent prognosticator (p=0.01, Cox regression model). Resection margins involvement and grade remained nearly significant prognostic factors (p=0.07 and p=0.09, respectively). Conclusion. We conclude that p27kip1 has limited overall prognostic utility in resected carcinoma of the pancreatic head region, but its potential role as a marker of residual disease needs to be further assessed. [source]

    Low frequency of AXIN2 mutations and high frequency of MUTYH mutations in patients with multiple polyposis,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 10 2006
    Sophie Lejeune
    Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis has been linked to germline mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene. However, a number of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (with either classical or attenuated phenotype) have no APC mutation. Recently, germline mutations in the Wnt pathway component gene AXIN2 have been associated with tooth agenesis-colorectal cancer syndrome. Moreover, biallelic mutations in the base excision repair gene MUTYH have been associated with polyposis and early-onset colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to further assess the contribution of AXIN2 and MUTYH to hereditary colorectal cancer susceptibility. AXIN2 and MUTYH genes were screened for germline mutations by PCR and direct sequencing in 39 unrelated patients with multiple adenomas or colorectal cancer without evidence of APC mutation nor mismatch repair defect. Two novel AXIN2 variants were detected in one patient with multiple adenomas, but no clearly pathogenic mutation. In contrast, nine different MUTYH mutations were detected in eight patients, including four novel mutations. Biallelic MUTYH mutations were only found in patients with multiple adenomatous polyposis (7 out of 22 (32%)). Interestingly, five MUTYH mutation carriers had a family history consistent with dominant inheritance. Moreover, one patient with biallelic MUTYH mutations presented with multiple adenomas and severe tooth agenesis. Therefore, germline mutations are rare in AXIN2 but frequent in MUTYH in patients with multiple adenomas. Our data suggest that genetic testing of MUTYH may be of interest in patients with pedigrees apparently compatible with autosomal recessive as well as dominant inheritance. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]