Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Effect of Creating a Mental Set on Cognitive Learning and Affective Behaviors of Nursing Students

NURSING FORUM, Issue 4 2009
Loucine M. D. Huckabay RN
BACKGROUND., A mental set predisposes a person to view and approach a problem in a predetermined manner. Affective behaviors determine whether students value what they learn. PURPOSE., This study investigated the effect of mental set in the form of negative impressions and anxieties about a nursing course (pathophysiology) on cognitive learning and affective behaviors. RESULTS., Results showed that, irrespective of type of mental set, all students learned significantly. Students who entered the course with a negative set scored significantly lower in affective behaviors than students who entered with a positive or neutral mental set. Predispositions stayed stable; significant changes occurred within each group, but not enough to change a negative set into a positive set or vice versa. IMPLICATIONS., Implications for nursing education and creation of affective behaviors conducive for life-long learning are presented. [source]

Relations Among Social Support, Burnout, and Experiences of Anger: An Investigation Among Emergency Nurses

NURSING FORUM, Issue 3 2009
Müge Ersoy-Kart PhD
BACKGROUND., The aim of the present study was to determine whether social support, burnout, and anger expression are related with each other among emergency nurses working in private- or public-sector hospitals. DESIGN AND SAMPLE., The sample consisted of 100 emergency nurses working in the private or public sector in Ankara, Turkey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and The Trait-Anger and Anger Expression Scale were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS., The results demonstrated that social support did not differentiate among the nurses working in the private sector or in the public sector according to the burnout subscales' scores. However, nurses in the private sector find it more difficult to express their anger. The state-trait anger levels of the nurses differ according to the burnout levels and also according to the sector that they are working in. The congruence between this study's findings and the literature is discussed. [source]

Early and Midterm Results of an Alternative Procedure to Homografts in Primary Repair of Truncus Arteriosus Communis

Pedro Curi-Curi MD
ABSTRACT Background., Repair of truncus arteriosus communis (TAC) in the neonatal and early infant period has become a standard practice. We report our experience on primary repair of TAC with a bovine pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit as an alternative procedure to homografts, with a focus on early and midterm results. Methods., From January 2001 to December 2007, 15 patients with mean age 1.5 years (range 3 months to 8 years), underwent primary repair of simple TAC. Cases with cardiogenic shock, complex-associated cardiac lesions, or adverse anatomy of the truncal valve were excluded. The Collett and Edwards anatomical type classification of TAC was as follows: type I, 13 (87%); and type II, 2 (13%). Right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed in all the cases with a bovine pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit. Results., Overall mortality was 6.6% (1 death due to severe pulmonary hypertension). At a mean follow-up of 31 months (range 6,51), there were no deaths (5-year actuarial survival 93.4%). Out of the 14 midterm survivors, three developed stenosis of the pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit, but only one underwent interventional procedure including percutaneous balloon dilation with stenting for associated left pulmonary artery hypoplasia. The rate of patients with no surgical or percutaneous reinterventions performed because of obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in the midterm (5 years) was 86%. Conclusions., Truncus arteriosus communis repair with a bovine pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit can be performed with a very low perioperative mortality and satisfactory midterm morbidity, favorably compared with that reported for the use of homografts. Interventional cardiac catheterization may delay the time of reoperation for inevitable conduit replacement due to stenosis. [source]

Right Ventricular Function in Congenital Heart Defects Assessed by Regional Wall Motion

FSCAI, Michael R. Nihill MB
ABSTRACT Objectives., To develop a simple method to assess right ventricular function by angiography. Background., Conventional methods of evaluating right ventricular function are inaccurate, cumbersome, and expensive. Methods., We analyzed biplane right ventricular angiograms taken in the posterior,anterior and lateral projections using software to measure right ventricular volumes and regional wall motion in 78 patients with normal hearts (n = 29), atrial septal defects (ASD n = 13), pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS n = 21), and postoperative atrial switch patients (n = 15). We also measured the shortening fraction (SF) from the midtricuspid annulus to the septum and correlated various angiographic measurements with the right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction. Results., The volume-overloaded patients (ASD) had larger end diastolic volumes and increased SF compared with normal patients, while the pressure-loaded patients (PVS) had normal volumes and SF. The postoperative atrial switch patients had decreased systolic function and increased end diastolic volume. The SF for all of the patients correlated with the ejection fraction (r= 0.785, P, .0001). Conclusions., A simple measurement of the end diastolic and end systolic distance from the midtricuspid annulus to the septum (SF) provides a good index of RV function by angiography and correlates well with RV ejection fraction. [source]

Refractory Progression of Coronary Aneurysms, a Case of Delayed Onset Kawasaki Disease as Depicted by Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography

FACP, Shah Azmoon MD
ABSTRACT Background., Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-mediated vasculitis of unknown etiology with self-limited clinical course that was first described in 1967 by Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki. It is a disease of early childhood and rare past late adulthood but one that can have detrimental consequences when there is a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Cardiovascular complications causing increased morbidity and mortality may include coronary artery aneurysms, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and peripheral artery occlusion. Case Presentation., Here, we present an atypical case of delayed onset KD in a young teenager. DS had visited three different emergency departments during the course of 2 weeks for unrelenting fevers. Despite multiple treatment protocols including immunoglobulin, steroids, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, he continued to have progression of cardiovascular complications. While echocardiographic findings were suspicious for cardiac complications, a cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography was able to clearly distinguish giant coronary aneurysms. Conclusion., Without prompt therapy, fever and manifestations of acute inflammation can last for several weeks to months with increased risk toward complications. The incidence of coronary artery aneurysms has been noted to be 25% in untreated patients with a mortality rate of up to 2%. Using low-dose protocols along with high spatial and temporal resolution of cardiac CT angiography may provide a useful and complimentary imaging modality in accurate diagnosis and follow-up of patients with KD. [source]

Renal Calculi Complicating Short-term Furosemide Therapy after Congenital Heart Surgery

Sulafa K.M. Ali FRCPCH
ABSTRACT Background., Renal calcification is a known complication of Furosemide therapy. Methods., We describe 3 children who were diagnosed with renal calculi, not nephrocalcinosis, following the use of Furosemide for 4 weeks. All the infants (24, 18, and 8 months) had successful repair/palliation of congenital heart disease. The dose of Furosemide was 1,2 mg/kg/day and the duration between starting treatment and development of hematuria was 4 weeks. Results., In all 3 patients renal ultrasound confirmed the presence of renal calculi with no nephrocalcinosis. On follow-up, hematuria improved after 3,4 months. Conclusion., Renal calculi can complicate short-term Furosemide treatment in children after repair of congenital heart disease. Patients on Furosemide should be closely monitored by urine analysis and/or urine calcium/creatinine ratio for early detection of this complication. [source]

Optimal Left Ventricular Lead Position Predicts Reverse Remodeling and Survival After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

David Tepper MD
Background., A nonoptimal LV pacing lead position may be a potential cause for nonresponse to CRT. Methods., The site of latest mechanical activation was determined by speckle tracking radial strain analysis and related to the LV lead position on chest x-ray in 244 CRT candidates. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed after 6 months. Long-term follow-up included all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure. Results., Significant LV reverse remodeling (reduction in LV end-systolic volume from 189±83 mL to 134±71 mL, P<.001) was noted in the group of patients with a concordant LV lead position (n=153, 63%), whereas patients with a discordant lead position showed no significant improvements. In addition, during long-term follow-up (32±16 months), less events (combined for heart failure hospitalizations and death) were reported in patients with a concordant LV lead position. Moreover, a concordant LV lead position appeared to be an independent predictor of hospitalization-free survival after long-term CRT (hazard ratio: 0.22, P=.004). Conclusions., Pacing at the site of latest mechanical activation, as determined by speckle tracking radial strain analysis, resulted in superior echocardiographic response after 6 months of CRT and better prognosis during long-term follow-up. [source]

Research Submission: Chronic Headache and Comorbibities: A Two-Phase, Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
Ariovaldo Da Silva Jr MD
Background., Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. Objectives., To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. Methods., This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. Results., A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. Conclusions., The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers. (Headache 2010;50:1306-1312) [source]

Research Submission: Mixture Analysis of Age at Onset in Migraine Without Aura: Evidence for Three Subgroups

HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
Carlo Asuni MD
(Headache 2010;50:1313-1319) Objective. , To verify the presence of different age at onset (AAO) subgroups of patients in a sample of patients with migraine without aura (MWA) and compare clinical correlates among them. Background., MWA is a long-lasting disease whose prognosis has not yet been fully investigated. Patients may present complete remission, partial clinical remission, persistence and progression (migraine attack frequency and disability may increase over time leading to chronic migraine). Limited evidence exists regarding the identification of risk factors or predictors which might influence migraine prognosis. AAO has been proven a useful tool in the investigation of the clinical, biological, and genetic characteristics able to influence the prognosis of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. AAO distribution was studied using mixture analysis, a statistical approach that breaks down the empirical AAO distribution observed into a mixture of normal components. Methods., A sample of 334 outpatients affected by MWA, recruited in a clinical genetic study at our Headache Center from 2004 to 2008, was enrolled for this study. Diagnosis was made according to International Headache Society criteria 2004. AAO distribution in patients was studied using mixture analysis. Chi-square test was used to compare clinical correlates among identified subgroups. Logistic regression was performed in order to correct for effect of possible confounders. Results., Mixture analysis broke up the observed distribution of AAO into 3 normal theoretical distributions. Informational criteria clearly showed a better 3-component model rather than the 2-component one. An early-onset (,7 years of age), an intermediate-onset (,8 and ,22), and a late-onset group (,23) were identified. Comparison of clinical correlates among subgroups by means of chi-square test showed a statistically significant result for migraine frequency (,2 = 7.41, P = .02). Considering the frequency of migraine attacks as a main outcome, the regression model showed a higher AAO is associated with low frequency (odds ratio = 0.95; P = .02). Conclusions., The significant association between AAO and attack frequency found in our study supports the hypothesis that AAO could act as a predictor factor able to influence prognosis. AAO could represent a phenotype suitable for identifying MWA susceptibility genes. [source]

Brief Communications: An Analysis of Migraine Triggers in a Clinic-Based Population

HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
Diane Andress-Rothrock MS
Background., Many migraineurs report attack "triggers," but relatively few published data exist regarding the relative prevalences of individual triggers, variations related to gender, duration of migraine or migraine subtype, or the existence of any regional variations in the prevalences and distributions of triggers. Objective., We sought to determine the prevalence and types of migraine triggers in our clinic population, to determine what influence gender, migraine subtype, or duration of migraine might have on the prevalences and types of triggers reported and to compare our findings with data derived from surveys we previously had conducted involving 2 clinic-based populations and 1 general population sample from other regions of the USA. Methods., We evaluated 200 consecutive new migraine patients referred to our clinic. All patients specifically were queried as to whether they had noted any of 7 specific factors to serve consistently as migraine attack triggers and additionally were surveyed as to whether they might have "other" triggers not listed on the intake questionnaire. Among the other data collected and analyzed were age, gender, age at time of migraine onset, and migraine subtype (ie, episodic vs chronic). Actively cycling females who reported menses as a trigger were questioned as to whether their menstrual migraine (MM) attacks differed from their non-menstrual migraines and, if so, how they differed. Results., One hundred and eighty-two patients (91%) reported at least 1 migraine trigger, and 165 (82.5%) reported multiple triggers. The most common trigger reported (59%) was "emotional stress," followed by "too much or little sleep" (53.5%), "odors" (46.5%), and "missing meals" (39%). Females or subjects of either gender with chronic migraine were no more likely than males or subjects with episodic migraine to report triggers or multiple triggers. Similarly, longer exposure to migraine did not correlate with a higher likelihood of reporting a trigger or multiple triggers. Fifty-three (62%) of 85 actively cycling females reported menses as a trigger, and of the 51 with menstrually related migraine, 34 (67%) reported their MM to be more severe, more refractory to symptomatic therapy or of longer duration than their non-menstrual attacks; 13 (24.5%) of the 53 women with apparent MM reported their MM to be at least occasionally manifested as status migrainosus. The prevalence and type of triggers reported by this predominantly white female population were similar to those reported by clinic-based populations in San Diego, California and Mobile, Alabama, and in a population-based sample of Hispanics in San Diego County. Conclusions., A large majority of migraineurs report migraine attack triggers, and the triggers most commonly reported include emotional stress, a disrupted sleep pattern, and various odors. These findings do not appear to vary according to geographic region or race/ethnicity. Among the triggers, MM appears inclined to provoke headache that is more severe, less amenable to treatment, or longer in duration than headaches that occur at other times during the cycle. (Headache 2010;50:1366-1370) [source]

Orthostatic Headaches in the Syndrome of the Trephined: Resolution Following Cranioplasty

HEADACHE, Issue 7 2010
Bahram Mokri MD
Objective., To draw attention to the syndrome of the trephined as a potential cause for orthostatic headaches without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Background., Orthostatic headaches typically result from CSF leaks but sometimes may occur in conditions without any evidence of CSF leakage. Methods., A 37-year-old right-handed woman became comatose after a motor vehicle accident with cerebral contusions and massive left cerebral edema. A large frontoparietal craniectomy was carried out. In 5 months, she made good neurologic recovery. Freeze-preserved bone flap was placed back. In several weeks she was functionally near normal. Two years later, she began to complain of orthostatic headache and gradually additional manifestations appeared including progressive gait unsteadiness, imprecise speech, cognitive difficulties, and an increasing left hemiparesis along with progressive sinking of the skull defect and shift of the midline and ventricular distortion. She underwent removal of resorptive sinking bone flap and construction of an acrylic cranioplasty. Results., At 6-month follow-up, there was complete resolution of the orthostatic headaches, remarkable neurologic improvement along with resolution of midline shift and ventricular distortion. Conclusion., The syndrome of the trephined is yet another cause of orthostatic headaches without CSF leak. [source]

Shorter Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Cells Associated With Migraine in Women

HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
Hua Ren PhD
(Headache 2010;50:965-972) Objective., To evaluate relative telomere length of female migraine patients. Background., Migraine is a debilitating disorder affecting 6-28% of the population. Studies on the mechanisms of migraine have demonstrated genetic causes but the pathophysiology and subcellular effects of the disease remain poorly understood. Shortened telomere length is associated with age-related or chronic diseases, and induced stresses. Migraine attacks may impart significant stress on cellular function, thus this study investigates a correlation between shortening of telomeres and migraine. Methods., Relative telomere length was measured using a previously described quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. A regression analysis was performed to assess differences in mean relative telomere length between migraine patients and healthy controls. Results., The leukocyte telomeres of a cohort of 142 Caucasian female migraine subjects aged 18-77 years and 143 matched 17-77-year-old healthy control Caucasian women were examined. A significantly shorter relative telomere length was observed in the migraine group compared with the control group after adjusting for age and body mass index (P = .001). In addition, age of onset was observed to associate with the loss of relative telomere length, especially at early age of onset (<17 years old). No association was observed between relative telomere length and the severity and frequency of migraine attacks and the duration of migraine. Conclusion., Telomeres are shorter in migraine patients and there is more variation in telomere length in migraine patients. [source]

Suboccipital Nerve Blocks for Suppression of Chronic Migraine: Safety, Efficacy, and Predictors of Outcome

HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
Silvia Weibelt RN
(Headache 2010;50:1041-1044) Background., Approximately 1 in 50 Americans is afflicted by chronic migraine (CM). Many patients with CM describe cervicogenic headache. Options for treating CM effectively are at present quite limited. Objective., To determine the safety and efficacy of occipital nerve blocks (ONBs) used to treat cervicogenic chronic migraine (CCM) and to identify variables predictive of a positive treatment response. Methods., Using a uniform dose and injection paradigm, we performed ONBs consecutively on a series of patients presenting with CCM. Patients were stratified according to specific findings found to be present or absent on physical examination. A positive treatment outcome was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days per month over the 30 days following treatment relative to the 30-day pre-treatment baseline. We used a 5-point Likert scale as one of the secondary outcome variables. Results., We treated 150 consecutive patients with unilateral (37) or bilateral (113) ONBs. At the 1-month follow-up visit 78 (52%) exhibited evidence of a positive treatment response according to the primary outcome variable, and 90 (60%) reported their headache disorder to be "better" (44; 29%) or "much better" (46; 30%). A total of 8 (5%) patients reported adverse events within the ensuing 72 hours, and 3 (2%) experienced adverse events that reversed spontaneously but required emergent evaluation and management. Conclusion., For suppression of CCM, ONBs may offer an attractive alternative to orally administered prophylactic therapy. [source]

Brain Apparent Water Diffusion Coefficient Magnetic Resonance Image During a Prolonged Visual Aura

HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
Robert Belvís MD
(Headache 2010;50:1045-1049) Background., Reversible changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) weighted in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent water diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps have been reported in acute stroke, epilepsy, eclampsia, and hypoglycemia, but they are contradictory regarding to migraine aura. Objective., A 41-year-old woman with known basilar migraine for 5 years consulted about a persistent visual aura (visual snow phenomenon) plus bilateral paresthesias in the extremities for 4 days. The headache was treated with success with 10 mg of wafer rizatriptan and 600 mg of ibuprophen. Methods., The neurologic and ophthalmologic examination were normal. An urgent brain MRI detected no lesions in T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and DWI, but an abnormal signal appeared in the left occipital lobe in ADC and (r)ADC maps. The brain MRI angiography, carotid ultrasound study, transesophageal echocardiography, 24-hour cardiac Holter monitoring, and thrombophilia study were normal. Results., A new brain MRI 8 days after did not show any previous lesion in the same sequences. Conclusions., We present a patient with migraine and transitory abnormal signals in the ADC map of an occipital region during persistent visual aura. The clinical-radiological relationship is congruent. Some similar cases have showed these MRI signals during the aura, suggesting cytotoxic edema, without ischemic lesions in the MRI controls. Theses ADC images probably appear in complex auras. [source]

Headache Triggers in the US Military

HEADACHE, Issue 5 2010
Brett J. Theeler MD
(Headache 2010;50:790-794) Background., Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. Objective., The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. Methods., A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. Results., A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Conclusion., Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military. [source]

MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I Polymorphisms in Migraine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2010
Markus Schürks MD
(Headache 2010;50:588-599) Background., Data on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I polymorphisms and migraine including aura status are conflicting. Objective., The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on this topic. Methods., We searched for studies published until March 2009 using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index) and reference lists of studies and reviews on the topic. Assessment for eligibility of studies and extraction of data was performed by 2 independent investigators. For each study we calculated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) assuming additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. We then calculated pooled ORs and 95% CIs. Results., Thirteen studies investigated the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and migraine. The TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for any migraine, which only appeared for migraine with aura (pooled OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.13), but not for migraine without aura. Nine studies investigated the association of the ACE D/I polymorphism with migraine. The II genotype was associated with a reduced risk for migraine with aura (pooled OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.93) and migraine without aura (pooled OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Results for both variants were driven by studies in non-Caucasian populations. Results among Caucasians did not suggest an association. Extractable data did not allow investigation of gene,gene interactions. Conslusions., The MTHFR 677TT genotype is associated with an increased risk for migraine with aura, while the ACE II genotype is protective against both migraine with and without aura. Results for both variants appeared only among non-Caucasian populations. There was no association among Caucasians. [source]

Migraine Education Improves Quality of Life in a Primary Care Setting

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2010
Timothy R. Smith MD
(Headache 2010;50:600-612) Objective., The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mercy Migraine Management Program (MMMP), an educational program for physicians and patients. The primary outcome was change in headache days from baseline at 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were changes in migraine-related disability and quality of life, worry about headaches, self-efficacy for managing migraines, emergency room (ER) visits for headache, and satisfaction with headache care. Background., Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine and development of effective therapeutic agents, many practitioners and patients continue to lack the knowledge and skills to effectively manage migraine. Educational efforts have been helpful in improving the quality of care and quality of life for migraine sufferers. However, little work has been performed to evaluate these changes over a longer period of time. Also, there is a paucity of published research evaluating the influence of education about migraine management on cognitive and emotional factors (for example, self-efficacy for managing headaches, worry about headaches). Methods., In this open-label, prospective study, 284 individuals with migraine (92% female, mean age = 41.6) participated in the MMMP, an educational and skills-based program. Of the 284 who participated in the program, 228 (80%) provided data about their headache frequency, headache-related disability (as measured by the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6), migraine-specific quality of life (MSQ), worry about headaches, self-efficacy for managing headaches, ER visits for headaches, and satisfaction with care at 4 time points over 12 months (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months). Results., Overall, 46% (106) of subjects reported a 50% or greater reduction in headache frequency. Over 12 months, patients reported fewer headaches and improvement on the HIT-6 and MSQ (all P < .001). The improvement in headache impact and quality of life was greater among those who had more worry about their headaches at baseline. There were also significant improvements in "worry about headaches,""self-efficacy for managing headaches," and "satisfaction with headache care." Conclusion., The findings demonstrate that patients participating in the MMMP reported improvements in their headache frequency as well as the cognitive and emotional aspects of headache management. This program was especially helpful among those with high amounts of worry about their headaches at the beginning of the program. The findings from this study are impetus for further research that will more clearly evaluate the effects of education and skill development on headache characteristics and the emotional and cognitive factors that influence headache. [source]

No Influence of 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism on Migraine Symptomatology, Comorbid Depression, and Chronification

HEADACHE, Issue 3 2010
Thomas Wieser MD
(Headache 2010;50:420-430) Background., The serotonergic system is thought to play an important role for mediating susceptibility to migraine and depression, which is frequently found comorbid in migraine. The functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR/SLC6A4) was previously associated with attack frequency and, thus, possibly with chronification. Objective., We hypothesized that patients with the "s" allele have higher attack frequency and, paralleling results in depression research, higher scores of depression. Methods., Genetic analysis of the SLC6A4 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) was performed in 293 patients with migraine with and without aura. Self-rating questionnaires were used for assessment of depression. Results., Multinomial logistic regression analysis found no evidence for association of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with either depression or migraine attack frequency. Conclusion., We were not able to demonstrate any influence of the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on migraine phenomenology (attack frequency or comorbid depression), thereby excluding this variant to be a common genetic denominator for chronic migraine and depression. [source]

Nitric Oxide-Induced Changes in Endothelial Expression of Phosphodiesterases 2, 3, and 5

HEADACHE, Issue 3 2010
Christoph J. Schankin MD
(Headache 2010;50:431-441) Objective., To investigate nitric oxide (NO)-mediated changes in expression of cyclic nucleotide degrading phosphodiesterases 2A (PDE2A), PDE3B, and PDE5A in human endothelial cells. Background., Nitric oxide induces production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which along with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is degraded by PDEs. NO donors and selective inhibitors of PDE3 and PDE5 induce migraine-like headache and play a role in endothelial dysfunction during stroke. The current study investigates possible NO modulation of cGMP-related PDEs relevant to headache induction in a cell line containing such PDEs. Methods., Real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were used to show expression of PDE2A, PDE3B, and PDE5A in a stable cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Effects of NO on PDE expression were analyzed at specific time intervals after continued DETA NONOate administration. Results., This study shows the expression of PDE2A, PDE3B, and PDE5A mRNA and PDE3B and PDE5A protein in human cerebral endothelial cells. Long-term DETA NONOate administration induced an immediate mRNA up-regulation of PDE5A (1.9-fold, 0.5 hour), an early peak of PDE2A (1.4-fold, 1 and 2 hours) and later up-regulation of both PDE3B (1.6-fold, 4 hours) and PDE2A (1.7-fold, 8 hours and 1.2-fold after 24 hours). Such changes were, however, not translated into significant changes in protein expression indicating few, if any, functional effects. Conclusions., Long-term NO stimulation modulated PDE3 and PDE5 mRNA expression in endothelial cells. However, PDE3 and PDE5 protein levels were unaffected by NO. The presence of PDE3 or PDE5 in endothelial cells indicates that selective inhibitors may have functional effects in such cells. A complex interaction of cGMP and cAMP in response to NO administration may take place if the mRNA translates into active protein. Whether or not this plays a role in the headache mechanisms remains to be investigated. [source]

Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Contact Point Headache and Diagnostic Criteria

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
Alireza Mohebbi MD
(Headache 2010;50:242-248) Background., Some types of headaches with sinonasal origin may be present in the absence of inflammation and infection. The contact points between the lateral nasal wall and the septum could be the cause of triggering and sustained pain via trigeminovascular system. Objective., The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endoscopic surgery in the sinonasal region for treatment of headache with special attention paid to specific diagnostic methods and patient selection. Methods., This was a prospective, non-randomized and semi-quasi experimental research study. Thirty-six patients with chronic headaches who had not previously responded to conventional treatments were evaluated by rhinoscopy and/or endoscopy, local anesthetic tests and computed tomography scans as diagnostic criteria. These patients were divided into 4 groups based on the diagnostic methods utilized. The intensity of headaches pre- and post-operatively were recorded by utilizing the visual analog scale scale and performing analysis with analysis of variance test comparison and Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Average follow-up was 30 months. Results., Our overall success rate approximated 83% while the complete cure rate was 11%. Patients in group 4 achieved the best results. In this group all diagnostic criteria were positive. In addition, patient responses were statistically significant in groups with more than one positive criteria compared with group 1 who only had positive examination. The positive response of 14 migrainous patients diagnosed with migraine prior to treatment was 64%. Conclusion., Surgery in specific cases of headaches with more positive evidence of contact point could be successful, particularly if medical therapy has failed. [source]

Subcutaneous Sumatriptan Pharmacokinetics: Delimiting the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Effect

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
Anthony W. Fox
(Headache 2010;50:249-255) Background., The absolute bioavailability of subcutaneous (s.c.) sumatriptan is 96-100%. The decay curve for plasma concentration after 6 mg s.c. sumatriptan (ie, after Tmax = about 0.2 hours) includes a large distribution component. Metabolism by monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) leads to about 40% of the s.c. dose appearing in the urine as the inactive indole acetic acid. Product labeling states that co-administration of an inhibitor of MAO-A (a MAOI-A) causes a 2-fold increase in sumatriptan plasma concentrations, and a 40% increase in elimination half-life. Objective., The objective of this study is to determine whether MAOI-A therapy should deter the use of 6 mg s.c. sumatriptan on pharmacokinetic grounds. Methods., Summary pharmacokinetic data were taken from the literature and from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) study C92-050. Half-times were converted into rate constants, which were then used in a parsimonious compartmental model (needing only 3 simultaneous differential equations). Acceptance criteria for the model included observed plasma sumatriptan concentrations at Tmax, 1, 2, and 10 hours post-dose. A set of 1000 concentration measurements at a resolution of 36 seconds was generated. The model was then perturbed with elimination constants observed during concomitant moclobemide administration, creating a second set of concentration measurements. The 2 sets were then plotted, examined for their differences, and integrated for a second time to obtain and compare areas under the curve (AUCs). Results., The greatest absolute difference between the 2 sets of measurements was 2.85 ng/mL at t = 2.95 hours. A 2-fold difference between the 2 sets occurred only after t = 5.96 hours, when the concentration in the presence of the MAOI-A was 3.72 ng/mL (or <4% of Cmax). At t = 10 hours, the concentrations in both sets were <1 ng/mL (ie, below the lower limit of assay quantitation), and AUC0-10h was 97.4 and 117 ng.hour/mL in the absence and presence of the MAOI-A. Conclusions., There are no pharmacokinetic grounds to deter co-administration of an MAOI-A and subcutaneous sumatriptan. The dominance of the distribution phase and completeness of absorption of a 6 mg dose of s.c. sumatriptan explains the trivial effect size of the MAOI-A on plasma sumatriptan concentrations. Importantly, these findings should not be extrapolated to other routes of administration for sumatriptan. [source]

Childhood Maltreatment and Migraine (Part II).

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2010
Emotional Abuse as a Risk Factor for Headache Chronification
(Headache 2010;50:32-41) Objectives., To assess in a headache clinic population the relationship of childhood abuse and neglect with migraine characteristics, including type, frequency, disability, allodynia, and age of migraine onset. Background., Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and has been associated with recurrent headache. Maltreatment is associated with many of the same risk factors for migraine chronification, including depression and anxiety, female sex, substance abuse, and obesity. Methods., Electronic surveys were completed by patients seeking treatment in headache clinics at 11 centers across the United States and Canada. Physician-determined data for all participants included the primary headache diagnoses based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria, average monthly headache frequency, whether headaches transformed from episodic to chronic, and if headaches were continuous. Analysis includes all persons with migraine with aura, and migraine without aura. Questionnaire collected information on demographics, social history, age at onset of headaches, migraine-associated allodynic symptoms, headache-related disability (The Headache Impact Test-6), current depression (The Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and current anxiety (The Beck Anxiety Inventory). History and severity of childhood (<18 years) abuse (sexual, emotional, and physical) and neglect (emotional and physical) was gathered using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results., A total of 1348 migraineurs (88% women) were included (mean age 41 years). Diagnosis of migraine with aura was recorded in 40% and chronic headache (,15 days/month) was reported by 34%. Transformation from episodic to chronic was reported by 26%. Prevalence of current depression was 28% and anxiety was 56%. Childhood maltreatment was reported as follows: physical abuse 21%, sexual abuse 25%, emotional abuse 38%, physical neglect 22%, and emotional neglect 38%. In univariate analyses, physical abuse and emotional abuse and neglect were significantly associated with chronic migraine and transformed migraine. Emotional abuse was also associated with continuous daily headache, severe headache-related disability, and migraine-associated allodynia. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and current depression and anxiety, there remained an association between emotional abuse in childhood and both chronic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.19-2.62) and transformed migraine (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.25-2.85). Childhood emotional abuse was also associated with younger median age of headache onset (16 years vs 19 years, P = .0002). Conclusion., Our findings suggest that physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect may be risk factors for development of chronic headache, including transformed migraine. The association of maltreatment and headache frequency appears to be independent of depression and anxiety, which are related to both childhood abuse and chronic daily headache. The finding that emotional abuse was associated with an earlier age of migraine onset may have implications for the role of stress responses in migraine pathophysiology. [source]

Increased Dopamine Is Associated With the cGMP and Homocysteine Pathway in Female Migraineurs

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2010
Hans-Jürgen Gruber PhD
(Headache 2010;50:109-116) Background., The group of catecholamines, which include dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, are neurotransmitters which have been considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine. However, the impact of catecholamines, especially dopamine on migraine as well as the exact mechanisms is not clear to date as previous studies have yielded in part conflicting results. Objective., This study aimed to produce a comprehensive examination of dopamine in migraineurs. Methods., Catecholamines and various parameters of the homocysteine, folate, and iron metabolism as well as cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and inflammatory markers were determined in 135 subjects. Results., We found increased dopamine levels in the headache free period in female migraineurs but not in male patients. Increased dopamine is associated with a 3.30-fold higher risk for migraine in women. We found no significant effects of aura symptoms or menstrual cycle phases on dopamine levels. Dopamine is strongly correlated with cGMP and the homocysteine,folate pathway. Conclusion., We show here that female migraineurs exhibit increased dopamine levels in the headache free period which are associated with a higher risk for migraine. [source]

A Double-Blind Comparison of OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) and Topiramate (TOPAMAX®) for the Prophylactic Treatment of Chronic Migraine: A Pilot Study

HEADACHE, Issue 10 2009
Ninan T. Mathew MD
Background., There is a need for effective prophylactic therapy for chronic migraine (CM) that has minimal side effects. Objective., To compare the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) and topiramate (TOPAMAX®, Ortho-McNeil, Titusville, NJ) prophylactic treatment in patients with CM. Methods., In this single-center, double-blind trial, patients with CM received either onabotulinumtoxinA, maximum 200 units (U) at baseline and month 3 (100 U fixed-site and 100 U follow-the-pain), plus an oral placebo, or topiramate, 4-week titration to 100 mg/day with option for additional 4-week titration to 200 mg/day, plus placebo saline injections. OnabotulinumtoxinA or placebo saline injection was administered at baseline and month 3 only, while topiramate oral treatment or oral placebo was continued through the end of the study. The primary endpoint was treatment responder rate assessed using Physician Global Assessment 9-point scale (+4 = clearance of signs and symptoms and ,4 = very marked worsening [about 100% worse]). Secondary endpoints included the change from baseline in the number of headache (HA)/migraine days per month (HA diary), and HA disability measured using Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), HA diary, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, and Migraine Impact Questionnaire (MIQ). The overall study duration was approximately 10.5 months, which included a 4-week screening period and a 2-week optional final safety visit. Follow-up visits for assessments occurred at months 1, 3, 6, and 9. Adverse events (AEs) were documented. Results., Of 60 patients randomized to treatment (mean age, 36.8 ± 10.3 years; 90% female), 36 completed the study at the end of the 9 months of active treatment (onabotulinumtoxinA, 19/30 [63.3%]; topiramate, 17/30 [56.7%]). In the topiramate group, 7/29 (24.1%) discontinued study because of treatment-related AEs vs 2/26 (7.7%) in the onabotulinumtoxinA group. Between 68% and 83% of patients for both onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate groups reported at least a slight (25%) improvement in migraine; response to treatment was assessed using Physician Global Assessment at months 1, 3, 6, and 9. Most patients in both groups reported moderate to marked improvements at all time points. No significant between-group differences were observed, except for marked improvement at month 9 (onabotulinumtoxinA, 27.3% vs topiramate, 60.9%, P = .0234, chi-square). In both groups, HA/migraine days decreased and MIDAS and HIT-6 scores improved. Patient-reported quality of life measures assessed using MIQ after treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA paralleled those seen after treatment with topiramate in most respects. At month 9, 40.9% and 42.9% of patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate groups, respectively, reported ,50% reduction in HA/migraine days. Forty-one treatment-related AEs were reported in 18 onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients vs 87 in 25 topiramate-treated patients, and 2.7% of patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA group and 24.1% of patients in the topiramate group reported AEs that required permanent discontinuation of study treatment. Conclusions., OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate demonstrated similar efficacy in the prophylactic treatment of CM. Patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA had fewer AEs and discontinuations. [source]

Middle Meningeal Artery Dilatation in Migraine

HEADACHE, Issue 10 2009
Dip MFOS, Elliot Shevel BDS, MB BCh
Objective., To show that migraine pain is not related to dilatation of the dural meningeal arteries. Background., The origin of the pain in migraine has not yet been adequately explained and remains the subject of vigorous debate. Current theories implicate changes in the trigeminovascular system, which is defined as comprising the large intracranial vessels, and in particular, the dural meningeal vessels, the dura mater, and their neural connections. Methods., The anatomical relationships of the dural meningeal arteries to the dura mater and the inner surface of the calvarium are described. Results., The dural meningeal arteries lie in grooves in the inner table of the calvarium, are encased in the unyielding fibrous dura mater, and are consequently unable to dilate. Conclusion., The pain of migraine is not related to dilatation of the dural meningeal arteries. [source]

Allodynia in Migraine: Association With Comorbid Pain Conditions

HEADACHE, Issue 9 2009
Gretchen E. Tietjen MD
Background., Cutaneous allodynia (CA) in migraine is a clinical manifestation of central nervous system sensitization. Several chronic pain syndromes and mood disorders are comorbid with migraine. In this study we examine the relationship of migraine-associated CA with these comorbid conditions. We also evaluate the association of CA with factors such as demographic profiles, migraine characteristics, and smoking status that may have an influence on the relationships of CA to pain and mood. Methods., Data are from a cross-sectional multicenter study of comorbid conditions in persons seeking treatment in headache clinics. Diagnosis of migraine was determined by a physician based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographics, migraine-associated allodynia, physician-diagnosed comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, headache-related disability, current depression, and anxiety. Results., A total of 1413 migraineurs (mean age = 42 years, 89% women) from 11 different headache treatment centers completed a survey on the prevalence of comorbid conditions. Aura was reported by 38% and chronic headache by 35% of the participants. Sixty percent of the study population reported at least one migraine-related allodynic symptom, 10% reported ,4 symptoms. Symptoms of CA were associated with female gender, body mass index, current smoking, presence of aura, chronic headaches, transformed headaches, severe headache-related disability, and duration of migraine illness from onset. The prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosis of comorbid pain conditions (irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia) and psychiatric conditions (current depression and anxiety) was also associated with symptoms of CA. Adjusted ordinal regression indicated a significant association between number of pain conditions and severity of CA (based on symptom count). Adjusting for sociodemographics, migraine characteristics, and current depression and anxiety, the likelihood of reporting symptoms of severe allodynia was much higher in those with 3 or more pain conditions (odds ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.78-5.17), and 2 pain conditions (odds ratio = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.78-4.01) when compared with those with no comorbid pain condition. Conclusion., Symptoms of CA in migraine were associated with current anxiety, depression, and several chronic pain conditions. A graded relationship was observed between number of allodynic symptoms and the number of pain conditions, even after adjusting for confounding factors. This study also presents the novel association of CA symptoms with younger age of migraine onset, and with cigarette smoking, in addition to confirming several previously reported findings. [source]

Topiramate Treatment of Chronic Migraine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Quality of Life and Other Efficacy Measures

HEADACHE, Issue 8 2009
Stephen Silberstein MD
Objective., To define yet more clearly the utility of topiramate in the treatment of chronic migraine, we evaluated prespecified secondary endpoints from a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Background., We previously reported that topiramate 100 mg per day produced a statistically significant reduction in mean monthly migraine/migrainous and migraine headache days compared with placebo treatment and that it was safe and generally well tolerated. Methods., Variables analyzed included between-treatment group differences in percent responders, change in the mean monthly rate of total headache days and headache-free days, change in average and worst daily headache severity, change in the mean monthly use of acute headache medications, and absolute change and percent change in a headache index. Additional analyses included evaluation of changes in: the associated symptoms of photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea; Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire scores; Migraine Disability Assessment Scale scores; and Physician's and Subjects Global Impression of Change. Results., The intent-to-treat population consisted of 306 patients (topiramate, n = 153; placebo, n = 153). Categorical responder rates of reductions in mean monthly migraine/migrainous days for topiramate- vs placebo-treated subjects were as follows: for ,25% reduction: 68.6% vs 51.6% (P = .005); ,50%: 37.3% vs 28.8% (P = .093); and ,75%: 15.0% vs 9.2% (P = .061). The decrease in mean monthly total headache days and headache-free days for topiramate vs placebo treatment was 5.8 vs 4.7 days (P = .067). Compared with placebo, topiramate treatment resulted in statistically significant mean improvements in the Role Restrictive (P = .028) and Emotional Function (P = .036) domains of the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, in the worst daily severity of migraine (P = .016), severity of photophobia (P = .032), frequency of vomiting (P = .018), photophobia (P = .038), phonophobia (P = .010), unilateral pain (P = .015), pulsatile pain (P = .023), and pain worsened because of physical activity (P = .047). In addition, there were trends observed (favoring topiramate) in average daily severity of migraine (P = .077), acute headache medication use (P = .127), severity of nausea (P = .098), frequency of nausea (P = .166), the Role Preventive domain of the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (P = .061), and severity of phonophobia (P = .062). Conclusions., In addition to significantly reducing mean monthly migraine/migrainous and migraine headache days, treatment of chronic migraine with topiramate was effective with regard to several traditionally important and clinically relevant secondary outcomes in migraine prevention trials. Treatment with topiramate was well tolerated and not associated with serious adverse events. [source]

Migraine Among University Students in Cotonou (Benin)

HEADACHE, Issue 6 2009
Thierry Adoukonou MD
Background., Few data are available on migraine among students in Africa. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of migraine and describe its clinical features and associated conditions among students of the Faculty of Health Sciences of Abomey-Calavi University, in Cotonou, Benin. Methods., A cross-sectional study was prospectively conducted during the academic year 2002-2003 and included 336 students selected using systematic random sampling. Migraine was defined according International Headache Society criteria 1988. Results., The lifetime prevalence of migraine was 11.3% (95% CI: 8.2-15.3%). The prevalence was significantly higher in females (18.3%) than males (6.8%), in married-widowed (30.4%) than single (9.9%). The mean age at onset of the disease was 15.0 years ± 2.5. Migraine without aura was the more frequent form (57.9%). The mean attack frequency per month was 3.8 (±3.4) and the peak attack duration was between 4 and 6 hours. Psychological tiredness was the most frequent triggering factors (92.1%). The factors associated with migraine in multivariate analysis were female sex (OR = 2.6 [95% CI: 1.2-5.3]), single marital status (OR = 3.7 [95% CI: 1.2-11.9]) and presence of a family history of headache (OR = 2.9 [95% CI: 1.0-8.1]) Conclusion., Migraine was frequent in students in Cotonou (Benin) compared with other studies in Africa. [source]

Supraspinal Modulation of Trigeminal Nociception and Pain

HEADACHE, Issue 5 2009
Amy E. Williams MA
Objective., This study examined modulation of trigeminal pain/nociception by 2 supraspinal mechanisms: emotional controls of nociception and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls. Background., Prior research suggests emotional picture viewing (emotional controls) and tonic noxious stimuli (diffuse noxious inhibitory controls) engage supraspinal mechanisms to modulate pain and nociceptive processes. It is currently unknown, however, whether emotional controls modulate trigeminal pain and nociception. Additionally, the influences of emotional controls and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls have not been compared in the same group of participants. Methods., Noxious electrodermal stimuli were delivered to the trigeminal nerve using a concentric electrode designed to selectively activate nociceptive fibers. Trigeminal nociception and pain were assessed (34 participants) from the nociceptive blink reflex and pain ratings, respectively. Emotional controls were engaged by presentation of standardized picture stimuli (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) shown to reliably evoke pleasure-induced inhibition and displeasure-induced facilitation of pain and nociception. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were engaged with a forearm ischemia task. Results., Trigeminal pain (self-report ratings) and nociception (blinks) were facilitated by unpleasant pictures and inhibited by pleasant pictures. Emotion induction (as assessed from trend analysis) explained 51% of the variance in trigeminal pain and 25% of the variance in trigeminal nociception. Additionally, forearm ischemia inhibited trigeminal pain but not nociception. The baseline vs ischemia comparison explained 17% of the variance in pain report and 0.1% of the variance in blinks. Supraspinal modulation by emotional controls and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were uncorrelated. Conclusions., Emotional controls and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls modulated trigeminal pain and emotional controls modulated trigeminal nociception. These procedures can be used to study supraspinal modulation of nociceptive processing in disorders of the trigeminal pain system, including headache. [source]

Comprehensive Inpatient Treatment of Refractory Chronic Daily Headache

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2009
Alvin E. Lake III PhD
Objective., (1) To assess outcome at discharge for a consecutive series of admissions to a comprehensive, multidisciplinary inpatient headache unit; (2) To identify outcome predictors. Background., An evidence-based assessment (2004) concluded that many refractory headache patients appear to benefit from inpatient treatment, underscoring the need for more research, including outcome predictors. Methods., The authors completed a retrospective chart review of 283 consecutive admissions over 6 months. The inpatient program (mean length of stay = 13.0 days) included intravenous and oral medication protocols, drug withdrawal when indicated, cognitive-behavior therapy, and other services when needed, including anesthesiological intervention. Patient-reported pain levels and consensus of medical staff determined outcome status. Results., The 267 completers (94%) included 212 women and 55 men (mean age = 40.3 years, range = 13-74) from 43 states and Canada. The modal diagnosis was intractable, chronic daily headache (85%), predominantly migraine. Most (59%) had medication overuse headache (MOH), involving opioids (48%), triptans (16%), or butalbital-containing analgesics (10%). Psychiatric diagnoses included stress-related headache (82%), mood disorders (70%), anxiety disorders (49%), and personality disorders (PD, 26%). More patients with a PD (62%) had opioid-related MOH than those with no PD (38%), P < .005. Of the completers, 78% had moderate to significant pain reduction, with comparable improvement in mood, function, and behavior. Clinical factors predicting moderate-significant headache improvement were limited to MOH (84% vs 69%, P < .007) and presence of a PD (68% vs 81%, P < .03). Conclusions., Most patients (78%) improved following aggressive, comprehensive inpatient treatment. Maintenance of improvement is likely to depend on multiple post-discharge factors, including continuity of care, compliance, and home or work environment. [source]