Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Subsidence

  • flexural subsidence
  • land subsidence
  • rapid subsidence
  • tectonic subsidence
  • thermal subsidence

  • Terms modified by Subsidence

  • subsidence history
  • subsidence rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    Linkage of Sevier thrusting episodes and Late Cretaceous foreland basin megasequences across southern Wyoming (USA)

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
    Shao-Feng Liu
    ABSTRACT Deposition and subsidence analysis, coupled with previous structural studies of the Sevier thrust belt, provide a means of reconstructing the detailed kinematic history of depositional response to episodic thrusting in the Cordilleran foreland basin of southern Wyoming, western interior USA. The Upper Cretaceous basin fill is divided into five megasequences bounded by unconformities. The Sevier thrust belt in northern Utah and southwestern Wyoming deformed in an eastward progression of episodic thrusting. Three major episodes of displacement on the Willard-Meade, Crawford and ,early' Absaroka thrusts occurred from Aptian to early Campanian, and the thrust wedge gradually became supercritically tapered. The Frontier Formation conglomerate, Echo Canyon and Weber Canyon Conglomerates and Little Muddy Creek Conglomerate were deposited in response to these major thrusting events. Corresponding to these proximal conglomerates within the thrust belt, Megasequences 1, 2 and 3 were developed in the distal foreland of southern Wyoming. Two-dimensional (2-D) subsidence analyses show that the basin was divided into foredeep, forebulge and backbulge depozones. Foredeep subsidence in Megasequences 1, 2 and 3, resulting from Willard-Meade, Crawford and ,early' Absaroka thrust loading, were confined to a narrow zone in the western part of the basin. Subsidence in the broad region east of the forebulge was dominantly controlled by sediment loading and inferred dynamic subsidence. Individual subsidence curves are characterized by three stages from rapid to slow. Controlled by relationships between accommodation and sediment supply, the basin was filled with retrogradational shales during periods of rapid subsidence, followed by progradational coarse clastic wedges during periods of slow subsidence. During middle Campanian time (ca. 78.5,73.4 Ma), the thrust wedge was stalled because of wedge-top erosion and became subcritical, and the foredeep zone eroded and rebounded because of isostasy. The eroded sediments were transported far from the thrust belt, and constitute Megasequence 4 that was mostly composed of fluvial and coastal plain depositional systems. Subsidence rates were very slow, because of post-thrusting rebound, and the resulting 2-D subsidence was lenticular in an east,west direction. During late Campanian to early Maastrichtian time, widespread deposits of coarse sediment (the Hams Fork Conglomerate) aggraded the top of the thrust wedge after it stalled, prior to initiation of ,late' Absaroka thrusting. Meanwhile Megasequence 5 was deposited in the Wyoming foreland under the influence of both the intraforeland Wind River basement uplift and the Sevier thrust belt. [source]

    Geoarchaeology of Tonga: Geotectonic and geomorphic controls

    William R. Dickinson
    Ancient settlement patterns in central Tonga, at the southeastern limit of Lapita expansion into Remote Oceania ,3 ka, were conditioned by island geomorphology as controlled by spatial geotectonic features and temporal changes in relative sea level on island coasts. Volcanic islands provided lithic resources, but human populations were concentrated on nonvolcanic forearc islands underlain by limestone covered by airfall tephra blankets that weathered to form rich agricultural soils and eroded to provide terrigenous sand for ceramic temper. The forearc islands lie along the Tonga platform, a linear tract of shoals uplifted diachronously by subduction of the buoyant Louisville Ridge at the Tonga Trench. Multiple transverse structural discontinuities break the forearc into discrete structural blocks, some tectonically stable during late Holocene time but others undergoing postuplift subsidence. Understanding the paleoenvironmental settings of Tongan archaeological sites requires reconstructing the contrasting geologic histories of different forearc island clusters. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The Ohalo II prehistoric camp (19.5 Ky): New evidence for environmental and tectonic changes at the Sea of Galilee

    Shmuel Belitzky
    Combined archaeological data, shore surveys, and aerial photos of submerged sediments in the Sea of Galilee provide new insights into environmental and tectonic events, their dating, and their impact on the Ohalo II prehistoric camp (ca. 19,500 yr B.P.) and its surroundings. The Ohalo II waterlogged campsite contains excellently preserved brush hut remains and other in situ features, all embedded in late Pleistocene lacustrine strata. The findings indicate relatively short occupation of the site, not more than months or several years at a time. The high quality in situ preservation of delicate organic materials, as well as the short occupation period, suggests a quick and gentle burial by fine sediments. The evident fast submergence (water level rise of the Sea of Galilee) could have been the result of climatic fluctuations towards the end of the last glaciation and/or small-scale tectonic subsidence. The site is located on a tectonic block formed in the western fault belt of the Dead Sea Rift. We present new evidence of post-occupational folding of the late Pleistocene strata and recent tilting and faulting. A westward tectonic tilt may have caused the blockage of the old Jordan River outlet after A. D. 1106. Excellent preservation of the fault traces to the east of the site is attributed to the young age of the displacement on the fault. The last displacement apparently post-dates the blockage of the old Jordan River. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    From the intra-desert ridges to the marine carbonate island chain: middle to late Permian (Upper Rotliegend,Lower Zechstein) of the Wolsztyn,Pogorzela high, west Poland

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2-3 2010
    Hubert Kiersnowski
    Abstract The tectonic Wolsztyn,Pogorzela palaeo-High (WPH) is the south-eastern termination of the Brandenburg,Wolsztyn High (western Poland), which during Late Permian times was an intra-basin ridge surrounded by Upper Rotliegend sedimentary basins within the Southern Permian Basin. The geological history and structural framework of the WPH are complex. The High belongs to the Variscan Externides, consisting at present of strongly folded, faulted and eroded Viséan to Namurian flysch deposits capped by a thick cover of Upper Carboniferous,Lower Permian volcanic rocks. This sedimentary-volcanic complex was strongly fragmented and vertically differentiated by tectonic movements and subsequently eroded, resulting in the deposition of coarse clastics surrounding uplifted tectonic blocks. During late Rotliegend time, arid climatic conditions significantly influenced occurrences of specific facies assemblages: alluvial, fluvial, aeolian and playa. Sedimentological study helped to recognize the interplay of tectonic and palaeoclimatic factors and to understand the phenomenon of aeolian sandstones interbedded with coarse deposits of alluvial cones close to fault scarps. Subsequent tectonic and possible thermal subsidence of the studied area was synchronous with inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The rapid inundation process allowed for the preservation of an almost perfectly protected Uppermost Rotliegend landscape. Based on 3D seismic data from the base Zechstein reflector, a reconstruction of Rotliegend palaeogeomorphology was carried out, which shows examples of tectonic rejuvenation of particular tectonic blocks within the WPH area before inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The inundation led to the deposition of the marine Kupferschiefer Shale followed by the Zechstein Limestone. In the deeper parts of the basin the latter is developed in thin basinal facies: in shallow parts (e.g. uplifted tectonic blocks forming in some cases islands), carbonate buildups were formed. The remarkable thickness of those buildups (bryozoan reefs) is interpreted as due to stable tectonic subsidence together with a rise of sea level. A detailed study of carbonate buildups has showed that their internal structure reflects changes in shallow marine environments and even emersion events, caused by sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements of the reef substrate. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Late-glacial remains of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Shropshire, UK: stratigraphy, sedimentology and geochronology of the Condover site

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
    J. D. Scourse
    Abstract In 1986 remains of an adult woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach), were discovered at Norton Farm Pit, Condover, south of Shrewsbury, UK. Preliminary stratigraphical investigations indicated that this individual dated to the Devensian Late-glacial Interstadial, then the first evidence for survival of mammoth in Britain following the Last Glacial Maximum. Initial radiocarbon analysis confirmed this interpretation. Subsequent excavations in 1987/1988 recovered the remains of a further three juvenile mammoth individuals. All of these remains were found in the spoil heaps of overburden (ex situ) and their true stratigraphical context had to be reconstructed from the remnants surviving in the Pit. The 1987/1988 excavations enabled stratigraphical investigation of the site and submission of samples for radiocarbon (14C) dating, including the use of ultrafiltration pretreatment for bone samples, with the aims of reconstructing the geological and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the site and the sedimentary context of the unstratified mammoth remains. These results are presented here. This investigation indicates that the woolly mammoth remains at Condover derive from a dead-ice landscape dominated by eskers, kames and kettle-hole basins, and that the sedimentary sequence in which the mammoth remains were found forms the infilling of a kettle-hole basin. The sedimentary infilling and formation of the kettle-hole basin through ice block melt-induced subsidence were syngenetic. 14C determinations indicate that basin infill was initiated prior to Greenland Interstadial 1, and probably in Greenland Stadial 2 i.e. before 14.7,ka BP and that it continued until the early Holocene, around 8,ka BP. The sedimentological and 14C data indicate that the unstratified mammoth remains can be attributed to a dark grey clayey sandy silt (Unit C1), which accumulated during the earlier part of Greenland Interstadial 1 (14 to 14.5,ka BP) within an actively subsiding slow-flowing, beaded, fluvial network characterized by channels and pools/lakes, and with relatively shallow marginal slopes. The sedimentary architecture indicates survival of the buried ice block into Greenland Interstadial 1 and final melting only towards the end of the Interstadial at ca. 12.65,ka BP. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Geological evolution and structural style of the Palaeozoic Tafilalt sub-basin, eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco, North Africa)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    E. A. Toto
    Abstract The Tafilalt is one of a number of generally unexplored sub-basins in the eastern Anti-Atlas of Morocco, all of which probably underwent a similar tectono-stratigraphic evolution during the Palaeozoic Era. Analysis of over 1000,km of 2-D seismic reflection profiles, with the interpretation of ten regional seismic sections and five isopach and isobath maps, suggests a multi-phase deformation history for the Palaeozoic-aged Tafilalt sub-basins. Extensional phases were probably initiated in the Cambrian, followed by uniform thermal subsidence up to at least the end of the Silurian. Major extension and subsidence did not begin prior to Middle/Upper Devonian times. Extensional movements on the major faults bounding the basin to the north and to the south took place in synchronisation with Upper Devonian sedimentation, which provides the thickest part of the sedimentary sequence in the basin. The onset of the compressional phase in Carboniferous times is indicated by reflectors in the Carboniferous sequence progressively onlapping onto the Upper Devonian sequence. This period of compression developed folds and faults in the Upper Palaeozoic-aged strata, producing a structural style characteristic of thin-skinned fold and thrust belts. The Late Palaeozoic units are detached over a regional décollement with a northward tectonic vergence. The folds have been formed by the process of fault-propagation folding related to the thrust imbricates that ramp up-section from the décollement. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Triassic metasedimentary successions across the boundary between the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc (northern Calabria, Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2005
    A. Iannace
    Abstract The boundary area between the Apenninic fold-and-thrust belt and the crystalline Calabrian Arc, located around Sangineto in northern Calabria, has been investigated. New geological mapping in the Sant'Agata area has been performed on the Triassic successions traditionally attributed to the metasedimentary San Donato Unit. This, coupled with a reappraisal of the stratigraphy and tectonics of coeval successions present more to the south in the Cetraro Unit, results in a new reconstruction of the Triassic evolution of all the metasedimentary successions found in the region. Four informal stratigraphic units have been distinguished in the S. Agata area. The lowest one (Unit A) consists of well-bedded metalimestones and bioturbated marly limestones that correlate with Ladinian,Carnian carbonates in nearby areas. A second unit (Unit B), never recognized before, contains a complex alternation of dolomites, phyllites and some meta-arenites containing several beds of Cavernoso facies, attributed to the Carnian. They grade upward to platform and platform-margin dolomites of Norian,Rhaetian age (Unit C) that in turn are replaced upward and laterally by a fourth unit (Unit D) consisting of well-bedded, dark dolomites and metalimestones with marly interlayers locally found as resedimented large blocks in slope conglomerates. Unit D correlates with Rhaetian,Liassic beds in nearby areas. Several pieces of evidence of post-metamorphic contractional tectonics, with 140°N and 30°N trends, are found together with evidence of SW-directed extension. The siliciclastic Carnian beds of Unit B are correlated with the phyllites of Cetraro, formerly believed to be Middle Triassic; moreover, it is suggested that in the Cetraro area Unit C is almost totally replaced by Unit D. This demonstrates that the former distinction between the two tectonic units in the whole area has to be discarded. We have made a general palaeoenvironmental reconstruction which progresses laterally, during Ladinian,Carnian times, from (i) a coastal, mixed siliciclastic,carbonate,evaporitic area at Cetraro to (ii) a transitional carbonate shelf where siliciclastic input was only episodic, and finally to (iii) a bioconstructed margin which was later replaced by a steepened margin created by tectonic instability. Starting from the Norian, subsidence shifted toward the former coastal area where an intraplatform, restricted basin developed. The proposed stratigraphy corresponds closely to the Alpujarride units of the Betic Cordillera, Spain. Moreover, it is shown that strong affinities also exist, in terms of the structural framework, with the metamorphic units of Tuscany and Liguria. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mesozoic,Paleogene sedimentary facies and paleogeography of Tibet, western China: tectonic implications

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2002
    Kai-Jun Zhang
    Abstract In Early,Middle Triassic time, an abyssal sea covered most of the Songpan,Ganzi area, whereas a Central Tibetan Landmass, up to 400,km wide, may have stretched across the Lhasa and Western Qiangtang terrains. In Late Triassic time, the Songpan,Ganzi sea closed, the Central Tibetan Landmass receded westwards away from southern Western Qiangtang, a littoral environment dominated Eastern Qiangtang, middle Western Qiangtang, and southeastern Lhasa, a shelf environment existed only in northern and southeastern Western Qiangtang and northwestern Eastern Qiangtang, and abyssal flysch was spread along the eastern Bangonghu,Nüjiang zone. In Early,Middle Jurassic time, Songpan,Ganzi had become part of the Eurasian continent, abyssal flysch sediments stretched throughout the Bangonghu,Nüjiang zone, the Central Tibetan Landmass was only locally present in southwestern Lhasa, and the Tethyan epicontinental sea nearly covered all Tibet southwest of the Jinsajiang suture. In Late Jurassic time, oceanic flysch deposition existed only along the westernmost Bangonghu,Nüjiang zone, nearly all of Tibet was covered by coastal deposits, and shelf deposits existed only in northern Western Qiangtang and westernmost Lhasa. In the early stage of Early Cretaceous time, the majority of Qiangtang had become dry land, and a supralittoral environment dominated across the entire Lhasa terrain. However, during the late stage of the Early Cretaceous time, platform,shelf carbonates prevailed on southern Western Qiangtang and northern Lhasa. In Late Cretaceous time, the majority of Qiangtang had become emergent land, and a supratidal environment dominated Lhasa, the western rim of Western Qiangtang, and Tarim. In Paleogene time, the majority of Tibet became emergent land, and a supratidal environment existed only on the southern and western rims. The dominance of Upper Triassic,Jurassic shelf carbonates on the northwestern Eastern Qiangtang corner and the northern Western Qiangtang rim suggests a diachronous closing of the Jinsajiang paleo-Tethys ocean, first during latest Triassic time when the Eastern Qiangtang terrain collided with Asia and finally in Jurassic time when the Western Qiangtang terrain was amalgamated to Asia. Rich picotites in Upper Triassic sandstones of middle Qiangtang suggest that the Shuanghu suture could have extended along the middle of Qiangtang, and stable shelf sedimentation during Late Triassic,Middle Jurassic time in the Western Qiangtang terrain shows that the suture probably could not have formed until Middle Jurassic time. The opening time of the Bangonghu,Nüjiang mid-Tethys ocean could be Late Triassic time due to the existence of the Central Tibetan Landmass across Western Qiangtang and Lhasa during Early,Middle Triassic time. However, its opening was diachronous, at Late Triassic time in the east and at Early,Middle Jurassic time in the west. Furthermore, its closing was also diachronous, first in the east at the beginning of Late Jurassic time and later in the west in latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous time. Widespread upper Lower Cretaceous limestone up to 5,km thick over the northern half of Lhasa indicates that southern Tibet could have undergone an extensive backarc subsidence during late Early Cretaceous time. Continuous shallow marine sedimentation through the entire Cretaceous time over much of southern Tibet indicates that southern Tibet was intensely elevated only after the end of Paleogene time, its high topography being the product of the Indo-Asian collision. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Depositional environment and sequence architecture of the Silurian Coralliferous Group, Southern Pembrokeshire, UK

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2002
    Robert D. Hillier
    Abstract The Lower Silurian siliciclastic Coralliferous Group is shown to have been deposited in an intra-shelf position 10,15,km south of the palaeogeographic shelf-break of the Welsh Basin. After a phase of thermal subsidence related to the development of the predominantly Llandovery Skomer Volcanic Group, the shelf basin was transgressed. This transgression was punctuated by an episode of tectonic uplift in southern Pembrokeshire, resulting in subaerial exposure of the shelf and a significant basinward shift in sedimentary environments. Erosion and sediment bypass ensued, with coarse-grained low-sinuosity fluvial channels transporting sediment to the northerly Welsh Basin, where significant submarine fans developed. During the early Telychian, renewed transgression took place, with lowstand gravels being ravined and reworked into parasequences of the transgressive systems tract. These thin, coarse-grained parasequences record deposition within high-energy wave-dominated shoreface/inner shelf environments. Further coastal onlap resulted in the closing down of significant coarse-grained sediment supply, with the remaining Coralliferous Group being dominated by wave-influenced silts, mud-shales and thin sandstones comprising the highstand systems tract. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the northernmost margin of the NE German Basin between uppermost Carboniferous and Late Permian (Rotliegend)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2001
    H. Rieke
    Abstract The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Rotliegend deposits of the northernmost margin of NE German Basin (NEGB) has been analysed on the basis of detailed sedimentary logs of 300,m of core material together with the re-evaluation of 600,km of seismic lines. Three distinct phases were recognized. During the initial Phase I, basin geometry was largely controlled by normal faulting related to deep-seated ductile shearing leading to a strong asymmetric shape, with a steep fault-controlled eastern margin and a gently, dipping western margin. The results of forward modelling along a cross-section fit the basin geometry in width and depth and reveal a footwall uplift of c. 1000,m. Adjacent to the steep faults, local sedimentation of Lithofacies Type I was confined to non-cohesive debris flow-dominated alluvial fans, whereas the gently dipping western margin was dominated by alluvial-cone sedimentation. During the post-extensional period (Phase II), cooling of the lithosphere generated additional accommodation space. The sediments of Lithofacies Type II, comprising mainly clast-supported conglomerates, are interpreted as braided ephemeral stream flow-surge deposits. Tectonic quiescence and an increase in flood events resulting from wetter climate led to progradation of this facies over the entire region. At the end of this period, the accommodation space was almost completely filled resulting in a level topography. Phase III was controlled by the thermal-induced subsidence of the southerly located NEGB in post-Illawarra times. The formerly isolated region tilted towards the SW, thus forming the northern margin of the NEGB during uppermost Havel and Elbe Subgroup times. The sediments of Lithofacies Type III were divided into a marginal sandstone-dominated environment and a finer-grained facies towards the SW. The former consists of poorly-sorted coarse-grained sandstones of a proximal and medial ephemeral stream floodplain facies. The latter comprise mud flat fines and fine-grained distal ephemeral stream deposits. The end of the tectono-sedimentary evolution is marked by the basinwide Zechstein transgression. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    First evidence of post-seismic deformation in the central Mediterranean: Crustal viscoelastic relaxation in the area of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Southern Italy)

    G. Dalla Via
    SUMMARY Comparison between measured vertical displacements obtained from two levelling campaigns performed in 1981 and 1985 in the epicentral area of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (MS= 6.9) and predictions from viscoelastic Earth models reveal the occurrence of post-seismic deformation due to stress relaxation in the ductile part of the crust. Two regions of broad uplift and subsidence, accumulated during the time interval, characterize the deformation pattern in the footwall and hangingwall of the major fault. The spatial wavelength of the deformation pattern favours relaxation occurring in the lower crust rather than in a weak upper-mantle: the uplift in the footwall explains the 30 mm of upwarping of the crust measured along the levelling line crossing the area where the fault pierces the Earth's surface. [source]

    Crustal underplating and its implications for subsidence and state of isostasy along the Ninetyeast Ridge hotspot trail

    Ingo Grevemeyer
    Recent seismic field work has revealed high lower-crustal velocities under Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean, indicating the presence of crustal underplating (Grevemeyer et al. 2000). We used results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drill cores and cross-spectral analysis of gravity and bathymetric data to study the impact of the underplating body on the subsidence history and the mode of isostatic compensation along Ninetyeast Ridge. Compared with the adjacent Indian basin, the subsidence of Ninetyeast Ridge is profoundly anomalous. Within the first few millions of years after crustal emplacement the ridge subsided rapidly. Thereafter, however, subsidence slowed down significantly. The most reliable model of isostasy suggests loading of a thin elastic plate on and beneath the seafloor. Isostatic compensation of subsurface loading occurs at a depth of about 25 km, which is in reasonably good agreement with seismic constraints. Subsurface loading is inherently associated with buoyant forces acting on the lithosphere. The low subsidence may therefore be the superposition of cooling of the lithosphere and uplift due to buoyant material added at the base of the crust. A model including prolonged crustal growth in the form of subcrustal plutonism may account for all observations. [source]

    The thermal field in a basin after a sudden passive pure shear lithospheric extension and sublithospheric mechanical erosion:the case of the Tuscan Basin (Italy)

    F. Mongelli
    A simple new model for sudden lithospheric thinning that considers the crust to be stretched and the lower layer of the lithosphere to be partially stretched and partially mechanically eroded is proposed. This model allows calculation of the thermal field of the lithosphere during the initial warming phase and the surface uplift. Application of this model to the Tuscan Basin explains the high regional heat flux density values (>100 mW m,2,), the tectonic subsidence (about 1 km) and the average uplift (>400 m) observed in this region well. [source]

    Determining the dilation factor in 4D monitoring of compacting reservoirs by rock-physics models

    José M. Carcione
    ABSTRACT Hydrocarbon depletion and fluid injection cause compaction and stretching of the reservoir and overburden layers. 4D prestack seismic data can be used to detect these changes because compaction/stretching causes changes in traveltimes and seismic velocities. We show that, by using two different petro-elastic models at varying effective pressures, a good approximation is to assume that the fractional changes in layer thickness, ,L/L, and seismic velocity, ,v/v, are related by a linear function of ,L/L. The slope of this function (the dilation factor, ,= (,v/v)/(,L/L)) is negative and its absolute value generally decreases (shale, low porosity) or increases (sandstone, high porosity) with increasing layer thickness and decreasing effective pressure. The analysis is mainly performed for isotropic deformations. The dilation factor for uniaxial deformations is smaller in absolute value. The dilation factor, which can be calculated from time-lapse data, can be used to predict reservoir compaction/stretching as a function of depth and surface subsidence. [source]

    The Value of Subsidence Data in Ground Water Model Calibration

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2008
    Tingting Yan
    The accurate estimation of aquifer parameters such as transmissivity and specific storage is often an important objective during a ground water modeling investigation or aquifer resource evaluation. Parameter estimation is often accomplished with changes in hydraulic head data as the key and most abundant type of observation. The availability and accessibility of global positioning system and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data in heavily pumped alluvial basins can provide important subsidence observations that can greatly aid parameter estimation. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the value of spatial and temporal subsidence data for automatically estimating parameters with and without observation error using UCODE-2005 and MODFLOW-2000. A synthetic conceptual model (24 separate cases) containing seven transmissivity zones and three zones each for elastic and inelastic skeletal specific storage was used to simulate subsidence and drawdown in an aquifer with variably thick interbeds with delayed drainage. Five pumping wells of variable rates were used to stress the system for up to 15 years. Calibration results indicate that (1) the inverse of the square of the observation values is a reasonable way to weight the observations, (2) spatially abundant subsidence data typically produce superior parameter estimates under constant pumping even with observation error, (3) only a small number of subsidence observations are required to achieve accurate parameter estimates, and (4) for seasonal pumping, accurate parameter estimates for elastic skeletal specific storage values are largely dependent on the quantity of temporal observational data and less on the quantity of available spatial data. [source]

    Stratigraphic Control of Flow and Transport Characteristics

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2006
    Dwaine Edington
    Ground water flow and travel time are dependent on stratigraphic architecture, which is governed by competing processes that control the spatial and temporal distribution of accommodation and sediment supply. Accommodation is the amount of space in which sediment may accumulate as defined by the difference between the energy gradient and the topographic surface. The temporal and spatial distribution of accommodation is affected by processes that change the distribution of energy (e.g., sea level or subsidence). Fluvial stratigraphic units, generated by FLUVSIM (a stratigraphic simulator based on accommodation and sediment supply), with varying magnitudes and causes of accommodation, were incorporated into a hydraulic regime using MODFLOW (a ground water flow simulator), and particles were tracked using MODPATH (a particle-tracking algorithm). These experiments illustrate that the dominant type of accommodation process influences the degree of continuity of stratigraphic units and thus affects ground water flow and transport. When the hydraulic gradient is parallel to the axis of the fluvial system in the depositional environment, shorter travel times occur in low,total accommodation environments and longer travel times in high,total accommodation environments. Given the same total accommodation, travel times are longer when sea-level change is the dominant process than those in systems dominated by subsidence. [source]

    Ground Water Flow Parameterization of an Appalachian Coal Mine Complex

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2004
    William R. Winters
    We examined a large (240 km2) northern Appalachian bituminous coal basin (Irwin Syncline, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania) comprising 27 mine complexes with nine major (> 2.5 × 103 L/min) discharges. The synclinal basin was divided into seven subbasins based on equilibrium hydraulic relationships established during the past 25 years. Recharge rates, mine pool velocity, and residence times respond to hydraulic changes in the overburden induced by mine subsidence. The estimated maximum depth for subsidence fractures is 60 m (30 times mined thickness) with recharge rates decreasing significantly in subbasins with thicker overburden (> 75 m). Calculated subbasin recharge rates range from 2 to 6 × 10,4 L/min/m2 and are significantly lower than the previously used rate for the basin. Residence time of ground water in the Irwin subbasins calculated using average linear velocity ranged from one to five years and were more consistent with field observations than estimates obtained using discharge and basin volume area. A positive correlation (r2= 0.80) exists between net alkalinity of the mine water-impacted discharges and residence time in the mine pools. Our results for the Irwin coal basin suggest that use of a subbasin approach incorporating overburden depth, mining methodology, and the extent of postmining inundation will lead to improved determination of ground water flow parameters in mined watersheds in northern Appalachia and elsewhere. [source]

    Tectonic control of erosion and sedimentation in the Amazon Basin of Bolivia

    Patrice Baby
    Abstract The western Amazon drainage basin, which extends from southern Colombia to northern Bolivia, comprises the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes and its adjacent foreland basin system. In northern Bolivia, the orogenic wedge of the eastern Andes is very large, and its forward propagation controls the morphology of the Madeira drainage basin. We consider here the erosion and sedimentation mass balance in this part of the Amazon Basin, estimated on the basis of recent sediment yield data, within the current tectonic and geomorphic framework. The total suspended sediment (TSS) flux exported from the present orogenic wedge of northern Bolivia has been estimated at 500,600 million t year,1. More than 50% of the total sediment load crossing the Madeira foreland basin system is deposited. The rest of the sediments (less than 46%) reaches the eastern Amazon Basin, bypassing the Brazilian craton to the north. The average mass of sediment that has been deposited from the late Miocene to the present in the Madeira foreland basin sedimentation system is less than that intercepted today, by a factor of about 2·4. These results can be interpreted as an increase in Bolivian foreland basin flexural subsidence over time, associated with crust thickening and orogenic loading, and accentuated by the growing mass of retained sediments. They are consistent with the uplift rates of the Cordillera Oriental, obtained from fission-track dating, which began increasing significantly around 10,15 Ma. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The possible hydrologic effects of the proposed lignite open-cast mining in Drama lignite field, Greece

    Sotiris Panilas
    Abstract The present study investigates the possible hydrologic effects of the proposed lignite open-cast mining in Drama lignite field (north Greece). Recent years have seen a rapid increase in surface mining. This activity has generated a growing concern for the potential environmental impacts associated with large scale surface mining. In order to achieve a safe mine operation and allow extraction of lignite to considerable depths, extensive dewatering by pumping will be necessary, while at the same time it is desirable to avoid presence of overpumping conditions in the broader area. Based on stratigrafic, hydrologic and hydrogeologic data, a three-dimensional finite difference model was developed in order to simulate the dewatering process of the western part of the lignite open-cast mine in Drama and to predict both spatially and temporally the decline of ground water level down to the lignite surface. The dewatering of the part of the aquifer which underlies the mine area will influence the hydrological conditions of the broader region. The most important anticipated effects will be the abandonment of shallow wells as well as the decrease of ground water pumping rates of deep wells. Aquifer discharge towards the ditches of the study area will cease and there will be an inversion of ground water flow from the ditches towards the underlying aquifer. Dewatering activities will probably result in minor subsidence of the nearby peat deposits of Drama Philippi marshes. Moreover, sand pumping as well as the presence of gasses is likely to cause local subsidence phenomena, mainly in the pit slopes. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mechanics of land subsidence due to groundwater pumping

    Muniram Budhu
    Abstract This paper presents the formulation of the basic mechanics governing the changes in stress states from groundwater pumping and comparisons among predicted land subsidence from this mechanics with existing analyses and field data. Land subsidence is a growing, global problem caused by petroleum and groundwater withdrawal, mining operations, natural settlement, hydro-compaction, settlement of collapsible soils, settlement of organic soils and sinkholes. This paper is concerned with the land subsidence due to groundwater level decline by groundwater pumping. It is shown that the stress state consists of asymmetric stresses that are best simulated by a Cosserat rather than a Cauchy continuum. Land subsidence from groundwater level decline consists of vertical compression (consolidation), shear displacement and macro-rotation. The latter occurs when conditions are favorable (e.g. at a vertical interface) for the micro-rotation imposed by asymmetric stresses to become macro-rotation. When the length of the cone of depression is beyond ,2 times the thickness of the aquifer, simple shear on vertical planes with rotation is the predominant deformation mode. Otherwise, simple shear on horizontal planes is present. The predicted subsidence using the mechanics developed in this paper compares well with data from satellite-borne interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Numerical modelling of regional faults in land subsidence prediction above gas/oil reservoirs

    Massimiliano Ferronato
    Abstract The stress variation induced by gas/oil production may activate pre-existing regional faults. This may enhance the expected land subsidence due to the generation of mechanically weak points close to the producing field. A class of elasto-plastic interface elements (IE), specifically designed to address the mechanical behaviour of faults over a regional scale, is integrated into a finite element (FE) geomechanical model and used to investigate the role exerted by active faults in anthropogenic land subsidence. The importance of regional faults depends on a variety of factors including depth of the depleted reservoir, fault number, orientation and size, geomechanical properties of porous medium, pore pressure drawdown induced by fluid production, etc. With the aid of some representative examples, a useful indication is provided as to where and how fault activation may influence both magnitude and extent of the land subsidence bowl above producing gas/oil reservoirs, pointing to a generally limited impact on the ground surface. The simulation of a real faulted gas reservoir in a complex 3-D setting shows that the proposed IE can be simply and efficiently incorporated into a FE geomechanical model, thus improving the quality of the stress and displacement prediction. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applying discontinuous deformation analysis to assess the constrained area of the unstable Chiu-fen-erh-shan landslide slope

    Jian-Hong Wu
    Abstract Chiu-fen-erh-shan landslide is a remarkable slope failure occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999. In November of 2002, abnormal geomorphologic features, including buckling and ground subsidence, were observed on the lower slope of the Chiu-fen-erh-shan landslide. This study attempts to assess the constrained area of a future collapsing on the slope using a dynamic discrete numerical analysis method, discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). The simulation results show that the depression in front of the toe of the slope provides a space for arresting the whole sliding rocks when only the unstable lower slope fails. However, as the whole slope slides, the rock fragments move farther into the memorial park and can impact other facilities resulting in the enlarging of constrained area. The authority should prohibit people from entrancing the constrained area in the rainy season. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stochastic computational modelling of highly heterogeneous poroelastic media with long-range correlations

    Diego G. Frias
    Abstract The compaction of highly heterogeneous poroelastic reservoirs with the geology characterized by long-range correlations displaying fractal character is investigated within the framework of the stochastic computational modelling. The influence of reservoir heterogeneity upon the magnitude of the stresses induced in the porous matrix during fluid withdrawal and rock consolidation is analysed by performing ensemble averages over realizations of a log-normally distributed stationary random hydraulic conductivity field. Considering the statistical distribution of this parameter characterized by a coefficient of variation governing the magnitude of heterogeneity and a correlation function which decays with a power-law scaling behaviour we show that the combination of these two effects result in an increase in the magnitude of effective stresses of the rock during reservoir depletion. Further, within the framework of a perturbation analysis we show that the randomness in the hydraulic conductivity gives rise to non-linear corrections in the upscaled poroelastic equations. These corrections are illustrated by a self-consistent recursive hierarchy of solutions of the stochastic poroelastic equations parametrized by a scale parameter representing the fluctuating log-conductivity standard deviation. A classical example of land subsidence caused by fluid extraction of a weak reservoir is numerically simulated by performing Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with finite elements discretizations of the poroelastic equations associated with an ensemble of geologies. Numerical results illustrate the effects of the spatial variability and fractal character of the permeability distribution upon the evolution of the Mohr,Coulomb function of the rock. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Solute transport through a deforming porous medium

    Glen P. Peters
    Abstract Solute transport through a porous medium is typically modelled assuming the porous medium is rigid. However, many applications exist where the porous medium is deforming, including, municipal landfill liners, mine tailings dams, and land subsidence. In this paper, mass balance laws are used to derive the flow and transport equations for a deforming porous medium. The equations are derived in both spatial and material co-ordinate systems. Solute transport through an engineered landfill liner is used as an illustrative example to show the differences between the theory for a rigid porous medium, and small and large deformation analysis of a deforming porous medium. It is found that the large deformation model produces shorter solute breakthrough times, followed by the small deformation model, and then the rigid porous medium model. It is also found that it is important to include spatial and temporal void ratio variations in the large deformation analysis. It is shown that a non-linear large deformation model may greatly reduce the solute breakthrough time, compared to a standard transport analysis typically employed by environmental engineers. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Finite element analysis of land subsidence above depleted reservoirs with pore pressure gradient and total stress formulations

    Giuseppe Gambolati
    Abstract The solution of the poroelastic equations for predicting land subsidence above productive gas/oil fields may be addressed by the principle of virtual works using either the effective intergranular stress, with the pore pressure gradient regarded as a distributed body force, or the total stress incorporating the pore pressure. In the finite element (FE) method both approaches prove equivalent at the global assembled level. However, at the element level apparently the equivalence does not hold, and the strength source related to the pore pressure seems to generate different local forces on the element nodes. The two formulations are briefly reviewed and discussed for triangular and tetrahedral finite elements. They are shown to yield different results at the global level as well in a three-dimensional axisymmetric porous medium if the FE integration is performed using the average element-wise radius. A modification to both formulations is suggested which allows to correctly solve the problem of a finite reservoir with an infinite pressure gradient, i.e. with a pore pressure discontinuity on its boundary. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Response of the summer atmospheric circulation over East Asia to SST variability in the tropical Pacific

    Rena Nagata
    Abstract General circulation over East Asia and its linkages with sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the tropical Pacific is investigated for the 1958,2000 period. The western edge of the North Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) index (SHI) is defined from pentad 31 (May 31 to June 4) to pentad 49 (August 29 to September 2). A southwestward extension of the SHI has been observed since 1980. The changes in the NPSH are associated with SST warming in the tropical eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean. On the basis of the SHI, years with western, eastern, southern and northern displacement of the NPSH are defined as WD, ED, SD and ND years. WD and SD years occur after 1980. Climatologically, the subsidence is located around 30°N in the western Pacific. This subsidence area corresponds to the NPSH region. Before pentad 40 in WD and SD years, associated with warm SST anomalies, circulation anomalies show an ascending motion over the tropical eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean. This ascending motion induces the anomalous subsidence over the tropical western Pacific and causes the southwestward extension of the NPSH. After pentad 40 (July 15,19), the seasonal evolution of WD years is different from the SD years. After pentad 40 in WD years, associated with large warm SST anomalies over the tropical eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean, the strong anomalous ascending motion strengthens the anomalous subsidence in the western tropical Pacific and leads to the lack of the eastward contraction of the NPSH. In SD years, warm SST anomalies over the tropical eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean weakened after pentad 40. Correspondently, the weakened anomalous ascending motion over these regions provides the weak anomalous subsidence over the tropical western Pacific. The weakened anomalous subsidence leads to the eastward contraction of the NPSH after pentad 40 similar to the climatological evolution. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    An analysis of late twentieth century trends in Australian rainfall

    Andréa S. Taschetto
    Abstract Trends in Australian precipitation from 1970 to 2006 are examined using a daily rainfall dataset. Results suggest a linkage between changes in the monsoon trough and rainfall trends over northwestern Australia. The late twentieth century drought observed along the Queensland coast is a response to changes in the atmospheric circulation that generates anomalous subsidence at high and middle levels of the atmosphere, thus inhibiting convection over the region. In addition, an anomalous anticyclonic circulation at low levels over Queensland tends to weaken the easterlies in the tropical western Pacific, thus diminishing the transport of moist air onto the coast. Trends in the frequency and magnitude of different rainfall events are also examined. This reveals that changes in total rainfall are dominated by trends in very heavy rainfall events across Australia. For example, some parts of western Australia reveal an increase in heavy rainfall events that are not accompanied by a rise in modest rainfall events, resulting in changes in the shape of the distribution towards a more skewed precipitation distribution. On the other hand, the frequency of extreme rainfall events along the Queensland coast has declined during summer and autumn consistently with the total rainfall decrease, indicating changes in the position of the precipitation distribution rather than its shape. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Basin-wide warming of the Indian Ocean during El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole years

    J. S. Chowdary
    Abstract Basin-wide wintertime surface warming is observed in the Indian Ocean during El Niño years. The basin-wide warming is found to be stronger when El Niño and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) co-occur. The mechanisms responsible for the basin-wide warming are different for the years with El Niño only (El Niño without IOD) and for the co-occurrence (both El Niño and IOD) years. Strong westward propagation of downwelling Rossby waves is observed in the southern Indian Ocean during the IOD years. Such strong propagation is not seen in the case of the El Niño-only years. This indicates that the ocean dynamics play an important role in winter warming of the western Indian Ocean during the IOD years. The weak easterly wind anomalies in the El Niño-only years show no measurable impact on the Wyrtki Jets, but weakening or reversal of these jets is seen in the IOD years. This strongly suggests that the variability related to surface circulation is due to the local IOD forcing rather than El Niño induced wind anomaly. For the El Niño-only composites, surface heat fluxes (mainly latent heat flux and short wave radiation) play an important role in maintaining the basin-wide surface warming in the Indian Ocean. In the IOD-only composites (when there is no El Niño in the Pacific), such basin-wide warming is not seen because of the absence of ENSO (El Niño and Southern Oscillation) induced subsidence over the eastern Indian Ocean. For the years in which both El Niño in the Pacific and dipole in the Indian Ocean co-occur, warming in the western Indian Ocean is due to the ocean dynamics and that in the eastern Indian Ocean is due to the anomalous latent heat flux and solar radiation. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    In search of zonal circulations in the equatorial Atlantic sector from the NCEP,NCAR reanalysis

    Stefan Hastenrath
    Abstract The National Center for Environmental Prediction,National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP,NCAR) 1958,1997 upper-air dataset has been evaluated for evidence of equatorial zonal circulation cells over the Atlantic and adjacent continents. For January, April, July and October, maps are presented of mid-tropospheric vertical motion, upper-tropospheric divergent flow, and zonal,vertical cross-sections of vertical and divergent zonal motion and total zonal flow. In the boreal winter half-year, a centre of intense ascending motion and upper-tropospheric, mainly northward-directed outflow is located off the mouth of the Amazon. From this centre there is also some outflow into centres of upper-tropospheric convergence and subsidence over the equatorial eastern Pacific and eastern Atlantic, respectively. From January to April, the near-equatorial band of ascending motion shifts southward, and the upper-tropospheric convergence centre is displaced from the Equator into the South Atlantic. In the boreal summer half-year, the band of strongest ascending motion is displaced northward, and two separate centres of upper-tropospheric divergent outflow are found over northern hemispheric Africa and the Central American Seas. From these centres, the outflow is directed approximately southward into the southern hemisphere. The analysis points to the existence of an equatorial zonal circulation cell in the Atlantic sector confined to around January. Copyright © 2001 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Rock magnetism and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of forearc sediments of the Japan Trench, ODP Sites 1150 and 1151

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2004
    Toshiya Kanamatsu
    Abstract Magnetic measurements were carried out to investigate rock magnetic properties and paleomagnetic directions of late and middle Miocene sediments recovered from the land side of the Japan Trench during the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 186. Because the low coercive component in natural remanent magnetization (NRM) normalized by anhysteretic remanent magnetization shows that the drilling-induced magnetization is severe in the sections obtained by the advanced hydraulic piston coring method, careful analyses of demagnetization of NRM using the ,demagnetization plane' were carried out to decompose the direction and intensity. Magnetostratigraphic correlation down to the upper Miocene, supplemented by biostratigraphic data, revealed that the sedimentation rates are characterized by drastic changes, with the early Pliocene having the highest rate. This high sedimentation rate is related to the subsidence of the southern deep-sea terrace of the Japan Trench. [source]