Supranational Level (supranational + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Thalidomide, BSE and the single market: An historical-institutionalist approach to regulatory regimes in the European Union

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2007
SEBASTIAN KRAPOHL
In the last decade, the regulatory regime for pharmaceuticals has functioned without raising public concerns. The establishment of a European agency for pharmaceuticals in the early 1990s has been evaluated positively by both producers and consumers, and there have been no large scandals so far. At the same time, the food sector was subject to a whole range of crises, of which the BSE scandal was certainly the most significant one. In reaction to this, the regulatory regime for foodstuffs was reformed by setting up the European Food Safety Agency in 2002. This article adopts an historical-institutionalist approach, and thus tries to give an explanation for the striking differences between the two regulatory regimes. Accordingly, the development of supranational regulatory regimes is distinguished by two critical junctures: a crisis of consumer confidence and the establishment of a single market. It is crucial which of these occurred first. If a crisis of consumer confidence leads to the establishment of national regulatory authorities, these authorities act as stakeholders, which could be an obstacle for harmonization, but also ensures a necessary commitment to health and consumer protection once a single market is set up. If national regulatory authorities are missing, it might be easier to set up a single market, but a regulatory deficit is more likely to occur and, in case of a crisis, the whole regulatory regime has to be established at the supranational level. [source]


Centralisation versus Decentralisation of Public Policies: Does the Heterogeneity of Individual Preferences Matter?,

FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2008
Carlo Mazzaferro
This paper explores the role of the heterogeneity of fiscal preferences in the assignment of policy tasks to different levels of government (decentralisation versus centralisation). With reference to a sample of European countries, a median-voter mechanism of collective decision is assumed to work at both a national and a supranational level. Using data from a large international survey (the International Social Survey Programme, ISSP), a series of econometric models are estimated in order to make individual attitudes representative of different categories of public expenditure and of different countries. The dominance of decentralisation over centralisation or vice versa is determined on the basis of the utility loss that each individual suffers in connection with the distance between his or her own most preferred level of public expenditure and that chosen by the national/supranational median voter. The main finding is that, differently from the predictions of Oates's decentralisation theorem, the assignment of responsibilities at the supranational level (centralisation) for a number of public expenditure programmes (healthcare, education, unemployment benefits) dominates (or is close to dominating) decentralisation, even in the absence of economies of scale and interregional spillovers. However, when the possibility of interjurisdictional mobility is explicitly considered, in line with the predictions of Tiebout's model, decentralisation dominance becomes more and more substantial and also prevails in the sectors where, under the nonmobility assumption, the assignment of responsibilities at the supranational level is efficient. [source]


Stakeholder perspectives on the European Union tourism policy framework and their preferences on the type of involvement

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
Constantia Anastasiadou
Abstract Despite a growing body of literature on regional trading agreements and tourism, little empirical evidence exists on how tourism policy is formulated at the supranational level. The study focuses on the European Union and employs stakeholder interviews to construct the institutional environment for tourism and to identify potential areas for involvement in tourism. Four different approaches are identified ranging from maintaining the status quo to a common tourism policy. It is concluded that because of the complexities of the institutional environment for tourism and the diversity of opinion among stakeholders, a significant change in the status quo is unlikely to happen. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Obfuscation through Integration: Legitimating ,New' Social Democracy in the European Union,

JCMS: JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES, Issue 1 2005
DAVID J. BAILEY
Social democratic parties are increasingly supportive of European integration. Existing explanations view this as either a reassertion of social democracy at the supranational level, an adaptation to contemporary political institutions, or part of a general ideological moderation. This article argues that support for the EU enables social democratic parties to proclaim the possibility of social democracy at the supranational level, despite the absence of a substantive social democratic agenda. Thus, European integration enables social democratic parties to achieve legitimation by obfuscation through integration. This is illustrated in the cases of Sweden, the UK and France. [source]


The Creation and Empowerment of the European Parliament*

JCMS: JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES, Issue 2 2003
Berthold Rittberger
Up until now we have lacked a systematic, theoretically guided explanation of why the European Union, as the only system of international governance, contains a powerful representative institution, the European Parliament, and why it has been successively empowered by national governments over the past half century. It is argued that national governments' decisions to transfer sovereignty to a new supranational level of governance triggers an imbalance between procedural and consequentialist legitimacy which political elites are fully aware of. To repair this imbalance, proposals to empower the European Parliament play a prominent though not exclusive role. Three landmark events are analysed to assess the plausibility of the advanced theory: the creation of the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, the acquisition of budgetary powers (Treaty of Luxembourg, 1970) and of legislative powers through the Single European Act (1986). [source]


EVALUATING EU POLICIES ON PUBLIC SERVICES: A CITIZENS' PERSPECTIVE

ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2010
Judith Clifton
ABSTRACT,:,This article evaluates EU policies on public services , particularly public network services , from the citizens' point of view. It is first argued that citizens' perceptions are important because the provision of fundamental services is at stake and because they constitute the infrastructure necessary for social and economic development. Citizens',voice' can, therefore, be known, analyzed and used in the design of improved policy on public services along with other indicators. Changing EU policy on public services is synthesized and classified into two main phases in section two. Citizen satisfaction with public services as revealed through surveys from 1997 to 2007 is explored in the third section. In the discussion, the prospects for EU policy on public services are considered and, it is argued that, from the perspectives of subsidiarity and proportionality, policy towards strengthening the common market is being increasingly uploaded to the supranational level in the form of directives, whilst cohesion and redistribution policies are being downloaded to the national level or dealt with at the supranational level by ,soft' instruments. [source]