Background Little (background + little)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pediculosis capitis in northern Jordan

Zuhair S. Amr BSc
Background Little is known about the prevalence of pediculosis among school students in northern Jordan. Objective To study the incidence of pediculosis among school students of different socio-economic levels in northern Jordan. Method A total of 2519 school students of both sexes enrolled in eight elementary governmental schools were examined for the presence of Pediculus capitis. Schools were grouped into four socio-economic classes: very low (VL), low (L), medium (M), and high (H). The chi-squared test was performed to analyze the results. Results Overall, 338 students (13.4%) were infested with nits, immature or adult P. capitis. Girls showed a higher prevalence (14.5%) than boys (11.1%). Statistical analysis for socio-economic classes and infestation rates yielded a significant effect of the four classes on infestation. This conclusion was evident among schoolgirls, where infestation rates were 28.8%, 18.9%, 6.1%, and 0.2% in VL, L, M, and H socio-economic classes, respectively. Schoolchildren in the age group 8,9 years exhibited higher prevalence rates (16% in boys and 22.1% in girls), while prevalences declined to 10.2% and 6.6% among boys and girls aged 10,12 years, respectively. Conclusions This study reveals that socio-economic status is a major factor influencing the occurrence of pediculosis among school students of both sexes in Jordan. A national campaign should be implemented to enhance public awareness. [source]

Factors predicting mortality in midlife adults with and without Down syndrome living with family

A. J. Esbensen
Abstract Background Little is known about the mortality of individuals with Down syndrome who have lived at home with their families throughout their lives. The current study evaluates the predictors, causes and patterns of mortality among co-residing individuals in midlife with Down syndrome as compared with co-residing individuals with ID owing to other causes. Method This paper examines mortality in 169 individuals with and 292 individuals without Down syndrome from 1988 to 2007. Dates and causes of death were obtained from maternal report, the Social Security Death Index and the National Death Index. Risk factors predicting mortality, including demographic variables, transition variables, and initial and change measures of health, functional abilities and behaviour problems, were obtained from maternal report. Results Having Down syndrome is a risk factor of mortality, net of other risk factors including older age, poorer functional abilities, worsening behaviour problems, residential relocation and parental death. The causes of death among individuals with and without Down syndrome who are in midlife and co-residing with their families are similar, and are most commonly due to cardiovascular or respiratory problems. Conclusions The findings indicate that midlife adults with Down syndrome who co-reside with their families generally exhibit similar causes of mortality as do midlife adults with intellectual disability owing to other causes, but show an elevated risk of mortality in midlife net of other variables, such as age and changes in functional abilities and behaviour problems. [source]

From tears to words: the development of language to express pain in young children with everyday minor illnesses and injuries

L. Franck
Abstract Background Little is known about the development of language to express pain in the young or how children and parents verbally communicate when young children have everyday minor illnesses and injuries. Methods UK parents of children between the ages of 1 and 6 were invited to complete an Internet survey on children's pain language during everyday situations of minor illness or injury. Results Of the 1716 parents completing the survey, 45% reported their child had at least one word to express pain by 17 months of age, increasing to 81% by 23 months of age. Children used different words based on their age and in the contexts of minor illnesses and injuries, with words for expressing pain related to illness emerging slightly later. Children's language was purposeful in describing causes of pain and requesting specific forms of assistance from parents even in the very youngest age groups. Parents' communicated with their children primarily to gain further information about the source and nature of pain and to direct children's behaviour. Conclusions Children rapidly develop an extensive vocabulary to describe pain between 12 and 30 months of age, with words for pain from injury emerging first and reflecting the development of normal speech acquisition. The differences in verbal expressions in the context of minor illnesses and injuries suggest that children make a cognitive distinction between the origins and sensory aspects of pain. These findings can help parents, childcare and healthcare professionals to appreciate the early communication capabilities of young children and to engage in more effective pain assessment and management for young children. [source]

The prognosis of occupational asthma due to detergent enzymes: clinical, immunological and employment outcomes

A. Brant
Summary Background Little is known about the prognosis of occupational asthma induced by high molecular weight proteins. Objective Our objective was to measure the clinical, immunological and employment outcomes of individuals with occupational asthma induced by detergent enzymes. Methods We undertook a workforce-based follow-up study in 35 (78%) of the 45 ex-employees from a single factory with occupational asthma. In each case the diagnosis was supported by evidence of specific sensitization and characteristic changes in peak flow or a positive response to specific bronchial provocation testing. Results This group had left the factory on average 37 months before study. On review 25 (71%) reported chest symptoms during the last month. Compared with when working at the factory, most (86%) reported that their symptoms had improved. Twenty continued to attend their general practitioner for respiratory symptoms and 19 still used asthma medications. Since leaving the factory 16 (46%) and four (11%) had found full-time or part-time employment, respectively; of these 16 found they were paid less than when they worked at the factory. The remaining 15 subjects had not had any paid employment. All but two had positive skin prick tests to one or more three detergent enzymes. The estimated half-life of serum-specific IgE antibodies was 20 months for protease, and 21 months for cellulase and amylase. Conclusions Population-based follow-up studies of the prognosis of occupational asthma are rare but probably avoid the bias in clinic-derived surveys. This study demonstrates that 3 years after the avoidance of exposure with detergent enzymes most patients continue to be troubled by, albeit improved, symptoms and experience difficulty in re-employment. [source]