Structural Equation Modeling (structural + equation_modeling)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Structural Equation Modeling

  • used structural equation modeling

  • Terms modified by Structural Equation Modeling

  • structural equation modeling analysis
  • structural equation modeling techniques

  • Selected Abstracts


    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2008
    Sunju Sohn
    Aims:, Young male adults in the U. S. military drink at much higher rates than civilians and females of the same age. Drinking has been shown to be associated with stress and individuals' ability to effectively cope with stressors. Despite numerous studies conducted on young adults' drinking behaviors such as college drinking, current literature is limited in fully understanding alcohol use patterns of the young military population. The aim of the present study was to develop and test the hypothesized Structural Equation Model (SEM) of alcohol use to determine if stress coping styles moderate the relationship between stress, drinking motives, impulsivity, alcohol consumption and job performance. Methods:, Structural equation models for multiple group comparisons were estimated based on a sample of 1,715 young (aged 18 to 25) male military personnel using the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Military Personnel. Coping style was used as the grouping factor in the multi-group analysis and this variable was developed through numerous steps to reflect positive and negative behaviors of coping. The equivalences of the structural relations between the study variables were then compared across two groups at a time, controlling for installation region, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and pay grade, resulting in two model comparisons with four coping groups. If the structural weight showed differences across groups, each parameter was constrained and tested one at a time to see where the models are different. Results:, The results showed that the hypothesized model applies across all groups. The structural weights revealed that a moderation effect exists between a group whose tendency is to mostly use positive coping strategies and a group whose tendency is to mostly use negative coping strategies (,,2(39)= 65.116, p<.05). More specifically, the models were different (with and without Bonferroni Type I error correction) in the paths between "motive and alcohol use" and "alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences (job performance)." Conclusions:, It seems plausible that coping style significantly factors into moderating alcohol use among young male military personnel who reportedly drink more excessively than civilians of the same age. The results indicate that it may be particularly important for the military to assess different stress coping styles ofyoung male military personnel so as to limit excessive drinking as well as to promote individual wellness and improve job performance. [source]

    Teens' consumer interaction styles: the impact of assertive and aggressive behaviour on attitudes towards marketing practices

    Christy Crutsinger
    Abstract Over half-billion global teens between the ages of 13 and 18 years represent a dynamic opportunity for marketers who wish to grow their businesses and build consumer loyalty. Consumer interaction styles are the consistent behaviour patterns that individuals employ in transactions or exchanges in the marketplace. Assertiveness and aggressiveness represent two distinct interaction styles that enable individuals to achieve a desired outcome. Because teen consumers are an important consumer segment and subscribe to the notion that their voices must be heard, understanding their interaction styles is necessary for businesses and marketers. The purpose of this study was to examine teens' consumer interaction styles according to specific demographic and lifestyle characteristics and investigate the impact of assertive and aggressive interaction styles on attitudes towards marketing practices (i.e. product, retailing, advertising, and pricing). Data were collected from a US teen sample (n = 467) at both rural and urban high schools. Independent t -tests compared the propensity of teens' assertive and aggressive consumer interaction styles according to specific demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 6.0 program was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that an assertive interaction style was pervasive among US teen consumers, while the aggressive interaction style had disparities according to unique demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Assertive and aggressive interaction styles demonstrated negative influences on teen consumers' attitudes towards products and retailing practices. By interpreting the negative impact of teens' assertive and aggressive consumer interaction styles, marketers can develop effective strategies that appeal to this demanding consumer. [source]

    Perceptions of internal marketing and organizational commitment by nurses

    Ching Sheng Chang
    Abstract Title.,Perceptions of internal marketing and organizational commitment by nurses. Aim., This paper is a report of a study to determine whether a favourable perception of internal marketing is associated with increased organizational commitment. Background., The role of nurses in healthcare treatment is expanding, and becoming more important as time progresses. Therefore, the primary concern of business of health care is to use internal marketing strategies effectively to enhance and develop nurses' organizational commitment and reduce turnover to promote competitive advantages for the organization. Methods., A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed in 2006 to a convenience sample of 450 Registered Nurses in two teaching hospitals in Taiwan, and 318 questionnaires were returned. Eighteen were excluded because of incomplete answers, which left 300 usable questionnaires (response rate 66·7%). Validity and reliability testing of the questionnaire proved satisfactory and Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse the data. Results., A favourable perception of internal marketing was associated with increased organizational commitment. Communication management had the greatest influence on organizational commitment and external activity had the smallest impact. Conclusion., Hospital managers need to recognize the importance of internal marketing for staff retention and the survival of their organizations as competitive pressure increases. As a great deal of time and costs are involved in educating nurses, the best way to retain outstanding nurses and reduce turnover costs and personnel problems is for employers to understand the needs and expectations of their nursing staff. [source]

    Exploring Chinese consumer repurchasing intention for services: An empirical investigation

    LI Dongjin
    With the increasingly tough competition, companies are trying to keep existing customers as well as expand the market base in China, which implies that understanding the Chinese consumer repurchasing intention has become one of the important issues. Consumer repurchase intention is an important indicator to predict repurchase behavior. The aim of this paper is to understand the factors that influence consumer repurchase intention in China. Specifically, this paper explores the relationship between perceived values, customer satisfaction, switching costs, purchase interval, and repurchase intention in China with Structural Equation Modeling. The empirical study finds that perceived value, customer satisfaction, and switching costs are positively related to the repurchase intention while purchase interval does not have significant influence on the repurchase intention. In addition, the perceived value is positively related to the customer satisfaction and there is no significant relationship between switching costs and customer satisfaction. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Innovativeness, exploratory behavior, market mavenship, and opinion leadership: An empirical examination in the Asian context

    PSYCHOLOGY & MARKETING, Issue 8 2007
    Ayalla Ruvio
    The market maven construct, developed by Feick and Price (1987), has been used in empirical studies in the USA, South Africa, Germany, Poland, and Hungary. This study extends previous research by being the first to use the general mavenship concept in an Asian country (Israel). Furthermore, the study examines market mavenship and opinion leadership as outcome concepts arising from exploratory behavior or innovativeness tendencies. Additionally, the impact of a three-dimensional exploratory behavior concept is compared to the impact of a unidimensional innovativeness concept on opinion leadership and market mavenship. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the two nomological models based on a sample of 142 adult Israeli consumers. Although both exploratory behavior and innovativeness affect market mavenship and opinion leadership, the impact of the former is stronger. Additionally, the impact of the "new brand trial" facet of exploratory behavior on market maven was comparable to that of innovativeness, whereas its impact on opinion leadership was weaker than the impact of innovativeness. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Structural Equation Modeling: A Bayesian Approach by S.-Y.

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2007

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Structural Equation Modeling and Natural Systems by J. B. GRACE

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2007
    Article first published online: 31 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    An Empirical Study of the Effect of Knowledge Management Processes at Individual, Group, and Organizational Levels,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2003
    Rajiv Sabherwal
    ABSTRACT To enhance our understanding of knowledge management, this paper focuses on a specific question: How do knowledge management processes influence perceived knowledge management effectiveness? Prior literature is used to develop the research model, including hypotheses about the effects of four knowledge management processes (internalization, externalization, socialization, and combination) on perceived individual-level, group-level, and organizational-level knowledge management effectiveness. The study was conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration using a survey of 159 individuals and two rounds of personal interviews. Structural equation modeling was performed to test measurement and structural models using the survey data. The emergent model suggests that internalization and externalization impact perceived effectiveness of individual-level knowledge management. Socialization and combination influence perceived effectiveness of knowledge management at group and organizational levels, respectively. The results also support the expected upward impact in perceived effectiveness of knowledge management, from individual to group level, as well as from group level to organizational level. The study's limitations and implications for practice and future research are described. [source]

    A social network perspective on heroin and cocaine use among adults: evidence of bidirectional influences

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Amy S. B. Bohnert
    ABSTRACT Aims While several studies have documented a relationship between initiation of drug use and social network drug use in youth, the direction of this association is not well understood, particularly among adults or for stages of drug involvement beyond initiation. The present study sought to examine two competing theories (social selection and social influence) in the longitudinal relationship between drug use (heroin and/or cocaine) and social network drug use among drug-experienced adults. Design Three waves of data came from a cohort of 1108 adults reporting a life-time history of heroin and/or cocaine use. Setting Low-income neighborhoods with high rates of drug use in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants Participants had weekly contact with drug users and were 18 years of age or older. Measurements Drug use data were self-report. Network drug use was assessed through a social network inventory. Close friends were individuals whom the participant reported seeing daily or rated as having the highest level of trust. Findings Structural equation modeling indicated significant bidirectional influences. The majority of change in network drug use over time was due to change in the composition of the network rather than change in friends' behavior. Drug use by close peers did not influence participant drug use beyond the total network. Conclusions There is evidence of both social selection and social influence processes in the association between drug use and network drug use among drug-experienced adults. [source]

    Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2010
    Bryce L. Jorgensen
    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial knowledge and perceived parental influence on young adults' financial behaviors. A sample consisting of 420 college students participated in the study. Findings by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey (CSFLS) indicated that perceived parental influence had a direct and moderately significant influence on financial attitude, did not have an effect on financial knowledge, and had an indirect and moderately significant influence on financial behavior, mediated through financial attitude. [source]

    A Mediation Model of Interparental Collaboration, Parenting Practices, and Child Externalizing Behavior in a Clinical Sample

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2009
    John Kjøbli
    The present study examined maternal and paternal parenting practices as mediators of the link between interparental collaboration and children's externalizing behavior. Parent gender was tested as a moderator of the associations. A clinical sample consisting of 136 children with externalizing problems and their families participated in the study. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses. Maternal and paternal parenting practices fully mediated the relation between interparental collaboration and externalizing behavior. When the mediated pathways were tested separately, paternal parenting practices functioned as a mediator, whereas maternal parenting practices did not, indicating that the relationship between interparental collaboration, parenting practices and externalizing behavior was moderated by parent gender. The findings suggest that treatments aimed at reducing child externalizing behavior may be strengthened by focusing on interparental collaboration in addition to parenting practices, while also underscoring the need to involve fathers in interventions. [source]

    Memory in the aging brain: Doubly dissociating the contribution of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 11 2007
    Andrew P. Yonelinas
    Abstract Since the time of Aristotle it has been thought that memories can be divided into two basic types; conscious recollections and familiarity-based judgments. Neuropsychological studies have provided indirect support for this distinction by suggesting that different regions within the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) are involved in these two forms of memory, but none of these studies have demonstrated that these brain regions can be fully dissociated. In a group of nondemented elderly subjects, we found that performance on recall and recognition tests was predicted preferentially by hippocampal and entorhinal volumes, respectively. Structural equation modeling revealed a double dissociation, whereby age-related reductions in hippocampal volume resulted in decreases in recollection, but not familiarity, whereas entorhinal volume was preferentially related to familiarity. The results demonstrate that the forms of episodic memory supported by the human hippocampus and entorhinal cortex can be fully dissociated, and indicate that recollection and familiarity reflect neuroanatomically distinct memory processes. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Testing effective connectivity changes with structural equation modeling: What does a bad model tell us?

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 12 2006
    Andrea B. Protzner
    Abstract Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical method that can assess changes in effective connectivity across tasks or between groups. In its initial application to neuroimaging data, anatomical connectivity provided the constraints to decompose interregional covariances to estimate effective connections. There have been concerns expressed, however, with the validity of interpreting effective connections for a model that does not adequately fit the data. We sought to address this concern by creating two population networks with different patterns of effective connectivity, extracting three samples sizes (N = 100, 60, 20), and then assessing whether the ability to detect effective connectivity differences depended on absolute model fit. Four scenarios were assessed: (1) elimination of a region showing no task differences; (2) elimination of connections with no task differences; (3) elimination of connections that carried task differences, but could be expressed through alternative indirect routes; (4) elimination of connections that carried task differences, and could not be expressed through indirect routes. We were able to detect task differences in all four cases, despite poor absolute model fit. In scenario 3, total effects captured the overall task differences even though the direct effect was no longer present. In scenario 4, task differences that were included in the model remained, but the missing effect was not expressed. In conclusion, it seems that when independent information (e.g., anatomical connectivity) is used to define the causal structure in SEM, inferences about task- or group-dependent changes are valid regardless of absolute model fit. Hum Brain Mapp, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The effect of learning organization culture on the relationship between interpersonal trust and organizational commitment

    Ji Hoon Song
    The primary purpose of this research was to assess the effect of learning organization culture on the linkage between interpersonal trust and organizational commitment. The study sample was obtained from employees of two major Korean conglomerates. Online questionnaires were completed by 321 respondents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to detect the effects of learning organization culture on the basis of the model fit to data comparisons and the significance of path coefficient estimates in the hypothesized model. The results suggest that learning organization culture works as a mediating variable to explain the association between interpersonal trust and organizational commitment. Recommendations for future research and implications for human resource development research and practice are discussed. [source]

    Environmental and heritable causes of cancer among 9.6 million individuals in the Swedish family-cancer database

    Kamila Czene
    Abstract The genetic and environmental components in 15 common cancers were estimated using the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Tetrachoric correlations were used to describe similarity in cancer liability among family members. Structural equation modeling was used to derive estimates of the importance of genetic and environmental effects. Statistically significant estimates of proportion of cancer susceptibility, accounted for by genetic effects, were obtained for all studied cancers except for leukemia. The estimate was highest in thyroid cancer (53%), followed by tumors at endocrine glands (28%), testis (25%), breast (25%), cervix (22%), melanoma (21%), colon (13%), nervous system (12%), rectum (12%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10%), lung (8%), kidney (8%), urinary bladder (7%), stomach (1%) and leukemia (1%). The estimates of shared environmental effects ranged from 0% (cervix) to 15% (stomach). The childhood shared environmental effects were most important in testicular cancer (17%), stomach cancer (13%) and cervix in situ (13%). Our results indicate that environment has a principal causative role in cancer at all studied sites except for thyroid. The relatively large effect of heritability in cancer at some sites, on the other hand, indicates that even though susceptibility genes have been described at many cancer sites, they are likely to explain only part of the genetic effects. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Undue influence of weight on self-evaluation: A population-based twin study of gender differences

    Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
    Abstract Objective To explore the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to placing undue importance on weight as an indicator of self-evaluation and to determine whether differences exist across genders in the nature and magnitude of these effects. Method Self-report data were collected on 8,045 same-sex and opposite-sex twins, aged 18,31 years, from a population-based registry of Norwegian twins. Structural equation modeling was utilized to estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to liability for undue influence of weight on self-evaluation, allowing for gender-specific effects. Results Individual variation in undue influence of weight on self-evaluation was best explained by shared and individual environmental influences. No significant gender differences were found. Shared environmental factors accounted for 31% of the variance. Discussion These results raise the possibility that there may be distinct sources of familial resemblance for different symptoms of bulimia nervosa as codified in the 4th ed. of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 123,132, 2004. [source]

    The effects of aging on nostalgia in consumers' advertisement processing

    Abstract We investigated the triggers and functions of nostalgia in consumers' processing of television advertisements in relation to aging. Study 1 explored the contents and triggers of nostalgic experiences by requesting 451 undergraduates to write four different nostalgic descriptions (of scenes, songs, events, and commercials). An analysis of the descriptions using text mining revealed that nostalgic reactions occur in response to events that had been frequently repeated in the past and were separated from the present by a long time interval. Study 2 explored the functions of nostalgia among 737 consumers (15,65 years old) using a survey. Structural equation modeling revealed five steps in the processing of nostalgic advertisements. Aging facilitates a predisposition toward nostalgia. Highly nostalgic consumers are more sensitive to nostalgic triggers. Nostalgic triggers facilitate the retrieval of past events and memorization of advertisements that evoke familiarity and positive attitudes, which, in turn, facilitates the intention to purchase. Nostalgic predispositions and sensitivity to nostalgic triggers increase with age. This tendency was higher among men than among women. We proposed a model of nostalgia based on frequent repetition in the past and a long time-lag between the nostalgia-inducing event and the present. [source]

    Relational aggression in marriage

    Jason S. Carroll
    Abstract Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression Aggr. Behav. 36:315,329, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Predictors of parenting among economically disadvantaged latina mothers: mediating and moderating factors,

    Hazel M. Prelow
    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence mothers' parenting through their psychological distress but that social support would buffer the effects of ecological risk on mothers' depressive symptoms. As predicted, ecological risk was associated with higher contemporaneous psychological distress, which, in turn, predicted lower positive parenting behaviors approximately 18 months later. Social network support buffered the impact of the ecological risk on mothers' symptoms of psychological distress and, thereby, also buffered its indirect effect on parenting behaviors. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The mediating role of social support in the community environment,psychological distress link among low-income African American women

    Jielu Lin
    Living in a disordered community is negatively associated with psychological well-being. We investigated the role of social support in the link between community environment and psychological distress in a sample of 152 African American women from low socioeconomic backgrounds in a large metropolitan southeastern city. Structural equation modeling revealed that the association between low quality of community environment and increased psychological distress was accounted for by the mediating role of social support. Findings suggest the importance of social support in improving the mental health of African American women from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Because social support is affected by the environment in which women live, interventions should be community-focused. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Changes in Wives' Income: Effects on Marital Happiness, Psychological Well-Being, and the Risk of Divorce

    Stacy J. Rogers
    We investigate the effects of increases in married women's actual income and in their proportion of total family income on marital happiness, psychological well-being, and the likelihood of divorce. We use data from a sample of 1,047 married individuals (not couples) in medium-duration marriages, drawn from a five-wave panel survey begun in 1980 and continuing to 1997. Structural equation modeling is used to assess the impact of increases in married women's absolute and relative income from 1980 to 1988 on the marital happiness and well-being of married men and women in 1988. Event history analysis is used to determine how these changes affect the risk of divorce between 1988 and 1997. We find that increases in married women's absolute and relative income significantly increase their marital happiness and well-being. Increases in married women's absolute income generally have nonsignificant effects for married men. However, married men's well-being is significantly lower when married women's proportional contributions to the total family income are increased. The likelihood of divorce is not significantly affected by increases in married women's income. Nevertheless, increases in married women's income may indirectly lower the risk of divorce by increasing women's marital happiness. [source]

    Organizational commitment, supervisory commitment, and employee outcomes in the Chinese context: proximal hypothesis or global hypothesis?

    Bor-Shiuan Cheng
    This study examines the relationship between organizational commitment and supervisory commitment (commitment to supervisor) in terms of their effects on employee outcomes in the Chinese context. Based on the principle of compatibility, we hypothesized that organizational commitment and supervisory commitment served as logical mediators (global hypothesis and proximal hypothesis) for predicting organization-relevant and leader-relevant outcomes respectively. Moreover, because of the impact of personalism in Chinese culture, we predicted that supervisory commitment also significantly influenced organization-relevant outcomes, in addition to its effect on leader-relevant outcomes. Two separate questionnaires were administered to 538 subordinates and their supervisors in Taiwanese companies. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical block regression analysis shows that the principle of compatibility and personalism can explain the proposed relationship in this study. Implications and research directions are discussed in light of Chinese culture for future investigation into organizational commitment and supervisory commitment. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Longitudinal Effects of Hope on Depression and Anxiety: A Latent Variable Analysis

    Randolph C. Arnau
    ABSTRACT This study tested the prospective effects of hope on depression and anxiety using a longitudinal design. A sample of 522 college students completed self-report measures of hope, depression, and anxiety at three time points, with 1-month delays between administrations. Structural equation modeling was employed to test two cross-lagged panel models of the reciprocal effects of the Agency and Pathways components of hope on depression and anxiety. Results indicated statistically significant negative effects for the Agency component of hope on later depression but no unique effect of the Pathways component of hope on depression. Likewise, Agency showed a statistically significant negative effect on later anxiety, but again Pathways had no significant influence on anxiety. In both cases, neither depression nor anxiety demonstrated any longitudinal effects on either the Agency or Pathways components of hope. Implications of these findings are discussed, along with potential directions for future research. [source]

    The Contribution of Self-Efficacy Beliefs to Dispositional Shyness: On Social-Cognitive Systems and the Development of Personality Dispositions

    Gian Vittorio Caprara
    Self-efficacy measures, taken at the initial measurement period, included indices of perceived self-efficacy for forming and maintaining social relationships, dealing effectively with parents, managing negative emotions, and expressing positive emotions towards others. Levels of self-reported shyness as well as emotional stability were assessed also at time 1, with shyness measured again at the follow-up assessment two years later. Structural equation modeling indicated that two of the four self-efficacy measures uniquely contributed to levels of shyness reported at time 1, and that perceptions of social self-efficacy uniquely contributed to shyness at time 2 even when considering the effects of time 1 shyness levels. Emotional stability did not uniquely contributed to time 2 shyness after considering the relation between shyness at the first and second measurement points. The broad implications of social-cognitive analyses for the study of personality development are discussed. [source]

    Density of Familial Alcoholism and Its Effects on Alcohol Use and Problems in College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2008
    Christy Capone
    Background:, Previous studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) in college students have typically relied on dichotomous indices of paternal drinking. This study examined the prevalence of FHA and its effects on alcohol use and problems using a density measure in a sample (n = 408) of college students. Methods:, Undergraduate students completed an anonymous survey in exchange for course credit. Data was collected between 2005 and 2006. Results:, Using a density measure of FHA, we observed an overall prevalence rate of 65.9% and a rate of 29.1% for FHA in both first and second-degree relatives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate relations among FHA, alcohol use/problems and previously identified etiological risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Results indicated a significant positive association between FHA and alcohol-related problems and this relationship was mediated by age of onset of drinking, behavioral undercontrol and current cigarette use. Behavioral undercontrol also mediated the relationship between gender and alcohol problems. Additionally, FHA was associated with an earlier age of onset of drinking and this was related to greater alcohol use. Conclusions:, Assessing density of FHA in future trajectory research may capture a greater number of students at risk for acute alcohol-related problems and/or future development of AUDs. Future preventive interventions with this population, which should begin well before the college years, may benefit from considering personality factors and incorporating smoking cessation to help identify at-risk students and assist those who wish to cut down on their alcohol use but find that smoking acts as a trigger for increased drinking. [source]

    The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path From Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination

    Helen W. Wilson
    Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0,11) with cases processed during 1967,1971 were matched with nonabused, nonneglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are from in-person interviews at approximately age 29 and arrest records through 1994. Structural equation modeling tested path models. Results indicated that victims of child abuse and neglect were at increased risk for all problem behaviors except drug use. In the full model, only early sexual initiation remained significant as a mediator in the pathway from child abuse and neglect to prostitution. Findings were generally consistent for physical and sexual abuse and neglect. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem behaviors among maltreated children may also reduce their risk for prostitution later in life. [source]

    Parent , Adolescent Relationships and Girls' Unhealthy Eating: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Andrea Bastiani Archibald
    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between parent ,adolescent relationships and adolescent girls' unhealthy eating. Girls (N= 184) were seen at Time 1 (M age = 14.30 years), and then again 2 years later (Time 2; M age = 16.04 years). At both assessment periods, they completed measures that assessed their eating attitudes and behaviors, relationships with their parents, height, weight, and age of menarche. Whereas unhealthy family relationships have been hypothesized as a precursor to unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviors, it is also possible that increases in these behaviors contribute to more negative relationships within the family. Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously investigate the longitudinal influence of parent , adolescent relationships on girls' unhealthy eating, and girls' unhealthy eating on parent , adolescent relationships. The model was tested with the following controls: body mass (kg/m2), pubertal timing and age. A longitudinal direct effect was found for unhealthy eating on parent, adolescent relationships; however, no direct effect was found for parent, adolescent relationships on unhealthy eating over time. For middle, and late,adolescent girls, it appears that unhealthy eating behaviors and attitudes are predictive of less positive parent , adolescent relationships over time. [source]

    Relationships between perceived features and similarity of images: A test of Tversky's contrast model

    Abebe Rorissa
    The rapid growth of the numbers of images and their users as a result of the reduction in cost and increase in efficiency of the creation, storage, manipulation, and transmission of images poses challenges to those who organize and provide access to images. One of these challenges is similarity matching, a key component of current content-based image retrieval systems. Similarity matching often is implemented through similarity measures based on geometric models of similarity whose metric axioms are not satisfied by human similarity judgment data. This study is significant in that it is among the first known to test Tversky's contrast model, which equates the degree of similarity of two stimuli to a linear combination of their common and distinctive features, in the context of image representation and retrieval. Data were collected from 150 participants who performed an image description and a similarity judgment task. Structural equation modeling, correlation, and regression analyses confirmed the relationships between perceived features and similarity of objects hypothesized by Tversky. The results hold implications for future research that will attempt to further test the contrast model and assist designers of image organization and retrieval systems by pointing toward alternative document representations and similarity measures that more closely match human similarity judgments. [source]

    Forgiveness in marriage: The role of relationship quality, attributions, and empathy

    Frank D. Fincham
    Italian husbands (n= 79) and wives (n= 92) from long-term marriages provided data on the role of marital quality, affective reactions, and attributions for hypothetical partner transgressions in promoting forgiveness. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as hypothesized, positive marital quality was predictive of more benign attributions that, in turn, facilitated forgiveness both directly and indirectly via affective reactions and emotional empathy. Unexpectedly, marital quality did not account for unique variance in forgiveness. Compared to husbands, wives' responsibility attributions were more predictive of forgiveness, whereas empathy was a better predictor of forgiveness in husbands than in wives. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the burgeoning therapeutic literature on forgiveness. [source]

    The predictive validity of the Phelps Kindergarten Readiness Scale

    Kristine M. Augustyniak
    This study assesses the predictive validity of the Phelps Kindergarten Readiness Scale (PKRS) for later academic achievement and explores the utility of a domain-specific measure of kindergarten readiness. Kindergarten readiness scores were significantly correlated with both math and language arts achievement as measured by New York State fourth-grade assessments for 148 students in a suburban, northeastern public school. In addition, each of the PKRS domains (Verbal, Perceptual, and Auditory) was correlated with later academic achievement. Two simultaneously calculated regression analyses showed that language arts skills were best predicted by the Verbal and Auditory domains of the PKRS and that math achievement was more complexly determined by all three readiness domains. Structural equation modeling using AMOS-4 showed that the latent construct readiness, as measured by the PKRS domain scores, was positively and significantly related to the latent construct academic achievement. Finally, this relationship held when age, gender, and behavioral indices at the time of kindergarten screening were used as moderator variables. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 41: 509,516, 2004. [source]