Suprex Maize (suprex + maize)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize

AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 3 2007
G.-I. HEMRE
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate whether standard fish meal diets prepared with increasing levels of genetically modified (GM; 150 and 300 g kg,1) maize (event MON810) as a starch source, showed any nutritional or physiological adverse effects on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. postsmolt. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize and its near-isogenic parental line (nongenetically modified; nGM maize), were balanced with Suprex maize (Reference) to obtain compositional equivalency of diet starch, sugars and all other nutrients. Total starch level in all diets was 160 g kg,1. After 82 days of feeding, fish growth was high in all groups, however fish fed the GM maize showed slight but significant lower feed intake, which was followed by slight but significant lower specific growth rate and final body weights, compared with fish fed nGM maize, none of the groups varied significantly from fish fed the Reference diet. There was no variation in feed conversion ratios (FCR), protein and lipid efficiency ratios (PER and LER), or protein- and lipid-productive values (PPV and LPV) in this study. No significant effect of maize type was detected on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, protein or lipid. Hematological analysis and plasma nutrients varied within normal ranges for Atlantic salmon in all diet groups, except for somewhat elevated aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) values in all groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) with values ranging from 1.37 to 1.60, was significantly higher for the high GM maize group compared with the high nGM maize group but not when compared with the Reference diet group. Lowered spleen (SSI) and head-kidney somatic indices (H-KSI) were registered when fed GM compared with nGM maize, the Reference treatment was however, equal to both. Distal intestine somatic index (DISI) was significantly higher for GM maize-fed fish compared with nGM maize-fed fish, but not significantly different from the Reference diet group. Histological evaluation of the mid- and distal intestine, liver, spleen and head-kidney did not reveal any diet-related morphological changes. Maltase activities in the mid- and distal intestinal tissue homogenates were affected by diet, the fish fed high GM maize having higher activities compared with high nGM maize-fed fish. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities were not affected by diet. Sodium-dependent d -glucose uptake in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from pyloric caeca of fish fed high GM maize was significantly higher than that found in fish fed the analogous diet with high nGM maize. Based on the present findings, the conclusions made are: Atlantic salmon smolts fed GM maize (event MON810), its near-isogenic parental line and suprex maize (Reference diet), all resulted in high growth rates, ADC and feed utilization. Health, when evaluated by means of mortality (low), normal ranges of blood and plasma parameters, except somewhat elevated ASAT values and minor variations in organ sizes, were considered good in all diet groups. The changes in the glucose transport mechanism and intestinal maltase enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract warrant further studies. [source]


Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize

JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 4 2007
A Sagstad
Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate if genetically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, event MON810) compared with the near-isogenic non-modified (nGM) maize variety, added as a starch source at low or high inclusions, affected fish health of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. To evaluate the health impact, selected stress- and immune-response biomarkers were quantified at the gene transcript (mRNA) level, and some also at the protein level. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize, and its near-isogenic nGM parental line, were compared to a control diet containing GM-free suprex maize (reference diet) as the only starch source. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver and distal intestine was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed nGM maize and with the reference diet group. Fish fed GM maize showed significantly lower catalase (CAT) activity in liver compared with fish fed nGM maize and to the reference diet group. In contrast, CAT activity in distal intestine was significantly higher for fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed reference diet. Protein level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in liver was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed the reference diet. No diet-related differences were found in normalized gene expression of SOD, CAT or HSP70 in liver or distal intestine. Normalized gene expression of interleukin-1 beta in spleen and head-kidney did not vary significantly between diet groups. Interestingly, fish fed high GM maize showed a significantly larger proportion of plasma granulocytes, a significantly larger sum of plasma granulocyte and monocyte proportions, but a significantly smaller proportion of plasma lymphocytes, compared with fish fed high nGM maize. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon fed GM maize showed some small changes in stress protein levels and activities, but none of these changes were comparable to the normalized gene expression levels analysed for these stress proteins. GM maize seemed to induce significant changes in white blood cell populations which are associated with an immune response. [source]


Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize

AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 3 2007
G.-I. HEMRE
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate whether standard fish meal diets prepared with increasing levels of genetically modified (GM; 150 and 300 g kg,1) maize (event MON810) as a starch source, showed any nutritional or physiological adverse effects on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. postsmolt. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize and its near-isogenic parental line (nongenetically modified; nGM maize), were balanced with Suprex maize (Reference) to obtain compositional equivalency of diet starch, sugars and all other nutrients. Total starch level in all diets was 160 g kg,1. After 82 days of feeding, fish growth was high in all groups, however fish fed the GM maize showed slight but significant lower feed intake, which was followed by slight but significant lower specific growth rate and final body weights, compared with fish fed nGM maize, none of the groups varied significantly from fish fed the Reference diet. There was no variation in feed conversion ratios (FCR), protein and lipid efficiency ratios (PER and LER), or protein- and lipid-productive values (PPV and LPV) in this study. No significant effect of maize type was detected on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, protein or lipid. Hematological analysis and plasma nutrients varied within normal ranges for Atlantic salmon in all diet groups, except for somewhat elevated aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) values in all groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) with values ranging from 1.37 to 1.60, was significantly higher for the high GM maize group compared with the high nGM maize group but not when compared with the Reference diet group. Lowered spleen (SSI) and head-kidney somatic indices (H-KSI) were registered when fed GM compared with nGM maize, the Reference treatment was however, equal to both. Distal intestine somatic index (DISI) was significantly higher for GM maize-fed fish compared with nGM maize-fed fish, but not significantly different from the Reference diet group. Histological evaluation of the mid- and distal intestine, liver, spleen and head-kidney did not reveal any diet-related morphological changes. Maltase activities in the mid- and distal intestinal tissue homogenates were affected by diet, the fish fed high GM maize having higher activities compared with high nGM maize-fed fish. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities were not affected by diet. Sodium-dependent d -glucose uptake in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from pyloric caeca of fish fed high GM maize was significantly higher than that found in fish fed the analogous diet with high nGM maize. Based on the present findings, the conclusions made are: Atlantic salmon smolts fed GM maize (event MON810), its near-isogenic parental line and suprex maize (Reference diet), all resulted in high growth rates, ADC and feed utilization. Health, when evaluated by means of mortality (low), normal ranges of blood and plasma parameters, except somewhat elevated ASAT values and minor variations in organ sizes, were considered good in all diet groups. The changes in the glucose transport mechanism and intestinal maltase enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract warrant further studies. [source]