Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Suppressor

  • candidate tumor suppressor
  • metastasis suppressor
  • multicopy suppressor
  • potent suppressor
  • tumor suppressor
  • tumour suppressor

  • Terms modified by Suppressor

  • suppressor activity
  • suppressor cell
  • suppressor function
  • suppressor gene
  • suppressor pathway
  • suppressor protein
  • suppressor role
  • suppressor t cell
  • suppressor trna

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2008
    Emily A. Hornett
    Maternally inherited parasites are known to impose a wide variety of reproductive manipulations upon their host. These often produce strong selection on the host to suppress the parasite, resulting in a reduction in the frequency of the parasite. However, in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina, infected with a Wolbachia bacterium, field data demonstrate that suppression of the male-killing phenotype does not depress parasite frequency. Here we test and verify one hypothesis to explain this apparent paradox,Wolbachia induces a second phenotype, Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI), in populations where host suppression has evolved. We further demonstrate that the capacity to induce CI has not evolved de novo, but instead is instantaneously expressed upon the survival of infected males. The significance of these results is threefold: (1) multiple phenotypes can provide Wolbachia with the means to maintain itself in a host following suppression of a single manipulative phenotype; (2) the ability to induce CI can remain hidden in systems in which male-killing is observed, just as the ability to induce male-killing may be obscured in strains exhibiting CI; (3) the evolutionary maintenance of CI in a system in which it is not expressed suggests a functional link with male-killing or other traits under selection. [source]

    Functional analysis of murine CBF1 during Drosophila development

    Markus Kaspar
    Abstract Transcription factors of the CSL family are the main mediators of the Notch signalling pathway. The CSL factor in Drosophila is called Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) and it has been shown that it acts as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of a Notch signal and as a transcriptional activator in its presence in several developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent data suggest that Su(H) can also activate and maintain transcription of some target genes in a Notch-independent manner. However, although it has been shown that the mammalian CSL ortholog, CBF1, acts as a repressor of transcription in cell culture experiments, so far in vivo evidence for such a function has been lacking. Moreover, it is not known whether CBF1 can activate transcription in a Notch-independent manner, just like Su(H). Here we have investigated these questions by introducing murine CBF1 (mCBF1) and asked whether it can functionally replace Su(H) during Drosophila development. We found that this is indeed the case. We show that mCBF1 can act as a repressor of transcription and can activate and maintain the expression of some target genes in a Notch-independent manner. Our results, therefore, indicate that CBF1 can exert these functions also in its normal context, that is during mammalian development. Developmental Dynamics 235:918,927, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of Xenopus Hey-1: A downstream mediator of Notch signaling

    M.S. Rones
    Abstract Regulation of Notch signaling likely occurs, at least in part, at the level of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that function downstream of Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) in the Notch pathway. To begin to characterize modulation of Notch signaling during organogenesis, we examined the bHLH transcription factor, XHey-1 (hairy related-1) in early Xenopus laevis embryos. XHey-1 is expressed in numerous tissues during early development including the somites, head, embryonic kidneys, and heart. Importantly, the expression of XHey-1 was significantly altered in response to perturbation of Notch signaling by means of inducible constructs that served to either activate or suppress Notch signaling through Su(H) in a temporally controlled manner. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Characterization of the Drosophila myeloid leukemia factor

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 12 2006
    Séverine Martin-Lannerée
    In human, the myeloid leukemia factor 1 (hMLF1) has been shown to be involved in acute leukemia, and mlf related genes are present in many animals. Despite their extensive representation and their good conservation, very little is understood about their function. In Drosophila, dMLF physically interacts with both the transcription regulatory factor DREF and an antagonist of the Hedgehog pathway, Suppressor of Fused, whose over-expression in the fly suppresses the toxicity induced by polyglutamine. No connection between these data has, however, been established. Here, we show that dmlf is widely and dynamically expressed during fly development. We isolated and analyzed the first dmlf mutants: embryos lacking maternal dmlf product have a low viability with no specific defect, and dmlf - , adults display weak phenotypes. We monitored dMLF subcellular localization in the fly and cultured cells. We were able to show that, although generally nuclear, dMLF can also be cytoplasmic, depending on the developmental context. Furthermore, two differently spliced variants of dMLF display differential subcellular localization, allowing the identification of regions of dMLF potentially important for its localization. Finally, we demonstrate that dMLF can act developmentally and postdevelopmentally to suppress neurodegeneration and premature aging in a cerebellar ataxia model. [source]

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1, a possible cause for regulatory T cells in hepatitis?,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Yichuan Xiao
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 at pathological levels does not regulate lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-10 control of tumour necrosis factor-, production by human monocytes

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Cecilia M. Prêle
    Summary Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that suppresses the production of tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) by monocytes and macrophages. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, is induced following IL-10 exposure but recent studies in mice suggest that SOCS3 only targets gp-130-dependent signal transduction pathways. Understanding the signalling pathways responsible for IL-10-mediated effects in primary human monocytes is relevant to human inflammatory disease and necessary for the identification of potential therapeutic targets. An adenoviral transfection system was used to express different levels of SOCS3 (quantified experimentally with its tag green fluorescent protein (GFP)) with the aim of investigating the role of SOCS3 in LPS-induced and IL-10-mediated suppression of TNF-, production by non-transformed human monocytes. SOCS3 over-expression had no effect on TNF-, mRNA levels induced by LPS or LPS plus IL-10, or on IL-10 phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT1 and ERK1/2. When data from all donors were combined, adenoviral overexpression of SOCS3 significantly reversed the suppressive effects of IL-10 on LPS-induced TNF-, production after 2 hr. However, there was a direct correlation between mean GFP intensity (extent of viral infection) and extent of reversal of IL-10's inhibitory effects. Physiological levels of SOCS3 detected in IL-10-exposed human monocytes had no effect on LPS-induced TNF-, production. Although overexpression of SOCS3 to supraphysiological levels transiently antagonized the regulatory properties of IL-10 by a post-transcriptional mechanism, these findings suggest that under pathological conditions SOCS3 does not control LPS-activation or the anti-inflammatory properties of IL-10 in primary human monocytes. [source]

    Tumor suppressor gene Co-operativity in compound Patched1 and suppressor of fused heterozygous mutant mice

    Jessica Svärd
    Abstract Dysregulation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway is central to the development of certain tumor types, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Patched1 (Ptch1) and Suppressor of fused (Sufu) are two essential negative regulators of the pathway with tumor suppressor activity. Ptch1+/, mice are predisposed to developing medulloblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, while Sufu+/, mice develop a skin phenotype characterized by basaloid epidermal proliferations. Here, we have studied tumor development in Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, mice to determine the effect of compound heterozygosity on the onset, incidence, and spectrum of tumors. We found significantly more (2.3-fold) basaloid proliferations in Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, compared to Sufu+/, female, but not male, mice. For medulloblastoma, the cumulative 1-yr incidence was 1.5-fold higher in Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, compared to Ptch1+/, female mice but this strong trend was not statistically significant. Together this suggests a weak genetic interaction of the two tumor suppressor genes. We noted a few rhabdomyosarcomas and pancreatic cysts in the Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, mice, but the numbers were not significantly different from the single heterozygous mice. Hydrocephalus developed in ,20% of the Ptch1+/, and Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, but not in Sufu+/, mice. Interestingly, most of the medulloblastomas from the Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, mice had lost expression of the remaining Ptch1 wild-type allele but not the Sufu wild-type allele. On the contrary, Sufu as well as Gli1 and Gli2 expression was upregulated in the medulloblastomas compared to adult cerebellum in Ptch1+/, and Sufu+/,Ptch1+/, mice. This suggests that Sufu expression may be regulated by Hedgehog pathway activity and could constitute another negative feedback loop in the pathway. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sequence of administration and methylation of SOCS3 may govern response to gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with conventional chemotherapy in patients with refractory or relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML),

    Iris Middeldorf
    In older patients suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), aggressive chemotherapy is accompanied with high treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a humanized monoclonal anti-CD33 antibody, represents a well tolerated treatment option, but optimal treatment schedules are still unknown. Additionally, Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) inhibits the CD33-induced block on cytokine-induced proliferation. Consequently, a variable response of AML cells to anti-CD33-targeted therapy may be caused by modulation of SOCS3 expression. Twenty-four patients with refractory or relapsed CD33-positive AML received GO as a single agent before or after conventional chemotherapy. The methylation status of the SOCS3 CpG island was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Response (RR) and overall survival (OS) were significantly higher in 16 patients receiving chemotherapy before GO (RR 81%, OS 14.8 months) compared to three patients who received GO single agent therapy (RR 33%, OS 7.2 months) or 16 with GO before chemotherapy (RR 0% OS 2.2 months, P = 0.01 for RR and P < 0.001 for OS). Methylation of the SOCS3 CpG island was found in 8/24 patients. There was a trend towards a higher RR and longer OS in patients with SOCS3 hypermethylation (RR 86%, OS 25.1 months) compared to unmethylated SOCS3 (RR 56%, OS 10.3 months, P = 0.09). Administration of GO a few days after chemotherapy seems to provide better response and survival compared to administration of GO directly before chemotherapy. The potential role of SOCS3 hypermethylation as a biomarker should be further investigated in patients undergoing GO containing therapies. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A single-amino acid substitution in the sixth leucine-rich repeat of barley MLA6 and MLA13 alleviates dependence on RAR1 for disease resistance signaling

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Dennis A. Halterman
    Summary Interactions between barley and the powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, (Bgh) are determined by unique combinations of host resistance genes, designated Mildew-resistance locus (Ml), and cognate pathogen avirulence genes. These interactions occur both dependent and independent of Rar1 (required for Mla12 resistance) and Sgt1 (Suppressor of G-two allele of skp1), which are differentially required for diverse plant disease-resistance pathways. We have isolated two new functional Mla alleles, Rar1 -independent Mla7 and Rar1 -dependent Mla10, as well as the Mla paralogs, Mla6-2 and Mla13-2. Utilizing the inherent diversity amongst Mla -encoded proteins, we identified the only two amino acids exclusively conserved in RAR1-dependent MLA6, MLA10, MLA12, and MLA13 that differ at the corresponding position in RAR1-independent MLA1 and MLA7. Two- and three-dimensional modeling places these residues on a predicted surface of the sixth leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain at positions distinct from those within the ,-sheets hypothesized to determine resistance specificity. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues indicates that RAR1 independence requires the presence of an aspartate at position 721, as mutation of this residue to a structurally similar, but uncharged, asparagine did not alter RAR1 dependence. These results demonstrate that a single-amino acid substitution in the sixth MLA LRR can alter host signaling but not resistance specificity to B. graminis. [source]

    Notching up another pathway

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 5 2002
    Keith Brennan
    The Notch proteins play a vital role in cell fate decisions in both invertebrate and vertebrate development. Careful analysis of this role has led to a model of signalling downstream of these receptors, via the CSL (CBF1, Suppressor of Hairless, Lag-1) family of transcription factors. There have been suggestions, however, that Notch can signal through other pathways. In the current paper, Ramain et al.1 provide compelling evidence for Notch signalling through a CSL-independent pathway and they demonstrate that the cytoplasmic protein, Deltex, is required for this signal. In addition, they show that Wnt signalling may regulate this Deltex-dependent signal. BioEssays 24:405,410, 2002. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Association study of polymorphisms in SOCS family genes with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    R. Ni
    Summary Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins play important roles in the negative regulation of cytokine signal. We first searched for polymorphisms in SOCS-1, SOCS-3 and SOCS-5 genes, and examined the association of the polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes (T1D). As a result, we did not find any significant associations between SOCS genes and T1D. [source]

    Mammalian Expression Cloning of Two Human Trophoblast Suppressors of Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes

    J. A. PEYMAN
    PROBLEM: Human trophoblasts suppress interferon-, (IFN-,)-simulated expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes and thereby protect the conceptus from maternal immune attack. The mechanism of this suppression is poorly understood. METHOD OF STUDY: IFN-,-responsive HeLa cells were stably transfected with trophoblast cDNA expression libraries and screened by negative immunoselection with an antibody to HLA-DR. RESULTS: Two suppressor cDNAs were isolated. One encoded the untranslated RNA trophoblast STAT utron (TSU), which blocked STAT1 nuclear translocation and can theoretically form triplex RNA,DNA at the class II transactivator gene promoters. The other encoded the N-terminal 28 residues of chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS). TSU-related genes were detected in human and macaque, but not in mouse, genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS: The genetics of two human trophoblast MHC suppressors suggest that these functions have been gained in human placenta in recent evolutionary history. TSU and hCS play critical roles in suppression of MHC genes, which may lead to silencing by DNA methylation. [source]

    LKB1 and AMP-activated protein kinase control of mTOR signalling and growth

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    R. J. Shaw
    Abstract The AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP following stresses such as nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. In the past 5 years, work from a large number of laboratories has revealed that one of the major downstream signalling pathways regulated by AMPK is the mammalian target-of-rapamycin [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway]. Interestingly, like AMPK, the mTOR serine/threonine kinase plays key roles not only in growth control and cell proliferation but also in metabolism. Recent work has revealed that across eukaryotes mTOR orthologues are found in two biochemically distinct complexes and only one of those complexes (mTORC1 in mammals) is acutely sensitive to rapamycin and regulated by nutrients and AMPK. Many details of the molecular mechanism by which AMPK inhibits mTORC1 signalling have also been decoded in the past 5 years. AMPK directly phosphorylates at least two proteins to induce rapid suppression of mTORC1 activity, the TSC2 tumour suppressor and the critical mTORC1 binding subunit raptor. Here we explore the molecular connections between AMPK and mTOR signalling pathways and examine the physiological processes in which AMPK regulation of mTOR is critical for growth or metabolic control. The functional conservation of AMPK and TOR in all eukaryotes, and the sequence conservation around the AMPK phosphorylation sites in raptor across all eukaryotes examined suggest that this represents a fundamental cell growth module connecting nutrient status to the cell growth machinery. These findings have broad implications for the control of cell growth by nutrients in a number of cellular and organismal contexts. [source]

    Low internalised restraint predicts criminal recidivism in young female prisoners

    Ellen Kjelsberg
    Background,The Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI) measures social-emotional adjustment along two dimensions: distress and restraint. Four types of adjustment according to this measure have been shown to correlate with criminal recidivism among young male prisoners: reactive (high distress, low restraint), suppressor (high distress, high restraint), non-reactive (low distress, low restraint) and repressor (low distress, high restraint). Aim,To evaluate the predictive potential of the WAI among young female prisoners. Methods,Women under 30 years old, consecutively admitted to one of three Norwegian prisons, were asked to complete the WAI. Most of those eligible (102, 94%) did so. Re-conviction data were collected from the National Crime Register 38 months (SD = 9.0) after release. Results,The overall re-conviction rate was 38%. Rates differed according to the four WAI types: 53% in the non-reactive, 50% in the reactive, 22% in the suppressor and 11% in the repressor group (p = 0.006). Kaplan,Meier analyses showed that group differences were explained by the WAI restraint dimension (p = 0.008). Differences on the distress dimension did not influence re-conviction. Cox regression analysis (adjusting for age at first court conviction and prior offences) found that women with low restraint scores were almost three times as likely to re-offend as women with high restraint scores. Conclusion,The WAI appears to be an effective tool for identifying women who are particularly vulnerable to re-offending. Evidence of high capacity for restraint is protective, regardless of distress levels and even after adjusting for the effect of other criminologically important factors. The findings are suggestive that there may be value in individualising ,treatment' or rehabilitation programmes for prisoners. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Targeting the p53 tumor suppressor gene function in glioblastomas using small chemical molecules

    Roberta Magrini
    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is recognized as the most frequent and malignant glioma of which two genetically different subtypes can be distinguished. Primary, de novo glioblastomas show a p53 wild type (wt) status and in 10% of the cases hdm2 overexpression/amplifications occur. In these tumors, the inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53 is elicited by enhanced hdm2-mediated degradation of p53. Secondary glioblastomas, on the other hand, show inactivating p53 mutations (mut) in 40% of the cases. Based on these observations, reactivating the function of p53 might hold promise for treatment of GBM. In wt p53 tumors showing increased hdm2 levels, the therapeutic strategy might be to inhibit the activity of hdm2 by treatment with small molecules like nutlin-3. For mut p53 glioblastomas, p53 function might be restored using small chemical entities such as PRIMA-1. Drug Dev. Res. 67:790,800, 2006. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Development of fluridil, a topical suppressor of the androgen receptor in androgenetic alopecia

    Allen L Seligson
    Abstract Nonsteroidal antiandrogens (AA) cannot be topically used for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) because of systemic resorption. A new class of androgen receptor (AR) suppressors designed for safe topical treatment of AGA was synthesized from (3-amino-2-hydroxy-2-methyl- N -(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl) propanamide (BP-34), to contain perfluoroalkyl moieties. The trifluoromethyl derivative (fluridil) at 10 ,M decreased expression of the AR in LNCaP human cells by 95%, its serum half-life was 6 h; it decomposes hydrolytically to BP-34 and trifluoroacetic acid. Acute intraperitoneal maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of fluridil in mice is 270,300 mg/kg/d and the subacute MTD is 450 mg/kg/d. The oral LD50 in mice was 2,872 mg/kg in males, 2,232 mg/kg in females, and >2,500 mg/kg in rats. Fluridil solution in isopropanol was not cutaneously absorbed in rabbits, did not sensitize or show any phototoxic or photoallergic effects on guinea pig skin, and demonstrated no skin irritation potential in rabbits and humans. Fluridil solid induced only slight and reversible eye irritancy in rabbits and displayed no cytotoxicity to rabbit corneal fibroblasts in vitro. Fluridil demonstrated no significant mutagenicity potential by Ames method. In a double-blind study, 43 males with AGA, Norwood grade II to Va, used topical 2% fluridil in isopropanol or the vehicle daily for 12 months. Anagens (growing hairs) increased in the fluridil group from 76% to 89%. All hematological and biochemistry values remained within normal range, including testosterone, which varied but seasonally. No fluridil or its decomposition product (BP-34) was detected in serum. No adverse side effects were reported. Drug Dev. Res. 59:292,306, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Early growth response 2 regulates the survival of thymocytes during positive selection

    Victoria J. Lawson
    Abstract The early growth response (Egr) transcription factor family regulates multiple steps during T-cell development. We examine here the role played by Egr2 in positive selection. In double-positive cells, Egr2 is upregulated immediately following TCR ligation, and its expression requires both the MAPK and calcineurin signaling pathways. Inducible transgenic and knockout mice were generated to cause gain- or loss-of-function of Egr2 in double-positive cells, and had reciprocal effects; more mature single-positive cells were made when Egr2 was overexpressed, and fewer when Egr2 was absent. These defects were associated with changes in the survival of positively selected cells rather than perturbation of positive selection or immediate post-selection signaling. The survival function of Egr2 at least partly depends upon its ability to activate the cytokine-mediated survival pathway, likely through negative regulation of both the IL-7R and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (Socs1), the molecular switch whose downregulation normally results in restored responsiveness to cytokine signaling following selection. While gain of Egr2 caused a decrease in Socs1 mRNA, loss of Egr2 resulted in downregulation of IL-7R, upregulation of Socs1, and inhibition of Stat5 phosphorylation and IL-7-mediated survival post-selection. Therefore, expression of Egr2 following positive selection links the initial TCR signaling event to subsequent survival of signaled cells. [source]

    Fc,RIIB deficiency with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmune disease

    Kaori Yajima
    Abstract MRL.Faslpr/lpr mice, a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and arthritis in humans, have a Fas mutation that results in spontaneous development of systemic autoimmune diseases and a short life span. Half of them die by 5,6,months of age due to massive progression of systemic autoimmune diseases, such as lupus nephritis. However, C57BL/6 (B6).Faslpr/lpr strain does not develop such disorders within the normal life span, indicating that suppressor gene(s) in B6 mice may control the onset and exacerbation of disease. Here, we show that the gene for a unique inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (Fc,RIIB) is a critical SLE suppressor. Fc,RIIB-deficient B6.Faslpr/lpr (B6.IIB,/,Faslpr/lpr) mice developed systemic autoimmune diseases, including anti-DNA and anti-type,II collagen autoantibodies and cryoglobulin production, immune complex glomerulonephritis and arthritis. They were short-lived, due to enhanced autoantibody production by B cells culminating in fatal lupus nephritis. Thus, Fc,RIIB deletion with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmunity in B6 mice. The inhibitory signaling cascade via Fc,RIIB may be critical for suppressing SLE in humans. [source]

    Rapid reversal of stress induced loss of synapses in CA3 of rat hippocampus following water maze training

    Carmen Sandi
    Abstract The impact was examined of exposing rats to two life experiences of a very different nature (stress and learning) on synaptic structures in hippocampal area CA3. Rats were subjected to either (i) chronic restraint stress for 21 days, and/or (ii) spatial training in a Morris water maze. At the behavioural level, restraint stress induced an impairment of acquisition of the spatial response. Moreover, restraint stress and water maze training had contrasting impacts on CA3 synaptic morphometry. Chronic stress induced a loss of simple asymmetric synapses [those with an unperforated postsynaptic density (PSD)], whilst water maze learning reversed this effect, promoting a rapid recovery of stress-induced synaptic loss within 2,3 days following stress. In addition, in unstressed animals a correlation was found between learning efficiency and the density of synapses with an unperforated PSD: the better the performance in the water maze, the lower the synaptic density. Water maze training increased the number of perforated synapses (those with a segmented PSD) in CA3, both in stressed and, more notably, in unstressed rats. The distinct effects of stress and learning on CA3 synapses reported here provide a neuroanatomical basis for the reported divergent effects of these experiences on hippocampal synaptic activity, i.e. stress as a suppressor and learning as a promoter of synaptic plasticity. [source]

    Leptin receptor 170 kDa (OB-R170) protein expression is reduced in obese human skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism of leptin resistance

    T. Fuentes
    To examine whether obesity-associated leptin resistance could be due to down-regulation of leptin receptors (OB-Rs) and/or up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in skeletal muscle, which blunt janus kinase 2-dependent leptin signalling and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and reduce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 men: 10 non-obese control subjects (mean ±s.d. age, 31 ± 5 years; height, 184 ± 9 cm; weight, 91 ± 13 kg; and percentage body fat, 24.8 ± 5.8%) and 10 obese (age, 30 ± 7 years; height, 184 ± 8 cm; weight, 115 ± 8 kg; and percentage body fat, 34.9 ± 5.1%). Skeletal muscle OB-R170 (OB-R long isoform) protein expression was 28 and 25% lower (both P < 0.05) in arm and leg muscles, respectively, of obese men compared with control subjects. In normal-weight subjects, SOCS3 protein expression, and STAT3, AMPK, and ACC, phosphorylation, were similar in the deltoid and vastus lateralis muscles. In obese subjects, the deltoid muscle had a greater amount of leptin receptors than the vastus lateralis, whilst SOCS3 protein expression was increased and basal STAT3, AMPK, and ACC, phosphorylation levels were reduced in the vastus lateralis compared with the deltoid muscle (all P < 0.05). In summary, skeletal muscle leptin receptors and leptin signalling are reduced in obesity, particularly in the leg muscles. [source]

    MBP-1 is efficiently encoded by an alternative transcript of the ENO1 gene but post-translationally regulated by proteasome-dependent protein turnover

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2010
    Jrhau Lung
    The c-myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1) is a transcriptional suppressor of tumorigenesis and thought to be the product of alternative translation initiation of the ,-enolase (ENO1) transcript. In the present study, we cloned a 2552-bp novel cDNA with a putative coding sequence of MBP-1 and functionally examined its ability to encode the MBP-1 protein. Similarly to ENO1, the obtained MBP-1 was widely and differentially expressed in a variety of normal tissues and cancer cells. Experiments using MBP-1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter assays, biochemical cell fractionation followed by RT-PCR detection of the cytoplasmic mRNA, and transcription/translation-coupled reactions, consistently demonstrated that this novel transcript was alternatively transcribed from intron III of the ENO1 gene and was feasible for MBP-1 production. Hypoxia treatments significantly increased the transcriptional activation of the MBP-1 gene. Blocking the proteasomal degradation by MG132 stabilized the MBP-1 protein in cells. Compared with the translation efficiency for production of the MBP-1 protein, the MBP-1 transcript was 17.8 times more efficient than the ENO1 transcript. Thus, we suggest that this newly discovered transcript is a genuine template for the protein synthesis of MBP-1 in cells, and optimal expression of this gene in tumors may lead to effective clinical therapies for cancers. [source]

    An estrogen receptor , suppressor, microRNA-22, is downregulated in estrogen receptor ,-positive human breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2010
    Jianhua Xiong
    Previous studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play important roles in tumorigenesis, but little is known about the functions of most miRNAs in cancer development. In the present study, we set up a cell-based screen using a luciferase reporter plasmid carrying the whole , 4.7 kb 3,-UTR of estrogen receptor , (ER,) mRNA cotransfected with a synthetic miRNA expression library to identify potential ER,-targeting miRNAs. Among all the miRNAs, miR-22 was found to repress robustly the luciferase signal in both HEK-293T and ER,-positive MCF-7 cells. Mutation of the target site was found to abrogate this repression effect of miR-22, whereas antagonism of endogenous miR-22 in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in elevated reporter signals. We assessed the miR-22 expression patterns in five breast cancer cell lines and 23 clinical biopsies and revealed that there is a significant inverse association between the miR-22 levels and ER, protein expression. To evaluate the potential of miR-22 as a potential therapeutic intervention, we found that reduction of endogenous ER, protein levels and suppression of cancer cell growth could be achieved in MCF-7 cells by miR-22 overexpression in a way that can be recapitulated by the introduction of specific small interfering RNA against ER,. The phenomena can be rescued by the reintroduction of ER,. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-22 was frequently downregulated in ER,-positive human breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Direct involvement in the regulation of ER, may be one of the mechanisms through which miR-22 could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. [source]

    Differential effects of Mxi1-SR, and Mxi1-SR, in Myc antagonism

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 17 2007
    Claire Dugast-Darzacq
    Mxi1 belongs to the Myc-Max-Mad transcription factor network. Two Mxi1 protein isoforms, Mxi1-SR, and Mxi1-SR,, have been described as sharing many biological properties. Here, we assign differential functions to these isoforms with respect to two distinct levels of Myc antagonism. Unlike Mxi1-SR,, Mxi1-SR, is not a potent suppressor of the cellular transformation activity of Myc. Furthermore, although Mxi1-SR, exhibits a repressive effect on the MYC promoter in transient expression assays, Mxi1-SR, activates this promoter. A specific domain of Mxi1-SR, contributes to these differences. Moreover, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase interacts with Mxi1-SR, and enhances its ability to activate the Myc promoter. Our findings suggest that Mxi1 gains functional complexity by encoding isoforms with shared and distinct activities. [source]

    Secondary structure assignment of mouse SOCS3 by NMR defines the domain boundaries and identifies an unstructured insertion in the SH2 domain

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 23 2005
    Jeffrey J. Babon
    SOCS3 is a negative regulator of cytokine signalling that inhibits Janus kinase-signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) mediated signal tranduction by binding to phosphorylated tyrosine residues on intracellular subunits of various cytokine receptors, as well as possibly the JAK proteins. SOCS3 consists of a short N-terminal sequence followed by a kinase inhibitory region, an extended SH2 domain and a C-terminal suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) box. SOCS3 and the related protein, cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, are unique among the SOCS family of proteins in containing a region of mostly low complexity sequence, between the SH2 domain and the C-terminal SOCS box. Using NMR, we assigned and determined the secondary structure of a murine SOCS3 construct. The SH2 domain, unusually, consists of 140 residues, including an unstructured insertion of 35 residues. This insertion fits the criteria for a PEST sequence and is not required for phosphotyrosine binding, as shown by isothermal titration calorimetry. Instead, we propose that the PEST sequence has a functional role unrelated to phosphotyrosine binding, possibly mediating efficient proteolytic degradation of the protein. The latter half of the kinase inhibitory region and the entire extended SH2 subdomain form a single ,-helix. The mapping of the true SH2 domain, and the location of its C terminus more than 50 residues further downstream than predicted by sequence homology, explains a number of previously unexpected results that have shown the importance of residues close to the SOCS box for phosphotyrosine binding. [source]

    Construction and characterization of Bacillus subtilis deletion mutants lacking the prophage 2 - trnS region

    Genki Akanuma
    Abstract During development of a novel method for constructing a series of deletions in Bacillus subtilis using an isogenic set of gene-disrupted mutants created by integration of pMutin, deletion of the trnS operon, consisting of seven tRNA genes, was found to affect cell growth, development of competence and spore formation. A suppressor (sts1) of the ,trnS mutant was isolated, sequenced and found to have undergone a single base change, CAG to GAG, in the first anticodon of tRNALeu, in the trnB operon. [source]

    A transcriptome analysis of isoamyl alcohol-induced filamentation in yeast reveals a novel role for Gre2p as isovaleraldehyde reductase

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 1 2007
    Michael Hauser
    Abstract A transcriptome analysis was performed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoing isoamyl alcohol-induced filament formation. In the crucial first 5 h of this process, only four mRNA species displayed strong and statistically significant increases in their levels of more than 10-fold. Two of these (YEL071w/DLD3 and YOL151w/GRE2) appear to play important roles in filamentation. The biochemical activities ascribed to these two genes (d -lactate dehydrogenase and methylglyoxal reductase, respectively) displayed similarly timed increases to those of their respective mRNAs. Mutants carrying dld3 mutations displayed reduced filamentation in 0.5% isoamyl alcohol and needed a higher concentration of isoamyl alcohol to effect more complete filament formation. Hence, DLD3 seems to be required for a full response to isoamyl alcohol, but is not absolutely essential for it. Mutants carrying gre2 mutations were derepressed for filament formation and formed large, invasive filaments even in the absence of isoamyl alcohol. These results indicate a previously unsuspected and novel role for the GRE2 gene product as a suppressor of filamentation by virtue of encoding isovaleraldehyde reductase activity. [source]

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle under limited glucose requires Ssp1 kinase, the putative CaMKK, and Sds23, a PP2A-related phosphatase inhibitor

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 5 2009
    Yuichiro Hanyu
    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) is required for diverse cellular functions, and similar kinases exist in fungi. Although mammalian CaMK kinase (CaMKK) activates CaMK and also evolutionarily-conserved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), CaMKK is yet to be established in yeast. We here report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ssp1 kinase, which controls G2/M transition and response to stress, is the putative CaMKK. Ssp1 has a CaM binding domain (CBD) and associates with 14-3-3 proteins as mammalian CaMKK does. Temperature-sensitive ssp1 mutants isolated are defective in the tolerance to limited glucose, and this tolerance requires the conserved stretch present between the kinase domain and CBD. Sds23, multi-copy suppressor for mutants defective in type 1 phosphatase and APC/cyclosome, also suppresses the ssp1 phenotype, and is required for the tolerance to limited glucose. We demonstrate that Sds23 binds to type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2A) and PP2A-related phosphatase Ppe1, and that Sds23 inhibits Ppe1 phosphatase activity. Ssp1 and Ppe1 thus seem to antagonize in utilizing limited glucose. We also show that Ppk9 and Ssp2 are the catalytic subunits of AMPK and AMPK-related kinases, respectively, which bind to common ,-(Amk2) and ,-(Cbs2) subunits. [source]

    hScrib, a human homologue of Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor, is a novel death substrate targeted by caspase during the process of apoptosis

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2008
    Kenbun Sone
    hScrib, human homologue of Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor, was identified as a target of human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein for the ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Here, we report that hScrib is a novel death substrate targeted by caspase. Full-length hScrib was cleaved by caspase during death ligands-induced apoptosis, which generates a p170 C-terminal fragments in Hela cells. In vitro cleavage assay using recombinant caspases showed that hScrib is cleaved by the executioner caspases. DNA damage-induced apoptosis caused loss of expression of full-length hScrib, which was recovered by addition of capase-3 inhibitor in HaCat cells. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells, which were identified 4 h after UV irradiation in HaCat cells, showed loss of hScrib expression at the adherens junction. Mutational analysis identified the caspase-dependent cleavage site of hScrib at the position of Asp-504. Although MDCK cells transfected with GFP-fused wild-type hScrib showed loss of E-cadherin expression and shrinkage of cytoplasm by UV irradiation, cells transfected with hScrib with Ala substitution of Asp-504 showed resistance to caspase-dependent cleavage of hScrib and intact expression of E-cadherin. These results indicate that caspase-dependent cleavage of hScrib is a critical step for detachment of cell contact during the process of apoptosis. [source]

    Global analysis of functional surfaces of core histones with comprehensive point mutants

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 1 2007
    Kazuko Matsubara
    The core histones are essential components of the nucleosome that act as global negative regulators of DNA-mediated reactions including transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair. Modified residues in the N-terminal tails are well characterized in transcription, but not in DNA replication and DNA repair. In addition, roles of residues in the core globular domains are not yet well characterized in any DNA-mediated reactions. To comprehensively understand the functional surface(s) of a core histone, we constructed 320 yeast mutant strains, each of which has a point mutation in a core histone, and identified 42 residues responsible for the suppressor of Ty (Spt - ) phenotypes, and 8, 30 and 61 residues for sensitivities to 6-azauracil (6AU), hydroxyurea (HU) and methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), respectively. In addition to residues that affect one specific assay, residues involved in multiple reactions were found, and surprisingly, about half of them were clustered at either the nucleosome entry site, the surface required for nucleosome,nucleosome interactions in crystal packing or their surroundings. This comprehensive mutation approach was proved to be powerful for identification of the functional surfaces of a core histone in a variety of DNA-mediated reactions and could be an effective strategy for characterizing other evolutionarily conserved hub-like factors for which surface structural information is available. [source]

    High dosage Rhp51 suppression of the MMS sensitivity of DNA structure checkpoint mutants reveals a relationship between Crb2 and Rhp51

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2003
    Monique F.M.A. Smeets
    Background: In eukaryotic cells DNA structure checkpoints organize the cellular responses of DNA repair and transient cell cycle arrest and thereby ensure genomic stability. To investigate the exact role of crb2+ in the DNA damage checkpoint response, a genetic screen was carried out in order to identify suppressors of the conditional MMS sensitivity of a crb2-1 mutant. Here we report the isolation of rhp51+ as a multicopy suppressor. Results: We show that suppression is not specific for the checkpoint mutant while it is specific for the MMS treatment. Rescue by rhp51+ over-expression is not a consequence of increased recombination repair or checkpoint compensation and epistasis analysis confirms that crb2+ and rhp51+ function in different pathways. A tight linkage between the two pathways is nevertheless suggested by the complementary expression or modification of Crb2 and Rhp51 proteins. Crb2 protein stability is down-regulated when Rhp51 is over-expressed and up-regulated in the absence of Rhp51. The up-regulation of Crb2 is independent of the activation of DNA structure checkpoints. Conversely Rhp51 is more readily activated and differentially modified in the absence of Crb2 or other checkpoint proteins. Conclusions: We conclude that fission yeast Crb2 and Rhp51 function in two parallel, tightly connected and coordinately regulated pathways. [source]