Supranuclear Palsy (supranuclear + palsy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Supranuclear Palsy

  • progressive supranuclear palsy

  • Selected Abstracts

    Midbrain SERT in degenerative parkinsonisms: A 123I-FP-CIT SPECT study,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2010
    Francesco Roselli MD
    Abstract SPECT imaging is widely used for the differential diagnosis of degenerative parkinsonisms by exploiting the high affinitiy of the radiotracer 123I-FP-CIT for the dopamine transporter. Reduced levels of DAT are found in Parkinson Disease (PD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) compared to in Essential Tremor (ET) and Healthy Controls (HC). However, the extent of the neurodegenerative process may extend beyond nigrostriatal system. We have exploited the affinity of the same radiotracer 123I-FP-CIT for the serotonin transporter to investigate SERT levels in the midbrain of patients with PD, DLB, PSP, and ET compared to HC. Using MRI images as anatomical templates for midbrain uptake quantification, we found a mild decrease in SERT levels in PD compared to ET and HC, with marked inter-individual variability; on the other side, PSP and DLB patients displayed markedly reduced to undetectable levels of SERT, respectively. These findings show that the neurodegenerative process affects serotoninergic neurons in parkinsonisms, with much more severe involvement in DLB than in PD patients, despite the comparable loss of striatal DAT. SERT-dependent 123I-FP-CIT uptake may allow a more comprehensive assessment of neurochemical disturbances in degenerative parkinsonisms and may have a value for differential diagnosis. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Pathology and Genetics

    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Dennis W. Dickson
    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an atypical Parkinsonian disorder associated with progressive axial rigidity, vertical gaze palsy, dysarthria and dysphagia. Neuropathologically, the subthalamic nucleus and brainstem, especially the midbrain tectum and the superior cerebellar peduncle, show atrophy. The substantia nigra shows loss of pigment corresponding to nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. Microscopic findings include neuronal loss, gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. Characteristic tau pathology is also found in glia. The major genetic risk factor for sporadic PSP is a common variant in the gene encoding microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and recent studies have suggested that this may result in the altered expression of specific tau protein isoforms. Imaging studies suggest that there may be sensitive and specific means to differentiate PSP from other parkinsonian disorders, but identification of a diagnostic biomarker is still elusive. [source]

    Phosphorylated Map Kinase (ERK1, ERK2) Expression is Associated with Early Tau Deposition in Neurones and Glial Cells, but not with Increased Nuclear DNA Vulnerability and Cell Death, in Alzheimer Disease, Pick's Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Degeneration

    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    I. Ferrer
    Abnormal tau phosphorylation and deposition in neurones and glial cells is one of the major features in tau pathies. The present study examines the involvement of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway of tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer disease (AD), Pick's disease (PiD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), by Western blotting, single and double-labelling immunohistochemistry, and p21Ras activation assay. Since this pathway is also activated in several paradigms of cell death and cell survival, activated ERK expression is also analysed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry and in situ end-labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation to visualise activated ERK in cells with increased nuclear DNA vulnerability. The MEK1 antibody recognises one band of 45 kD that identifies phosphorylation-independent MEK1, whose expression levels are not modified in diseased brains. The ERK antibody recognises one band of 42 kD corresponding to the molecular weight of phosphorylation-independent ERK2; the expression levels, as well as the immunoreactivity of ERK in individual cells, is not changed in AD, PiD, PSP and CBD. The antibody MAPK-P distinguishes two bands of 44 kD and 42 kD that detect phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2. MAPK-P expression levels, as seen with Western blotting, are markedly increased in AD, PiD, PSP and CBD. Moreover, immunohistochemistry discloses granular precipitates in the cytoplasm of neurones in AD, mainly in a subpopulation of neurones exhibiting early tau deposition, whereas neurones with developed neurofibrillary tangles are less commonly immunostained. MAPK-P also decorates neurones with Pick bodies in PiD, early tau deposition in neurones in PSP and CBD, and cortical achromatic neurones in CBD. In addition, strong MAPK-P immunoreactivity is found in large numbers of tau -positive glial cells in PSP and CBD, as seen with double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Yet no co-localisation of enhanced phosphorylated ERK immunoreactivity and nuclear DNA fragmentation is found in AD, PiD, PSP and CBD. Finally, activated Ras expression levels are increased in AD cases when compared with controls. These results demonstrate increased phosphorylated (active) ERK expression in association with early tau deposition in neurones and glial cells in taupathies, and suggest activated Ras as the upstream activator of the MEK/ERK pathway of tau phosphorylation in AD. [source]

    Basal ganglia cellular pathology in multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson disease.

    Can quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging make the difference?
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The tau S305S mutation causes frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism

    L. Skoglund
    Members of families with mutations in the tau gene are known to be heterogeneous in their clinical presentation, ranging from frontotemporal dementia to a clinical picture more resembling corticobasal degeneration or progressive supranuclear palsy. In this report, we describe a new phenotype for the tau S305S mutation, previously described as progressive supranuclear palsy. Clinically, the three affected family members showed alterations in personality and behaviour as well as cognitive decline and late levodopa-resistant parkinsonian symptoms, consistent with the diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. One autopsied case displayed degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes together with extensive tau pathology in both neurones and glial cells. Sarkosyl-soluble and -insoluble tau extracted from frontal cortex revealed a ratio shift with decreased levels of tau with three microtubule-binding repeats and increased levels of tau with four microtubule-binding repeats (4R tau). These findings provide further evidence for the clinical and pathological variation both within and between families with mutations in the tau gene. In addition, they support previous studies which demonstrate that the S305S mutation influences the splicing of tau exon 10 and results in an overproduction of 4R tau. [source]

    The role of tau (MAPT) in frontotemporal dementia and related tauopathies,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2004
    R. Rademakers
    Abstract Tau is a multifunctional protein that was originally identified as a microtubule-associated protein. In patients diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17, mutations in the gene encoding tau (MAPT) have been identified that disrupt the normal binding of tau to tubulin resulting in pathological deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau. Abnormal filamentous tau deposits have been reported as a pathological characteristic in several other neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal dementia, Pick Disease, Alzheimer disease, argyrophilic grain disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. In the last five years, extensive research has identified 34 different pathogenic MAPT mutations in 101 families worldwide. In vitro, cell-free and transfected cell studies have provided valuable information on tau dysfunction and transgenic mice carrying human MAPT mutations are being generated to study the influence of MAPT mutations in vivo. This mutation update describes the considerable differences in clinical and pathological presentation of patients with MAPT mutations and summarizes the effect of the different mutations on tau functioning. In addition, the role of tau as a genetic susceptibility factor is discussed, together with the genetic evidence for additional causal genes for tau-positive as well as tau-negative dementia. Hum Mutat 24:277,295, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Neuropathological Spectrum of Neurodegenerative Tauopathies

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 6 2003
    Markus Tolnay
    Abstract Abundant neurofibrillary lesions made of abnormal and hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau constitute one of the defining neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease. However, tau containing filamentous deposits in neurons and/or glial cells also define a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by dementia and/or motor syndromes. Thus, all these disorders are collectively grouped under the generic term of tauopathies. In the present review we outline the morphological and biochemical characteristics of some major tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and argyrophilic grain disease. The second part will deal with the recent discovery of tau gene mutations in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 which demonstrates that tau dysfunction can lead to neurodegeneration. Finally, we will discuss the very recent finding of 'tau-deficient' tauopathy in a subset of frontotemporal dementia cases. IUBMB Life, 55: 299-305, 2003 [source]

    Cerebellar involvement in progressive supranuclear palsy,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2010
    Kurt Jellinger MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Neurochemical biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of movement disorders,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 10 2009
    Brit Mollenhauer MD
    Abstract In recent years, the neurochemical analysis of neuronal proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has become increasingly accepted for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementia diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt,Jakob disease. CSF surrounds the central nervous system, and in the composition of CSF proteins one finds brain-specific proteins that are prioritized from blood-derived proteins. Levels of specific CSF proteins could be very promising biomarkers for central nervous system diseases. We need the development of more easily accessible biomarkers, in the blood. In neurodegenerative diseases with and without dementia, studies on CSF and blood proteins have investigated the usefulness of biomarkers in differential diagnosis. The clinical diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration still rely mainly on clinical symptoms as defined by international classification criteria. In this article, we review CSF biomarkers in these movement disorders and discuss recent published reports on the neurochemical intra vitam diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders (including recent CSF ,-synuclein findings). © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Functional brain imaging in pure akinesia with gait freezing: [18F] FDG PET and [18F] FP-CIT PET analyses,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 2 2009
    Hee K. Park MD
    Abstract Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) has characteristic features, including freezing of gait and prominent speech disturbance without rigidity or tremor. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in brain glucose metabolism and presynaptic dopaminergic function in PAGF. By using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, 11 patients with PAGF were compared with 14 patients with probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 13 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 11 normal controls. [18F] N -(3-fluoropropyl)-2,-carbon ethoxy-3,-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) PET was performed in 11 patients with PAGF and with 10 normal controls. The PAGF patients showed decreased glucose metabolism in the midbrain when compared with normal controls. PSP patients showed a similar topographic distribution of glucose hypometabolism with additional areas, including the frontal cortex, when compared with normal controls. The FP-CIT PET findings in patients with PAGF revealed severely decreased uptake bilaterally in the basal ganglia. These findings suggest that both PAGF and PSP may be part of the same pathophysiologic spectrum of disease. However, the reason why PAGF manifests clinically in a different manner needs to be further elucidated. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Apparent diffusion coefficient of the superior cerebellar peduncle differentiates progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 16 2008
    Giuseppe Nicoletti MD
    Abstract The early diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may be challenging, because of clinical overlapping features with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). Conventional MRI can help in differentiating parkinsonian disorders but its diagnostic accuracy is still unsatisfactory. On the basis of the pathological demonstration of superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) atrophy in patients with PSP, we assessed the SCP apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in patients with PSP, PD, and MSA-P in order to evaluate its differential diagnostic value in vivo. Twenty-eight patients with PSP (14 with possible-PSP and 14 with probable-PSP), 15 PD, 15 MSA-P, and 16 healthy subjects were studied by using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). ADC was calculated in regions of interest defined in the left and right SCP by two clinically blinded operators. Intrarater (r = 0.98, P < 0.001) and interrater reliability (r = 0.97; P < 0.001) for SCP measurements were high. Patients with PSP had higher SCP rADC values (median 0.98 × 10,3mm2/s) than patients with PD (median 0.79 × 10,3 mm2/s, P < 0.001), MSA-P (median 0.79 × 10,3 mm2/s, P < 0.001), and healthy controls (median 0.80 × 10,3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). DWI discriminated patients with PSP from PD and healthy subjects on the basis of SCP rADC individual values (100% sensitivity and specificity) and from patients with MSA-P (96.4% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity). The higher values of rADC in SCP of patients with PSP correspond with the in vivo microstructural feature of atrophy detected postmortem and provide an additional support for early discrimination between PSP and other neurodegenerative parkinsonisms. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    The clinical spectrum of freezing of gait in atypical parkinsonism,

    Stewart A. Factor DO
    Abstract Freezing of gait (FOG), commonly seen in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), has been classified as its fifth cardinal feature. However, its presence frequently leads to a misdiagnosis of PD. FOG is actually more common in atypical parkinsonism (AP): including vascular Parkinsonism (VP), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and higher level gait disorders (HLGDs). VP is the result of multiple small vessel infarcts (lacunar state or Binswanger's disease), particularly involving the frontal, parietal, and basal ganglia regions. Approximately 50% have FOG (often referred to as lower body parkinsonism). FOG is also common in neurodegenerative forms of AP, present in 45,57%. Of these, FOG is present in 53% of PSP, 54% MSA, 54% DLB, 25% CBD, and 40% HLGD. It is generally seen in the late stages. There are two syndromes closely associated with AP that are dominated by FOG; pure akinesia (PA) and primary progressive freezing gait (PPFG). PA is characterized by akinesia of gait (including FOG), writing, and speech. Tremor, rigidity, dementia, and response to levodopa are notably absent. PPFG is defined by early FOG (often the initial feature) that progresses to include postural instability. It is accompanied by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural tremor, dementia, and levodopa unresponsiveness. Both syndromes are heterogeneous but PSP seems to be the most common cause. CBD and DLB can also present as PPFG. FOG is a common feature of AP and although typically occurring late in disease may also be an early symptom. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Excessive dopamine neuron loss in progressive supranuclear palsy

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 4 2008
    Karen E. Murphy BSc(Hons)
    Abstract Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) differ in their response to dopaminergic replacement therapies, despite having a similar degree of neuronal degeneration in the dopaminergic substantia nigra. We observed more widespread dopamine neuron loss in the extranigral A10 midbrain cell groups in PSP compared with PD. These cell groups innervate subcortical and cortical regions and may be required for adequate response to levodopa therapy. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Levodopa responsiveness in disorders with parkinsonism: A review of the literature,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 15 2007
    Radu Constantinescu MD
    Abstract A literature review was conducted to investigate whether or not levodopa (LD) responsiveness (LR) is a useful criterion in the diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders. Although LR does appear to differ among the parkinsonian disorders, there is considerable confusion in the literature. While most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a sustained benefit from LD, a small minority of patients with documented PD do not respond. The literature suggests that the LR rate is higher for multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) than based on published diagnostic criteria. Magnitude and duration of response to LD and tolerability (time course, type and distribution of dyskinesias, mental effects and motor worsening) may be useful features in distinguishing PD, MSA, PSP, and CBD. Efforts should be directed toward better defining LR when used for diagnostic purposes and in scientific publications. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging differentiates Parkinsonian variant of multiple-system atrophy from progressive supranuclear palsy

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 1 2007
    Dominic C. Paviour PhD, MRCP
    Abstract Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and the parkinsonian variant of multiple-system atrophy (MSA-P) may present with a similar phenotype. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a sensitive discriminator of MSA-P from Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 20 PSP, 11 MSA-P, 12 PD patients and 7 healthy controls in order to investigate whether regional apparent diffusion coefficients (rADCs) help distinguish PSP and MSA-P; whether rADCs are correlated with clinical disease severity scores; and the relationship between brainstem and cerebellar volumes and rADCs in PSP and MSA-P. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr score, Mini Mental State Examination, and frontal assessment battery were recorded in all patients. Regional ADCs were measured in the middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), caudal and rostral pons, midbrain, decussating fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle, thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, corpus callosum, frontal and parietal white matter, as well as the centrum semiovale. In MSA-P, rADCs in the MCP and rostral pons were significantly greater than in PSP (P < 0.001 and 0.009) and PD (P < 0.001 and = 0.002). Stepwise logistic regression revealed that the MCP rADC distinguishes MSA-P from PSP with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 84%. Increased brainstem rADCs were associated with motor deficit in MSA-P and PSP. Increased rADCs in the pons and MCP were associated with smaller pontine and cerebellar volumes in MSA-P. rADCs distinguish MSA-P from PSP. These have a clinical correlate and are associated with reduced brainstem and cerebellar volumes. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Orthostatic tremor in progressive supranuclear palsy

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2007
    Rob M. A. de Bie MD
    Abstract Patients with orthostatic tremor (OT) can be classified as having "primary OT," with or without postural arm tremor but no other abnormal neurological features, or "OT plus." We describe a patient with OT, with postural tremor of the arms and restless legs syndrome (RLS), who developed features typical of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). PSP can be accompanied by OT. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Iron metabolism in Parkinsonian syndromes

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 9 2006
    Daniela Berg MD
    Abstract Growing evidence suggests an involvement of iron in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Several of the diseases are associated with parkinsonian syndromes, induced by degeneration of basal ganglia regions that contain the highest amount of iron within the brain. The group of neurodegenerative disorders associated with parkinsonian syndromes with increased brain iron content can be devided into two groups: (1) parkinsonian syndromes associated with brain iron accumulation, including Parkinson's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, parkinsonian type of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, and Westphal variant of Huntington's disease; and (2) monogenetically caused disturbances of brain iron metabolism associated with parkinsonian syndromes, including aceruloplasminemia, hereditary ferritinopathies affecting the basal ganglia, and panthotenate kinase associated neurodegeneration type 2. Although it is still a matter of debate whether iron accumulation is a primary cause or secondary event in the first group, there is no doubt that iron-induced oxidative stress contributes to neurodegeneration. Parallels concerning pathophysiological as well as clinical aspects can be drawn between disorders of both groups. Results from animal models and reduction of iron overload combined with at least partial relief of symptoms by application of iron chelators in patients of the second group give hope that targeting the iron overload might be one possibility to slow down the neurodegenerative cascade also in the first group of inevitably progressive neurodegenerative disorders. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: Magical realism or reality?

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2006
    Marcelo Merello MD
    Abstract Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Characterizing behavioral and cognitive dysexecutive changes in progressive supranuclear palsy

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 2 2006
    David Millar DClinPsy
    Abstract Frontal lobe dysfunction is a prominent feature of many neurological disorders. Early diagnosis may be enhanced by establishing a profile of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional change. Traditional psychometric assessment focuses on cognitive dysfunction and fails to identify behavioral changes, particularly those associated with orbitofrontal dysfunction. We examined progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a prototypical subcortical dementia with frontal features, using commonly available neuropsychological measures and a modification of the Katz Adjustment Scale-Relatives (KAS-R), an instrument first developed to assess dysexecutive changes in head-injured patients. Executive tests identified deficits in reasoning, planning, set shifting, verbal fluency, information processing speed, and response initiation. On the KAS-R, changes in apathy, social withdrawal, and independence were observed, with little change in belligerence, social irresponsibility, uncooperativeness, obstreperousness, anxiety, and depression. The results show the potential utility of this instrument in characterizing behavioral and emotional changes associated with frontal lobe dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Toward future therapies in progressive supranuclear palsy

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue S12 2005
    David J. Burn MD
    Abstract There is a stern therapeutic challenge for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) that has not yet been met. The lack of randomized, controlled trials and negative outcomes from the vast majority of studies make it impossible to set therapeutic standards, or to give clear recommendations. We review progress to date in this area and briefly consider future potential therapeutic strategies. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Parkinsonism,dementia complex of Guam

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue S12 2005
    John C. Steele MD
    Abstract On Guam and in two other Pacific locales, indigenous residents and immigrants are prone to familial neurodegeneration that manifests as atypical parkinsonism, dementia, motor neuron disease, or a combination of these three phenotypes. This progressive and fatal disease of the Mariana islands, the Kii peninsula of Japan, and the coastal plain of West New Guinea is similar and the pathological features have close affiliation with universal tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Chamorros of Guam call the disease lytico-bodig, and neuroscientists refer to it as the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism,dementia complex. During recent decades, its prevalence has declined progressively, and the age at onset has steadily increased. In 2004, motor neuron disease, once 100 times more common than elsewhere is rare, atypical parkinsonism is declining, and only dementia remains unusually common in elderly females. The cause of this obscure malady remains uncertain, despite 60 years of international research, but its ending implicates environmental influences rather than genetic predisposition. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Increased tau burden in the cortices of progressive supranuclear palsy presenting with corticobasal syndrome

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2005
    Yoshio Tsuboi MD
    Abstract The objective of this study is to better define the pathological characteristics of pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) presenting with the corticobasal syndrome (CBS). PSP is characterized by early falls, vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and axial rigidity, whereas asymmetric limb features, including rigidity, bradykinesia, apraxia, alien limb phenomena, and cortical sensory loss are characteristic of CBS. We investigated clinicopathological characteristics of 5 cases of PSP that presented with CBS (CBS-PSP). Comprehensive pathological analysis was undertaken to determine the presence of concomitant pathological processes as well as quantitative tau burden in cortical regions of CBS-PSP, compared with 8 typical PSP cases (Typ-PSP). The clinical features in the CBS-PSP cases included asymmetrical features, apraxia, alien limb phenomena, and progressive aphasia. All cases had Parkinsonism, and vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia was noted in all but 1 case of CBS-PSP. Secondary neuropathological diagnoses included argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) in 1 of the 8 cases of Typ-PSP, whereas Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body disease, AGD, and vascular disease was found in 3 cases of CBS-PSP. Image analysis of cortical tau burden performed in 8 Typ-PSP and 3 CBS-PSP cases revealed a significant increased tau burden in mid-frontal and inferior-parietal cortices in the CBS-PSP cases. This study demonstrates that when PSP presents as CBS, it is most likely due to either a concurrent cortical pathology from a secondary process such as AD or from the primary pathology of PSP extending into cortical areas that are primarily and commonly affected in CBD. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia in progressive supranuclear palsy with an overriding oculocephalic maneuver

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2005
    Alexander C. Flint MD
    Abstract We present a patient with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) who had a bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) that could be fully overcome by the oculocephalic maneuver. In addition to being an unusual finding in the clinical setting of PSP, this phenomenon has interesting implications for the functional control of conjugate horizontal gaze. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Lesion of the dorsorostral midbrain sparing the nigrostriatal tract mimics axial rigidity seen in progressive supranuclear palsy

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2005
    Jan Lewerenz MD
    Abstract We report on a patient with a residual dorsorostral midbrain lesion after resection of a pineal gland tumor. In addition to severe vertical gaze palsy, this patient exhibited other neurological features closely resembling progressive supranuclear palsy. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography imaging excluded significant dopamine deficiency. We suggest that dorsorostral midbrain pathology rather than dopamine deficiency due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons or basal ganglia nuclei might be responsible for axial rigidity in extension. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Reply: Lack of association between progressive supranuclear palsy and arterial hypertension: A clinicopathological study

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2005
    Carlo Colosimo MD

    Progressive supranuclear palsy: New disease or variant of postencephalitic parkinsonism?

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 3 2004
    Adolfo Brusa MD
    Abstract We review the etiological importance of the epidemic encephalitis for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and addresses the question of whether the explosion of PSP literature in the mid-20th century reflects the appearance of a new disease. We examined 2,000 studies on Parkinson's disease from 1861 to 1963 and found PSP-like cases in the past, before the epidemic encephalitis era. It can be assumed that PSP is neither a new disease nor a variant of postencephalitic parkinsonism. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Role of dopamine transporter imaging in routine clinical practice

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2003
    Vicky Marshall MRCP
    Abstract Functional imaging of the dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system and has its main clinical application in patients with mild, incomplete, or uncertain parkinsonism. Imaging with specific single positron emission computerised tomography ligands for DAT (FP-CIT, ,-CIT, IPT, TRODAT) provides a marker for presynaptic neuronal degeneration. Striatal uptake correlates with disease severity, in particular bradykinesia and rigidity, and monitoring of progression assists in clinical trials of potential neuroprotective drugs. DAT imaging is abnormal in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy and does not distinguish between these disorders. Dopamine loss is seen even in the earliest clinical presentations of true parkinsonism; a normal scan suggests an alternative diagnosis such as essential tremor, vascular parkinsonism (unless there is focal basal ganglia infarction), drug-induced parkinsonism, or psychogenic parkinsonism. Congruence between working clinical diagnosis and DAT imaging increases over time in favour of baseline DAT imaging results. Additional applications are characterising dementia with parkinsonian features (abnormal results in dementia with Lewy bodies, normal in Alzheimer's disease); and differentiating juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease (abnormal DAT) from dopa-responsive dystonia (normal DAT). © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Nigral glutathione deficiency is not specific for idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 9 2003
    Paul S. Fitzmaurice PhD
    Abstract The consistent findings of decreased levels of the major antioxidant glutathione in substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) has provided most of the basis for the oxidative stress hypothesis of the etiology of PD. To establish whether a nigral glutathione deficiency is unique to PD, as is generally assumed, or is present in other Parkinsonian conditions associated with nigral damage, we compared levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in postmortem brain of patients with PD to those with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). As compared with the controls, nigral GSH levels were decreased in the PD and PSP patient groups (P < 0.05 for PD [,30%], PSP [,21%]), whereas a similar decrease in the MSA patient group did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.078, MSA [,20%]). GSH levels were normal in all examined normal and degenerating extra-nigral brain areas in PSP and MSA. A trend for decreased levels of uric acid (antioxidant and product of purine catabolism) also was observed in nigra of all patient groups (,19 to ,30%). These data suggest that glutathione depletion, possibly consequent to overutilisation in oxidative stress reactions, could play a causal role in nigral degeneration in all nigrostriatal dopamine deficiency disorders, and that antioxidant therapeutic approaches should not be restricted to PD. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Influence of target size on vertical gaze palsy in a pathologically proven case of progressive supranuclear palsy,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 7 2003
    Barry M. Seemungal MD
    Abstract We document a new oculomotor phenomenon in a patient with pathologically proven progressive supranuclear gaze palsy (PSP), namely that vertical gaze excursion improves with larger pursuit targets. We used computerised video-oculography during vertical smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) of circular targets of diameter 0.16 degrees and 16 degrees, sinusoidally oscillating at 0.08 Hz (peak-to-peak amplitude 49 degrees). Increasing target size improved vertical gaze excursion from 10 degrees to 25 degrees. There was no concomitant increase in slow phase eye velocity. The findings could be explained by a potentiation of the position control mechanism of pursuit by target size due to increased activation of brainstem pursuit-optokinetic pathways and to higher order attentional mechanisms. This observation may be useful in the clinical assessment of PSP patients with severe neck rigidity in whom the doll's head,eye manoeuvre cannot be performed by comparing the degree of vertical gaze palsy during smooth pursuit testing between at least two differently sized targets and observing whether there is a larger excursion in response to a large target such as a newspaper. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Lack of association between progressive supranuclear palsy and arterial hypertension: A clinicopathological study

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 6 2003
    Carlo Colosimo MD
    Abstract It has been reported that up to 80% of patients clinically diagnosed as having progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may have arterial hypertension (HT). Because previous studies were performed on patients with presumed diagnosis of PSP, we tried to replicate these studies in a series of pathologically confirmed patients. Seventy-three patients with a neuropathological diagnosis of PSP autopsied at the Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders in London were collected between 1989 and 1999. For the purpose of this study, patients were considered hypertensive if a blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg was found in the clinical records. The prevalence of HT in PSP patients at the first and at the last visit during their neurological disease was compared with that found in a series of 21 normal controls who donated their brain to the same institution. Overall, 29 of 73 (39.7%) of the patients were recorded as having HT at the first visit during the disease course; this ratio increased to 42 of 73 (57.5%) at the last visit before death. When these figures were compared to the 21 normal controls (11 of 21 with HT, 52.4%), we were unable to find an increased prevalence of HT in PSP (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.20,1.76). Therefore, HT does not represent an important clinical feature of this neurodegenerative disorder, although cerebrovascular disease can masquerade clinically as PSP. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]