Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Stations

  • automatic weather stations
  • base stations
  • cleaning stations
  • climate stations
  • downstream stations
  • feeding stations
  • field stations
  • meteorological stations
  • monitoring stations
  • observation stations
  • osce stations
  • power stations
  • rainfall stations
  • relay stations
  • research stations
  • sampling stations
  • testing stations
  • weather stations

  • Selected Abstracts

    Pseudorotaxanes and Rotaxanes Incorporating Diarylcycloheptatriene Stations

    Werner Abraham
    Abstract The nature of the interaction between the tetracationic cyclophane cyclobis(paraquat-4,4,-biphenylene) and molecular threads incorporating arylcycloheptatriene units as stations was studied through the differences between the proton resonances observed in the NMR spectra of free molecular threads and in those of corresponding pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes (CIS values). Molecular threads of different lengths possessing one or two recognition stations and incorporating two different isomeric arylcycloheptatriene units were used for pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes. The main contribution to the driving forces behind the complexation of pseudorotaxanes and the co-conformation of rotaxanes was deduced from the CIS values of distinct parts of the molecular threads. The unusual signal dispersion of the cyclophane proton resonances is attributed to the asymmetry caused by the molecular thread incorporating the asymmetric cycloheptatriene ring. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

    Trends in extreme daily rainfall across the South Pacific and relationship to the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    G. M. Griffiths
    Abstract Daily rainfall records from 22 high-quality stations located in the South Pacific were analysed, over the common period 1961,2000, in order to assess whether extreme rainfall events have altered in their frequency or magnitude. A comprehensive spatial coverage across the South Pacific was provided, analysing a range of indices of extreme precipitation, which reflect both high rainfall events and drought. Clear spatial patterns emerged in the trends of extreme rainfall indices, with a major discontinuity across the diagonal section of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Stations located between 180 and 155°W exhibit a greater number of significant abrupt changes in extreme climate than elsewhere in the South Pacific, and the majority of climatic jumps occur in the 1970s or 1980s (coincident with a displacement northeastward of the diagonal part of the SPCZ and a large local increase in mean annual temperature). Notably, all significant abrupt changes in an extreme rainfall intensity index occurred in the late 1970s or early 1980s, and in every case the index showed an increase in extremity following the change point, regardless of station location. For the stations located south of the SPCZ, this may also be linked to the observed warming since the 1970s. Significant abrupt changes in mean precipitation were also identified around the mid 1940s, for two longer, century-scale records, which again correspond to a major displacement of the diagonal section of the SPCZ. An indicator of the diagonal SPCZ position is significantly temporally correlated with an extreme rainfall intensity index, at two locations either side of the diagonal section of the SPCZ, at decadal time scales or longer. This suggests that the displacement of the diagonal portion of the SPCZ on decadal time scales influences not only mean precipitation, but also daily rainfall extremes. Copyright © 2003 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Validation of ECMWF (re)analysis surface climate data, 1979,1998, for Greenland and implications for mass balance modelling of the ice sheet

    Edward Hanna
    Abstract Climate (re)analysis products are potentially valuable tools, when properly verified, for helping to constrain the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Monthly surface fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational- and re-analyses spanning 1979,1998 were validated using in situ data (surface air pressure and temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, short-/all-wave radiation, and wind speed/direction). These validation data are from coastal or near-coastal Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) synoptic stations, inland Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) and University of Wisconsin Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs), and two energy balance stations near the southern ice margin. The ECMWF analyses closely reproduce the seasonal patterns and interannual variations of much of the in situ data. Differences in the mean values of surface air pressure and temperature can mainly be ascribed to orography errors in the analyses' schemes, compared with the latest available accurate digital elevation model. Much of the GIS margin as modelled by ECMWF was too cold, on average by 4°C, and ECMWF precipitation averaged some 136% of the DMI station values. The misrepresentation of the (relatively) steep ice-sheet margin, which tends to be broadened and systematically over-elevated by several hundred metres, orographically reduced temperature and enhanced precipitation there in the ECMWF models. The cloud-cover comparison revealed not dissimilar annual mean cloud covers (ECMWF ,8%) but the ECMWF analyses had too little cloud and were too ,sunny' during the critical summer melt-season. ECMWF-modelled surface albedo in summer was ,11% lower than GC-Net values, which was mainly responsible for the disagreement of modelled surface short-wave radiation fluxes with observations. Model albedo and cloud errors need to be rectified if the analyses are to be used effectively to drive energy balance models of Greenland snowmelt. ECMWF wind speed averaged 66% (62%) of the DMI station (AWS) values. The validation results provide useful insights into how one can best improve the ECMWF Greenland climate data for use in glaciological and climatological studies. Copyright © 2001 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Stability analysis of an adaptive packet access scheme for mobile communication systems with high propagation delays

    Giovanni Giambene
    Abstract In this paper, we investigate a packet access scheme that is able to support mixed traffics in the presence of high propagation delays. Referring to a Time-Code Division Multiple Access air interface, we propose a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol based on a random access scheme. A successful attempt grants the use of a slot-code resource. This protocol is named Adaptive Time Code-Packet Reservation Multiple Access (ATC-PRMA), since the access parameters are changed, depending on the traffic load conditions, so as to fulfil Quality of Service requirements. Numerical examples are carried out for the Low Earth Orbit (LEO)- Mobile Satellite System (MSS) scenario, but all these considerations could be applied to High-Altitude Platform Stations (HAPSs) as well. In both cases, high propagation delays prevent an immediate feedback to users. An analytical approach is proposed to study the stability of our MAC scheme. Accordingly, we define a criterion for optimizing system performance. The predicted ATC-PRMA behaviour is supported by simulation results. Finally, we show the performance improvement of ATC-PRMA with respect to a MAC protocol not employing adaptive parameters. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Spatial variations in the composition and abundance of zooplankton in the Bahir Dar Gulf of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Tunde Ohiokhioya Thadeus Imoobe
    Abstract The zooplankton in the littoral and open water zones of Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, collected in June and July 2007, were investigated using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices and one way analysis of variance to characterize the zooplankton fauna, with respect to its composition, abundance and spatial distribution patterns. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater lake, with a total of 44 species made up of sixteen rotifers, sixteen c1adocerans and twelve copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance; Rotifera > Cladocera > Cylopoida > Calanoida. Variation in spatial distribution was noticeable, the abundance of zooplankton was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at the littoral zone (Stations 2 and 3) than the open water (Station 1) as a result of the preponderance of the small-bodied nauplii stages, small rotifers and c1adocerans particularly Bosmina longirostris. Species richness, evenness, and diversity also increased as abundance increased in the littoral zones of the lake. The rotifers, particularly the brachionids Keratella and Brachionus spp., which are considered good indicators of lake trophic status constituted the dominant zooplankton group in terms of abundance and diversity, thus indicating that the lake has a high fisheries potential. Résumé Le zooplancton des berges et des eaux ouvertes du golfe de Bahir Dar, récolté en juin et juillet 2007 dans le lac Tana, a étéétudié en utilisant des indices de mesures statistiques de base et une analyse de la variance à une voie, pour caractériser la faune du zooplancton, tant au point de vue de la composition que de l'abondance et du schéma de distribution spatiale. La composition du zooplancton était typique d'un lac d'eau douce tropical, avec un total de 44 espèces réparties entre 16 rotifères, 16 cladocères et 12 copépodes à différents stades de développement dans l'ordre de prépondérance qui suit : Rotifères > Cladocères > Cylopoïdes > Calanoïdes. Il y avait une variation notable de la distribution spatiale : l'abondance de zooplancton était significativement plus grande (P < 0.05) dans la zone littorale (Stations 2 et 3) qu'en haute eau (Station 1), suite à la prépondérance des petits corpuscules comme les stades nauplius, les petits rotifères et cladocères, et particulièrement Bosmina longirostris. La richesse en espèces, l'uniformité et la diversité augmentaient aussi en même temps que l'abondance dans les zones littorales du lac. Les rotifères, et particulièrement Keratella et Brachionus spp., qui sont considérés comme de bons indicateurs du statut trophique du lac étaient le groupe de zooplancton dominant en termes d'abondance et de diversité, ce qui indique que le lac a un fort potentiel piscicole. [source]

    Anthropogenic influences on population sizes, age and growth of naturalized rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in Kenya

    Charles C. Ngugi
    Abstract Riverine fishery in Kenya has witnessed profound changes since the 1950s, especially after independence (in 1963) when watersheds on the south-eastern slopes of Mt Kenya were opened up for settlement. In particular, rainbow trout populations have declined essentially resulting from anthropogenic changes through over-exploitation and/or degraded habitats. While there still are self-sustaining rainbow trout populations in this stream among others they are in decline an indication that changes that have occurred on the watershed have altered their sizes, age and growth. The study was carried out in the Sagana, a third-order stream, which rises at about 4000 m altitude on the south-eastern slope of Mt Kenya, to obtain and document information on population sizes, age and growth of rainbow trout populations and to relate them with those recorded in the 1950s when trout streams were pristine (with little human influence). Stations were fished bi-monthly from 1996 to 1998 and later for 6 months in 2002. Information on age and growth was obtained by use of annual marks, tagging fish of known age, and by validating their age using captive fish of known age. The minimum mean back-calculated length at age for age one rainbow trout was 13.09 cm in upstream station and 15.10 cm for downstream stations. However, there was no significant difference in mean back-calculated lengths at age for all years between fish in upstream and downstream stations (t -test, t = ,0.01, P = 0.99). Although female fish showed higher mean annual back-calculated length increments than males, there was no significant difference in mean back-calculated lengths at age between sexes (t -test, t = ,0.27, P = 0.80). The rate of growth in length was rapid for 1-year-old fish and declined in the second and third years. This study observed that most of the fish were small with only a few reaching more than 2 years of age because of overfishing. There are good reasons for optimism about the future of trout populations in this stream but concerted efforts are required to rehabilitate them. If trout populations are to increase, a management strategy is required to reduce fishing pressure and to maintain stream fishery against competing needs for resources in the catchments. Résumé Une pêcherie riveraine kényane a été témoin de profonds changements depuis les années 1950, spécialement après l'indépendance (en 1963) lorsque les lignes de partage des eaux des versants sud-est du mont Kenya ont été ouvertes aux installations humaines. Les populations de truites arc-en-ciel ont particulièrement décliné, essentiellement suite aux changements anthropogéniques, surexploitations et/ou habitats dégradés. S'il existe encore des populations auto-suffisantes de truites arc-en-ciel dans ce cours d' eau, entre autres, elles sont en diminution, une indication que les changements qui ont touché la ligne de partage des eaux ont affecté leur taille, leur âge moyen et leur croissance. Cette étude a été réalisée dans la Sangana, un cours d'eau de troisième ordre sur le versant sud-est du mont Kenya, afin d'obtenir et de documenter des informations sur la taille de la population, l'âge et la croissance des populations de truites arc-en-ciel et les comparer à celles qui ont été relevées dans les années 1950, lorsque les rivières à truites étaient intactes (avec très peu d'influences humaines). On a pêché tous les deux mois dans les stations depuis 1996 jusqu'à fin 1.998 et plus tard, pendant six mois en 2002. Les informations sur l'âge et la croissance ont été obtenues par l'utilisation de marques annuelles, en marquant des poissons d'âge connu et en validant leur âge par comparaison avec des poissons captifs d'âge connu. La moyenne minimum de longueur par rétro-calcul aux différents âges pour une truite arc-en-ciel était de 13,09 cm dans une station en amont et 15,10 dans une station en aval. Cependant, toutes ces années, il n'y avait pas de différence significative de longueur par rétro-calcul aux différents âges entre les poissons des stations d'amont et d'aval (test de t, t = ,0,01, P = 0,99). Même si les femelles présentaient une plus forte augmentation moyenne de longueur par rétro-calcul que les mâles, il n'y avait pas de différence significative dans les longueurs moyennes obtenues par rétro-calcul aux différents âges entre les sexes (test de t, t = ,027, P = 0.80). Le taux de croissance en longueur était rapide pour un poisson d'un an et diminuait la deuxième et la troisième années. Cette étude a observé que la plupart des poissons sont petits et que peu atteignent l'âge de deux ans à cause de la sur-pêche. Il y a de bonnes raisons d'être optimistes pour l'avenir des populations de poissons de ce cours d'eau, mais il faut des efforts concertés pour la réhabiliter. Si l'on veut que les populations de truites augmentent, il faut adopter une stratégie de gestion pour réduire la pression de la pêche tout en maintenant la pêche dans le cours d'eau pour répondre aux besoins de ces ressources dans les stations. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 5 2009
    Ed Ruscha's ground-breaking 1963 book, Twentysix Gasoline Stations, consists of a series of photographs of gas stations along Route 66. Ruscha explained in an interview that he liked the word ,gasoline' and the random specificity of number 26. This paper argues that the title, formulated in advance, provided the nub of an instruction. Ruscha set himself a simple brief and understood the photographs as records of large-scale readymades. Depersonalization or ,auto-maticity' pervades the work in terms of the pre-set project, the readymade object, the car and the uninflected snapshots. Jeff Wall's positioning the work of Ruscha and other artists of the period in relation to ,non-autonomous', photojournalistic or amateur photography does nothing to capture this deliberately affectless, depersonalized use of the camera. The books are better understood if related to a certain reception of Marcel Duchamp in the United States which might be called the instructional and performative Duchamp, exemplified most clearly in his 3 Standard Stoppages. [source]

    Learning through teaching: Peer-mediated instruction in minimally invasive education

    Ritu Dangwal
    The current paper provides insight into the learning strategies adopted by children working at Minimally Invasive Education (MIE) Learning Stations. Previous research has clearly indicated the attainment of basic computer literacy by groups of young children in the age groups of 7,14 years. This learning takes place due to the emergence and development of group social processes, an aspect crucial for achieving basic computing skills. The paper describes the process of socially shared understanding and learning as being crucial to individual learning. It is to be noted that this approach of socially shared learning does not challenge the analysis of the individual level of processing; it maintains that individual learning is vital in any learning context, but insufficient to build the psychology of learning. MIE research is of the view that young children learn through interaction with others, particularly peers as it provides an important context for social and cognitive learning. For it is in this way that children make sense of their own experience and environment. Hence, schools are not the only privileged sites of learning. [source]

    Product Modeling for Dimensional Control in the Building Industry

    Rui Wu
    Construction planning is an indispensable bridge between the phase of building design and the phase of building construction. Among others, the dimensional control plan is one important part of the construction plan. To ensure the predefined dimensional quality, the dimensional control plan must provide site personnel with information on, among others, setting out and assembling building components, which often can be done by means of total stations. The complexity of designing such a plan asks for the support of information technology. This article presents the initial results of integrating product modeling with knowledge-based engineering to support designing the dimensional control plan. [source]

    DS/CDMA throughput of a multi-hop sensor network in a Rayleigh fading underwater acoustic channel

    Choong Hock Mar
    Abstract Asynchronous half-duplex Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access (DS/CDMA) is a suitable candidate for the MAC protocol design of underwater acoustic (UWA) sensor networks owing to its many attractive features. Our ad-hoc multi-hop network is infrastructureless in that it is without centralized base stations or power control. Hence, we develop an asynchronous distributed half-duplex control protocol to regulate between the transmitting and receiving phases of transmissions. Furthermore, multi-hop communications are very sensitive to the time variability of the received signal strength in the fading channel and the ambient noise dominated by snapping shrimp in harsh underwater environments, because a broken link in the multi-hop path is enough to disrupt communications and initiate new route searches. In our configuration, we use the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol optimized for UWA networks. Empirical studies show that we can model the channel as a slow-varying frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading channel. We theoretically analyze the throughput of our configuration by considering three salient features: the ability of the receiver to demodulate the data, the effect of our control protocol and the effect of disconnections on the generation of routing packets. The throughput under various operating conditions is then examined. It is observed that at optimal node separation, the throughput is improved by a factor of 10. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Climate Variability in Regions of Amphibian Declines

    Michael A. Alexander
    The reanalysis system merges observations from airplanes, land stations, satellites, ships, and weather balloons with output from a weather-forecast model to create global fields of atmospheric variables. Station data consisted of temperature and precipitation measured with thermometers and rain gauges at fixed locations. Temperatures were near normal in Colorado when the amphibian declines occurred in the 1970s, whereas in Central America temperatures were warmer than normal, especially during the dry season. The station data from Puerto Rico and Australia indicated that temperatures were above normal during the period of amphibian declines, but reanalysis did not show such a clear temperature signal. Although declines occurred while the temperature and precipitation anomalies in some of the regions were large and of extended duration, the anomalies were not beyond the range of normal variability. Thus, unusual climate, as measured by regional estimates of temperature and precipitation, is unlikely to be the direct cause of amphibian declines, but it may have indirectly contributed to them. Previous researchers have noted that the declines appear to have propagated from northwest to southeast from Costa Rica to Panama and from southeast to northwest in Queensland, Australia. Wind has the potential to transport pathogens that cause amphibian mortality. The mean direction of the near-surface winds tended to parallel the path of amphibian declines from July,October in Central America and from May,July in Australia. The wind direction was highly variable, however, and the propagation rate of amphibian declines was much slower than the mean wind speed. In addition, the most likely pathogen is a chytrid fungus that does not produce desiccation-resistant spores. Thus, if wind is involved in the propagation of amphibian declines, it is through a complex set of processes. Resumen: Exploramos la relación entre las declinaciones de anfibios y las variaciones climáticas en Colorado, E.U.A., Puerto Rico, Costa Rica/Panamá y Queensland, Australia por medio de dos fuentes de información: resultados "sistema de reanálisis" del Centro Nacional de Predicción Ambiental y datos de estaciones área-promedio. El sistema de reanálisis combina observaciones de aeroplanos, estaciones terrestres, satélites, barcos y globos climatológicos, con resultados de un modelo de predicción climatológica para crear campos globales de variables atmosféricas. Los datos de estaciones fueron de temperatura y precipitación medidos con termómetros y pluviómetros en localidades fijas. Las temperaturas fueron casi normales en Colorado cuando ocurrieron las declinaciones en la década de 1970, mientras que las temperaturas en Centro América fueron mayores a lo normal, especialmente durante la época de sequía. Los datos de estaciones en Puerto Rico y Australia indicaron que la temperatura fue mayor a la normal durante el período de declinación de anfibios, pero un nuevo análisis no mostró una señal de temperatura tan clara. Aunque las declinaciones ocurrieron mientras las anomalías de temperatura y precipitación fueron grandes y de duración prolongada en algunas de las regiones, las anomalías no rebasaron el rango de variabilidad normal. Por lo tanto, es poco probable que el clima inusual, medido por estimaciones regionales de temperatura y precipitación, sea la causa directa de las declinaciones de anfibios, pero pudo haber contribuido indirectamente a ellas. Investigaciones previas notan que las declinaciones parecen haberse propagado de noroeste a sureste de Costa Rica a Panamá y de sureste a noreste en Queensland, Australia. El viento tiene el potencial de transportar patógenos que causan mortalidad de anfibios. La dirección promedio de los vientos superficiales tendió a ser paralela al camino de las declinaciones de anfibios de julio a octubre en Centro América y de mayo a julio en Australia. Sin embargo, la dirección del viento fue altamente variable y la tasa de propagación de declinaciones de anfibios fue mucho más lenta que la velocidad promedio del viento. Adicionalmente, el patógeno más probable es un hongo quítrido que no produce esporas resistentes a la desecación. Por tanto, si el viento está implicado en la propagación de declinaciones de anfibios, lo es por medio de un complejo conjunto de procesos. [source]

    Oil transnational corporations: corporate social responsibility and environmental sustainability

    Felix M. Edoho
    Abstract Corporate social responsibility (CSR) occupies the center stage of the debate on the operations of transnational corporations in the developing countries. The quest for profit maximization as the overriding value at the expense of corporate social responsibility puts some transnational corporations on a collision path with their Niger Delta host communities, who are demanding environmental sustainability. Militant groups have shut down flow stations and taken oil workers hostage. Unresponsiveness of oil firms to community demands for CSR is heightening the volatility of the Nigerian oil industry. The problem will intensify until oil firms initiate authentic CSR strategies to address the environmental havocs emanating from their operations. At the core of such strategies is recognizing the host communities as bona fide stakeholders and addressing their socioeconomic needs. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Transbronchial fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of mediastinal/hilar sarcoidosis

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    S. Smojver-Je
    Objective:, The diagnostic value of transbronchial/transtracheal fine needle aspiration (TBFNA) cytology in the patients with mediastinal and/or hilar lymphadenopathy has been investigated. Method:, Out of 116 patients with mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established in 88 (75.9%). One hundred and seventy-one TBFNAs from different lymph node stations were performed using a cytological 26-gauge needle. Adequate lymph node samples were obtained in 157 of 171 (91.8%) TBFNA and 14 of 171 (8.2%) TBFNA samples were inadequate. Results:, Cytological findings consistent with sarcoidosis were found in 79 of 88 (89.77%) patients and 133 of 157 (84.71%) samples. The sensitivity of TBFNA cytology in sarcoidosis presenting as mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy was 78.7%, specificity 92.3%. Conclusions:, Overall diagnostic accuracy of TBFNA cytology in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was 86.2%, and cytological findings consistent with sarcoidosis were the only morphological diagnosis of sarcoidosis in 63.6% of patients. [source]

    Risk assessment for nonindigenous pests: 1.

    Mapping the outputs of phenology models to assess the likelihood of establishment
    Abstract This paper demonstrates the use of phenology models mapped over the landscape as a tool in support of risk assessments for nonindigenous plant pests. Drawing on the relationship between pest development and temperature, the approach uses gridded sequential interpolated temperatures at a resolution of 1 km, linked with phenology models, to predict the potential for a pest to develop throughout the landscape. The potential for establishment of Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) in England and Wales was used as an illustration. The likelihood of the pest completing a single generation during a 30-year period (1961,90) was computed. Summaries of phenology, based firstly upon point temperature series from weather stations and secondly upon temperatures interpolated across the landscape, were compared. The results revealed that the use of point data led to a 70% likelihood of over-estimating the area at risk from year to year. In the case of average long-term risk however, the point-based and landscape-wide distributions of establishment potential were similar. We demonstrate how the use of phenology models running on a daily time scale provides date based results, so allowing outputs to be tied in with periods in the cropping cycle. The application of daily data in computing the phenological results, unlike the main body of published work on pest risk assessment which uses averaged monthly data, reflects more fully the underlying variability and degrees of sensitivity of the pest to changes in weather. [source]

    Species richness of marine Bryozoa in the continental shelf and slope off Argentina (south-west Atlantic)

    Juan López Gappa
    Abstract., A total of 246 marine bryozoan species was recorded within an area of the south-west Atlantic between 35° and 56°S, and between the coast of Argentina and 50°W. The distribution pattern of benthic stations surveyed during the most important cruises in the area shows that the sampling effort has been biased towards southern shelf areas off Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego, as well as around the Malvinas (Falkland) islands. The littoral zone, Patagonian gulfs and the continental shelf off Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires state received less attention, and should be surveyed more intensively in the future. Only 2% of the species can be regarded as non-indigenous, all of them inhabiting biofouling communities in harbour environments. With the exception of some thoroughly surveyed localities, the number of species recorded for different areas of the coast, shelf and slope is estimated to be just a small fraction of the actual number of species present. A distinct diversity gradient was found, with species-rich stations located only in the southern shelf. Highest diversity occurred in shelf areas dominated by coarse sediments, and along a high-productivity shelf-break front. A remarkable decrease in species richness was found in inner and middle shelf areas off Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires state. This pattern may be related to the Pacific origin of the Magellanic fauna, since the diversity of bryozoans is higher in the Pacific than in the Atlantic Ocean. The trend of species richness is, however, overemphasized by the fact that the least diverse faunistic assemblage occurs in areas where surveys have been relatively less frequent. An up-to-date checklist of species recorded for the study area is included. [source]

    The behavior of specific sediment yield in different grain size fractions in the tributaries of the middle Yellow River as influenced by eolian and fluvial processes

    Jiongxin Xu
    Abstract Based on data from 35 stations on the tributaries of the Yellow River, annual specific sediment yield (Ys) in eight grain size fractions has been related to basin-averaged annual sand,dust storm days (Dss) and annual precipitation (Pm) to reveal the influence of eolian and fluvial processes on specific sediment yield in different grain size fractions. The results show that Ys in fine grain size fractions has the highest values in the areas dominated by the coupled wind,water process. From these areas to those dominated by the eolian process or to those dominated by the fluvial process, Ys tends to decrease. For relatively coarse grain size fractions, Ys has monotonic variation, i.e. with the increase in Dss or the decrease in Pm, Ys increases. This indicates that the sediment producing behavior for fine sediments is different from that for relatively coarse sediments. The results all show that Ys for relatively coarse sediments depends on the eolian process more than on the fluvial process, and the coarser the sediment fractions the stronger the dependence of the Ys on the eolian process. The Ys,Dss and Ys,Pm curves for fine grain size fractions show some peaks and the fitted straight lines for Ys,Dss and Ys,Pm relationships for relatively coarse grain size fractions show some breaks. Almost all these break points may be regarded as thresholds. These thresholds are all located in the areas dominated by the coupled wind,water process, indicating that these areas are sensitive for erosion and sediment production, to which more attention should be given for the purpose of erosion and sediment control. A number of regression equations were established, based which the effect of rainfall, sand,dust storms and surface material grain size on specific sediment yield can be assessed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Measurement and data analysis methods for field-scale wind erosion studies and model validation,

    Ted M. Zobeck
    Abstract Accurate and reliable methods of measuring windblown sediment are needed to con,rm, validate, and improve erosion models, assess the intensity of aeolian processes and related damage, determine the source of pollutants, and for other applications. This paper outlines important principles to consider in conducting ,eld-scale wind erosion studies and proposes strategies of ,eld data collection for use in model validation and development. Detailed discussions include consideration of ,eld characteristics, sediment sampling, and meteorological stations. The ,eld shape used in ,eld-scale wind erosion research is generally a matter of preference and in many studies may not have practical signi,cance. Maintaining a clear non-erodible boundary is necessary to accurately determine erosion fetch distance. A ,eld length of about 300 m may be needed in many situations to approach transport capacity for saltation ,ux in bare agricultural ,elds. Field surface conditions affect the wind pro,le and other processes such as sediment emission, transport, and deposition and soil erodibility. Knowledge of the temporal variation in surface conditions is necessary to understand aeolian processes. Temporal soil properties that impact aeolian processes include surface roughness, dry aggregate size distribution, dry aggregate stability, and crust characteristics. Use of a portable 2 tall anemometer tower should be considered to quantify variability of friction velocity and aerodynamic roughness caused by surface conditions in ,eld-scale studies. The types of samplers used for sampling aeolian sediment will vary depending upon the type of sediment to be measured. The Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modi,ed Wilson and Cooke (MWAC) samplers appear to be the most popular for ,eld studies of saltation. Suspension ,ux may be measured with commercially available instruments after modi,cations are made to ensure isokinetic conditions at high wind speeds. Meteorological measurements should include wind speed and direction, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, rain amount, soil temperature and moisture. Careful consideration of the climatic, sediment, and soil surface characteristics observed in future ,eld-scale wind erosion studies will ensure maximum use of the data collected. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Correlation model for spatially distributed ground-motion intensities

    Nirmal Jayaram
    Abstract Risk assessment of spatially distributed building portfolios or infrastructure systems requires quantification of the joint occurrence of ground-motion intensities at several sites, during the same earthquake. The ground-motion models that are used for site-specific hazard analysis do not provide information on the spatial correlation between ground-motion intensities, which is required for the joint prediction of intensities at multiple sites. Moreover, researchers who have previously computed these correlations using observed ground-motion recordings differ in their estimates of spatial correlation. In this paper, ground motions observed during seven past earthquakes are used to estimate correlations between spatially distributed spectral accelerations at various spectral periods. Geostatistical tools are used to quantify and express the observed correlations in a standard format. The estimated correlation model is also compared with previously published results, and apparent discrepancies among the previous results are explained. The analysis shows that the spatial correlation reduces with increasing separation between the sites of interest. The rate of decay of correlation typically decreases with increasing spectral acceleration period. At periods longer than 2,s, the correlations were similar for all the earthquake ground motions considered. At shorter periods, however, the correlations were found to be related to the local-site conditions (as indicated by site Vs30 values) at the ground-motion recording stations. The research work also investigates the assumption of isotropy used in developing the spatial correlation models. It is seen using the Northridge and Chi-Chi earthquake time histories that the isotropy assumption is reasonable at both long and short periods. Based on the factors identified as influencing the spatial correlation, a model is developed that can be used to select appropriate correlation estimates for use in practical risk assessment problems. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Three-dimensional VS profiling using microtremors in Kushiro, Japan

    Hiroshi Arai
    Abstract A practical method is presented for determining three-dimensional S-wave velocity (VS) profile from microtremor measurements. Frequency,wave number (f,k) spectral analyses of microtremor array records are combined, for this purpose, with microtremor horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio techniques. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, microtremor measurements using arrays of sensors were conducted at six sites in the city of Kushiro, Japan. The spectral analyses of the array records yield dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves and H/V spectra of surface waves, and joint inversion of these data results in VS profiles down to bedrock at the sites. Conventional microtremor measurements were performed at 230 stations within Kushiro city, resulting in the H/V spectra within the city. Three-dimensional VS structure is then estimated from inversion of the H/V spectra with the VS values determined from the microtremor array data. This reveals three-dimensional VS profile of Kushiro city, together with an unknown hidden valley that crosses the central part of the city. The estimated VS profile is consistent with available velocity logs and results of subsequent borings, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Residual displacement ratios for assessment of existing structures

    Jorge Ruiz-García
    Abstract Results of an analytical study aimed at evaluating residual displacement ratios, Cr, which allow the estimation of residual displacement demands from maximum elastic displacement demands is presented. Residual displacement ratios were computed using response time-history analyses of single-degree-of-freedom systems having 6 levels of relative lateral strength when subjected to an ensemble of 240 earthquake ground motions recorded in stations placed on firm sites. The results were statistically organized to evaluate the influence of the following parameters: period of vibration, level of relative lateral strength, site conditions, earthquake magnitude, and distance to the source. In addition, the influence of post-yield stiffness ratio in bilinear systems and of the unloading stiffness in stiffness-degrading systems was also investigated. A special emphasis is given to the uncertainty of these ratios. From this study, it is concluded that mean residual displacement ratios are more sensitive to changes in local site conditions, earthquake magnitude, distance to the source range and hysteretic behaviour than mean inelastic displacement ratios. In particular, residual displacement ratios exhibit large levels of record-to-record variability and, therefore, this dispersion should be taken into account when estimating residual displacements. A simplified expression is presented to estimate mean residual displacements ratios for elastoplastic systems during the evaluation of existing structures built on firm soil sites. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term change to fish assemblages and the flow regime in a southeastern U.S. river system after extensive aquatic ecosystem fragmentation

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2008
    Christopher M. Taylor
    The upper Tombigbee River in northeastern Mississippi now exists as a fragment, confluencing with and fed by an extensively modified aquatic landscape now called the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (TTW). We examined the changes to fish assemblages and flow regime after waterway construction based on contemporary comparisons to historical fish collections and discharge data. The river's flow regime has changed markedly since TTW construction. Analysis of discharge data from two stations for 15 years, pre- and post-waterway, indicated significant differences in flow regime including increased minimum and base flows, lower spring and higher late summer-autumn flows, and lower high flow durations, post-TTW. These changes corresponded to significantly reduced regional and local species richness, and strong shifts in fish assemblage structure across a 20 yr time span. Post-waterway fish assemblages were related strongly to measured environmental variables characterizing local habitats. Several lentic-adapted species increased their abundances in lower reaches of the river, including a recent invader to the TTW system, the Mississippi silverside Menidia audens. Fragmentation of river ecosystems via disruption to hydrologic regimes is a major threat to aquatic biodiversity worldwide. Because the flow regime of this fragmented river is in part controlled by waterway operations via five minimum flow control structures, adaptive conservation and management efforts could be implemented in order to maintain and potentially restore the natural flow regime and the ecological integrity of the system. [source]

    Impact of warming and timing of snow melt on soil microarthropod assemblages associated with Dryas- dominated plant communities on Svalbard

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2006
    Rebecca Dollery
    Open Top Chambers (OTCs) were used to measure impacts of predicted global warming on the structure of the invertebrate community of a Dryas octopetala heath in West Spitsbergen. Results from the OTC experiment were compared with natural variation in invertebrate community structure along a snowmelt transect through similar vegetation up the adjacent hillside. Changes along this transect represent the natural response of the invertebrate community to progressively longer and potentially warmer and drier growing seasons. Using MANOVA, ANOVA, Linear Discriminant Analysis and ,2 tests, significant differences in community composition were found between OTCs and controls and among stations along the transect. Numbers of cryptostigmatic and predatory mites tended to be higher in the warmer OTC treatment but numbers of the aphid Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum, hymenopterous parasitoids, Symphyta larvae, and weevils were higher in control plots. Most Collembola, including Hypogastrura tullbergi, Lepidocyrtus lignorum and Isotoma anglicana, followed a similar trend to the aphid, but Folsomia bisetosa was more abundant in the OTC treatment. Trends along the transect showed clear parallels with the OTC experiment. However, mite species, particularly Diapterobates notatus, tended to increase in numbers under warming, with several species collectively increasing at the earlier exposed transect stations. Overall, the results suggest that the composition and structure of Arctic invertebrate communities associated with Dryas will change significantly under global warming. [source]

    Spatial and temporal variations of two cyprinids in a subtropical mountain reserve , a result of habitat disturbance

    C.-C. Han
    Abstract,,, We investigated the variations of population of two cyprinids, Varicorhinus alticorpus and Varicorhinus barbatulus, using long-term survey data (1995,2004) in the subtropical island of Taiwan. Fish abundance data showed that at the mainstem stations, V. barbatulus which used to dominate in the higher altitude had declined significantly, while V. alticorpus that used to occupy only the lower altitude had spread upward. However, at the tributaries, trend of the populations of V. barbatulus were not significantly different over time, while populations of V. alticorpus were absent at higher altitude but began to increase at lower altitude. Environmental parameters revealed that sporadic high turbidity was observed at the mainstem stations, but not at the tributaries. Images taken before and after typhoon also showed habitat destruction by debris flow at the mainstem stations. As some models predicted that suitable fish habitats will shrink because of increasing water temperature due to global warming, we showed that fish distribution may be affected by habitat disturbance due to intensified storms sooner than the actual increase of water temperature. [source]

    Effect of habitat fragmentation on spawning migration of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    C. Gosset
    Abstract , Human-induced habitat alteration is one of the main causes of the decline of freshwater fish populations. The watershed of the River Bidasoa (Spain) is an example of heavily fragmented habitat. The local brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) population is disturbed, with evidence of poor recruitment as well as low adult densities in the main stem. Forty male and female adult migratory trout were tagged with external or internal radio transmitters and released. Fixed stations with data loggers and mobile antennae were used with daily surveys to track fish movements during the migration and spawning period (3 months). Migration distances did not exceed 10 km, and half of the fish never entered a tributary in the study area. Fragmentation because of weirs on the main stem apparently prevented fish from reaching their spawning destination. Fish that entered the tributaries were first confronted with an accessibility problem because of low discharge. However, each fish chose one tributary, without making attempts to run up in other tributaries. Once in the tributary, fish were restrained in their upstream movements by dams. The study area appeared to be isolated from the vast upper part of the watershed. Within the study area, upper parts of tributaries also seemed strongly disconnected from the main stem. This study illustrates the negative impact of river fragmentation on S. trutta migration pattern. Population sustainability can be directly affected through the low availability of spawning grounds for migratory fish. Long-term effects of fragmentation may cause reproductive isolation within watersheds, which in the case of trout also means isolated phenotypic population units. [source]

    Efficiency of a nature-like bypass channel for sea trout (Salmo trutta) ascending a small Danish stream studied by PIT telemetry

    K. Aarestrup
    Abstract , Upstream passage of adult sea trout (Salmo trutta) in a nature-like bypass channel was investigated in the Tirsbæk brook, Denmark, in autumn and winter 1999/2000. Sea trout were caught by electrofishing up- and downstream of the weir at which the bypass was situated. Fish were tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and released downstream of the weir. Automatic PIT-tag logging stations were positioned downstream, in the lower part, and at the upstream exit of the bypass to investigate the passage success of the fish. The bypass was neither size- nor sex-selective in the size ranges investigated. The majority (68%) of fish approached the bypass at night. Over 90% of tagged upstream-searching fish located and entered the bypass channel, but only about half of them passed through. The inefficiency is suggested to be because of a combination of the length of the bypass channel and inadequate flow in the bypass channel. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2006
    Colin Robinson
    The moratorium on the building of new nuclear power stations in the UK that has existed since the 1980s may be ended as a result of government concerns about the security of energy provision and the environmental impact of fossil-fuel-based energy supply. This viewpoint argues that the case for nuclear power on both counts is unproven. Moreover, renewed government support for a civil nuclear power programme may be a case of government attempting to pick winners, when the evidence suggests that such decisions are best taken by energy suppliers, producers and consumers. [source]

    Transient stability simulation of wind generator expressed by two-mass model

    Yoshikazu Shima
    Abstract Recently, wind power generation is increasing worldwide. In wind power stations, induction machines are mostly used as generators. Since induction generators have a stability problem similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines, it is important to analyze the transient stability of power systems including wind generators. Although there have been some reports analyzing the transient stability problem, wind turbine and wind generator are, in most cases, modeled as a one-mass shaft system having total inertia constant. This paper presents simulation analyses of transient stability of power system including induction generator which is expressed by a two-mass shaft model and analyzes an effect of shaft system modeling on the transient stability characteristics. Simulations are performed by PSCAD/EMTDC in this study. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 162(3): 27,37, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20394 [source]

    Emergency medicine in India: Why are we unable to ,walk the talk'?

    Suresh S David
    Abstract The largest democracy on earth, the second most populous country and one of the most progressive countries in the globe, India, has advanced tremendously in most conventional fields of Medicine. However, emergency medicine (EM) is a nascent specialty and is yet to receive an identity. Today, it is mostly practised by inadequately trained clinicians in poorly equipped emergency departments (EDs), with no networking. Multiple factors such as the size of the population, variation in standards of medical education, lack of pre-hospital medical systems and non-availability of health insurance schemes are some of the salient causes for this tardy response. The Indian medical system is governed by a central, regulatory body which is responsible for the introduction and monitoring of all specialties , the Medical Council of India (MCI). This organisation has not recognized EM as a distinct specialty, despite a decade of dogged attempts. Bright young clinicians who once demonstrated a keen interest in EM have eventually migrated to other conventional branches of medicine, due to the lack of MCI recognition and the lack of specialty status. The Government of India has launched a nationwide network of transport vehicles and first aid stations along the national highways to expedite the transfer of patients from a crash site. However, this system cannot be expected to decrease morbidity and mortality, unless there is a concurrent development of EDs. The present article intends to highlight factors that continue to challenge the handful of dedicated, full time emergency physicians who have tenaciously pursued the cause for the past decade. A three-pronged synchronous development strategy is recommended: (i) recognise the specialty of EM as a distinct and independent basic specialty; (ii) initiate postgraduate training in EM, thus enabling EDs in all hospitals to be staffed by trained Emergency physicians; and (iii) ensure that EMs are staffed by trained ambulance officers. The time is ripe for a paradigm shift, since the country is aware that emergency care is the felt need of the hour and it is the right of the citizen. [source]

    Distribution of microbial populations and their relationship with environmental parameters in the coastal waters of Qingdao, China

    Min Wang
    Summary In order to understand the large-scale distribution of microbial populations simultaneously and their relationship with environmental parameters, flow cytometry was used to analyse samples collected from 46 stations in the coastal waters of Qingdao in spring, 2007. The distribution of virus was significantly and positively correlated with heterotrophic bacteria. Two groups of picophytoplankton (Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) were detected; however, Prochlorococcus was not found. Picoeukaryotes and nanophytoplankton were abundant in the near-shore waters, whereas Synechococcus was abundant in the off-shore areas. No variation was found in vertical distribution of virus, heterotrophic bacteria, Synechococcus and nanophytoplankton abundances, except picoeukaryotes abundance in the bottom layer was dramatically lower than that in the upper layers. Correlation analyses indicated that the relationship between abiotic variables and heterotrophic bacteria, pico- and nanophytoplankton was closer than that between abiotic variables and virioplankton. Temperature and nutrients were the synchronous factors controlling the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, pico- and nanophytoplankton in the coastal waters of Qingdao in spring. The results suggested that synergistic and antagonistic effects existed among microbial groups. [source]

    Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys

    J. Carrie Futch
    Summary To address the issue of human sewage reaching corals along the main reef of the Florida Keys, samples were collected from surface water, groundwater and coral [surface mucopolysaccharide layers (SML)] along a 10 km transect near Key Largo, FL. Samples were collected semi-annually between July 2003 and September 2005 and processed for faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) and human-specific enteric viruses (enterovirus RNA and adenovirus DNA) by (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction. Faecal indicator bacteria concentrations were generally higher nearshore and in the coral SML. Enteric viruses were evenly distributed across the transect stations. Adenoviruses were detected in 37 of 75 samples collected (49.3%) whereas enteroviruses were only found in 8 of 75 samples (10.7%). Both viruses were detected twice as frequently in coral compared with surface water or groundwater. Offshore, viruses were most likely to be found in groundwater, especially during the wet summer season. These data suggest that polluted groundwater may be moving to the outer reef environment in the Florida Keys. [source]