Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The , isotypes of tubulin in neuronal differentiation,

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 7 2010
Jiayan Guo
Abstract The differences among the vertebrate , isotypes of tubulin are highly conserved in evolution, suggesting that they have functional significance. To address this, we have used differentiating neuroblastoma cells as a model system. These cells express the ,I, ,II, and ,III isotypes. Although there is no difference prior to differentiation, a striking difference is seen after differentiation. Both ,I and ,III occur in cell bodies and neurites, while ,II occurs mostly in neurites. Knocking down ,I causes a large decrease in cell viability while silencing ,II and ,III does not. Knocking down ,II causes a large decrease in neurite outgrowth without affecting viability. Knocking down ,III has little effect on neurite outgrowth and only decreases viability if cells are treated with glutamate and glycine, a combination known to generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species. It appears, therefore, that ,I is required for cell viability, ,II for neurite outgrowth and ,III for protection against free radicals and reactive oxygen species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Denil fishway utilization patterns and passage of several warmwater species relative to seasonal, thermal and hydraulic dynamics

C. M. Bunt
Abstract , Two different Denil fishways on the Grand River, Ontario, were used as check-points to evaluate the upstream movement of fishes past a low-head weir and to examine the proportions and inferred swimming performance of non-salmonid warmwater fishes that used each fishway type. Traps installed at fishway exits were used to collect fish during 24-hour sampling periods, over 40,51 days each year, from 1995 to 1997. Passage rates, size selectivity, water temperature, water velocity and turbidity for the periods of maximum passage for each year were examined. General species composition from trap samples shifted from catostomids to cyprinids to ictalurids to percids and centrarchids, with some overlap, as water temperatures increased from 8 °C to 25 °C in the spring and early summer. Water depths, and therefore water velocities in each fishway, were independent of river discharge due to variable accumulations of debris on upstream trash-racks. Relationships between the water velocity and the swimming and position-holding abilities of several species emerged. Turbidity was directly related to river discharge and precipitation events, and many species demonstrated maximum fishway use during periods of increased turbidity. This study 1) provided evidence of strongly directional upstream movements among several species that were previously considered non-migratory and 2) describes physical and hydraulic conditions during fishway use for 29 non-salmonid fish species., [source]

Threatened obligatory riverine fishes in human-modified Polish rivers

T. Penczak
Abstract , The fate of obligatory riverine fish species (rheophils), which are the objects of anglers' exploitation (chub ,Leuciscus cephalus, nase ,Chondrostoma nasus, barbel ,Barbus barbus, gudgeon ,Gobio gobio), and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) and grayling (Thymallus thymallus) (in the Gwda River basin only), were investigated in large alluvial rivers (Pilica and Warta) and in the medium-sized Gwda River basin. The Pilica (1973) and the Warta (1986,1987) were divided by large dams without fish ladders in their middle courses. The Gwda River was divided by only a few dams along its course, but its tributaries carrying pure water had numerous small dams that supplied water for fish farms. Other stresses influencing fish populations in these rivers were: pollution, overfishing, hydroelectric plants and bank revetments. Because the listed stresses occurred alternately and at various periods of time in these rivers, this enabled attributing the cause for extinction and reduction of the abundance and distribution. In the salmon Gwda River basin, a drastic decrease in spatial distribution and reduction of occurrence ranges of brown trout, grayling and barbel was evident in respect to the first study period (1980s) in the 1990s. In the large, alluvial Pilica River, nase, barbel and dace are on the edge of extinction and chub and gudgeon are vulnerable. In the Warta's tailwater, barbel is an extinct species, and chub, dace and gudgeon are vulnerable ones. In a site in the backwater, none of the above mentioned species became extinct, but their abundance and occurrence frequency decreased a bit in respect to the pre-impoundment period. Roach-generalist, which was used in this research as a "control" species, increased in abundance in all 3 rivers. These investigations univocally proved that the dams cause catastrophic stress for obligatory riverine species., [source]

Effects of a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (cyanobacteria) on the swimming movements of cladocerans

Aloysio da S. Ferrão Filho
Abstract This study evaluated the effects of a saxitoxin-producer strain (T3) of the cyanobacteria species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming movements of three cladoceran species (Daphnia gessneri, D. pulex, and Moina micrura). Acute toxicity bioassays were designed to access the effects of T3 strain, of a nonsaxitoxin producer strain (NPLP-1) of the same species and of a raw water sample from Funil reservoir (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), that contained this and other cyanobacteria. In the acute bioassays, animals were exposed to C. raciborskii filaments or Funil water for 24,48 h and then transferred to food suspensions without cyanobacterial filaments for a further 48 h. During the exposure time to T3 strain filaments there was a decrease in the number of swimming individuals, with animals showing progressive immobilization. The same effect was observed with Funil water sample. Animals stayed alive on the bottom of the test tube and recovered swimming movements when transferred to food suspensions without toxic cells. This effect was not observed with the strain NPLP-1. The cladoceran D. pulex showed to be extremely sensitive to T3 strain and to Funil water containing C. raciborskii filaments, showing complete paralysis after 24-h exposure to T3 cell densities of 103 and 104 cells mL,1, and after 24-h exposure to only 10% of raw water. However, D. gessneri was not sensitive to both T3 and to Funil water, whereas M. micrura was intermediate in sensitivity. This is the first report on the effects of cyanobacterial saxitoxins on movements of freshwater cladocerans, showing also difference in sensitivity among closely related Daphnia species. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2008. [source]

Cytotoxic effects induced by hexachlorobenzene in Squilla mantis (L.) (Crustacea, Stomatopoda)

Antonio Dell'Anno
Abstract Contamination of marine environments by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) represents a serious concern for potential consequences on ecosystem and human health. Despite this, information on cytotoxic effects on marine organisms is still largely lacking. In this study, we investigated cytotoxic effects induced by HCB on gonads and muscular tissue of Squilla mantis by analysing Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and plasma membrane fluidity. This crustacean species was selected as a model for its habitat, trophic level, feeding behavior, and commercial exploitation for human consumption. Time course experiments revealed that low concentrations of HCB (i.e. 50 nM) determine an exponentially decrease of Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and a significant modification of cellular membrane fluidity. Significant negative relationships between Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and membrane fluidity were observed, suggesting that changes in the structure and packing of cellular membranes induced by HCB may be the primary factor affecting the activity of essential bilayer-associated enzymes. Overall these findings suggest that even small concentrations of HCB may determine important changes on cell metabolism with potential cascade effects on recruitment of this commercial species. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2008. [source]

Chiral Diphosphite-Modified Rhodium(0) Nanoparticles: Catalyst Reservoir for Styrene Hydroformylation

M. Rosa Axet
Abstract The organometallic synthesis of rhodium nanoparticles stabilized with diphosphite ligands is described. These nanoparticles were investigated as catalysts in the styrene hydroformylation reaction, and their activity and selectivity were compared with those of similar molecular complexes. NMR spectroscopic studies performed during the course of the catalytic reaction showed that the synthesized nanoparticles are not stable and produce molecular species. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

Mössbauer Investigation of Peroxo Species in the Iron(III),EDTA,H2O2 System

Virender K. Sharma
Abstract The reaction of a diiron(III),EDTA complex with H2O2 in alkaline medium is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy in conjunction with the rapid-freeze/quench technique in order to identify possible intermediate species during the formation and decomposition of the purple (EDTA)FeIII(,2 -O2)3, complex ion. Starting from the six-coordinate [FeIIIEDTA], species at acidic pH, it is demonstrated that mononuclear complexes formed at a pH of about 1 are convert into the diiron(III),EDTA complex [(EDTA)FeIII -O-FeIII(EDTA)]4, upon raising the pH to around 10.4. H2O2 reacts with the diiron(III) complex to give peroxide/hydroperoxide related adducts. Initially, the reaction tears apart the dimers to form a peroxo adduct, namely the seven-coordinate mononuclear [(EDTA)FeIII(,2 -O2)]3,, which is stable only at very high pH. The decomposition of this peroxo adduct gives two new species, which are reported for the first time. The Mössbauer parameters of these species suggest a six-coordinate ,-peroxodiiron(III) complex [(EDTA)FeIII -(OO)-FeIII(EDTA)]4, and a seven-coordinate ,-hydroxo-,-peroxodiiron(III) complex [(EDTA)FeIII -(OO)(OH)-FeIII(EDTA)]5,. A badly resolved, extremely broad component is observed in the Mössbauer spectra during the conversion of the monomer to dimeric peroxo species, which may be attributed to the short-lived [(EDTA)FeIII -OO]3, or [(EDTA)FeIII -OOH]2, intermediate species. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

Metal-Catalyzed Bond Reorganization of 1,3-Diynes

Eun Jin Cho
Abstract 1,3-Diynes possessing propargylic heteroatom substituents provide functionalized 1,5-dien-3-ynes when catalyzed by platinum and gold. This rearrangement implies the involvement of metallotropic [1,3]-shift of the intermediate alkynyl metal carbene species. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

Screening of Garlic Water Extract for Binding Activity with Cholera Toxin B Pentamer by NMR Spectroscopy , An Old Remedy Giving a New Surprise

Matteo Politi
Abstract Binding between a component of the crude hot water extract obtained from Allium sativum crushed bulbs (ASw) and cholera toxin B pentamer (CTB) was detected by STD NMR experiments. Bioassay-oriented fractionation allowed the partial identification of a high molecular weight polysaccharide mainly composed of galactose as the bioactive complex against CTB. This work represents the first example of screening of a medicinal plant by NMR against a specific disease, and corroborates traditional medical uses of the species. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

Non-Dipolar Behavior of Mesoionic Heterocycles: Synthesis and Tautomerism of 2-Alkylthioisomünchnones

Martín Ávalos
Abstract This paper describes a general preparation of a series of 1,3-thiazolium-4-olates, each bearing an alkyl group at C-2, through reactions between N -arylthiocarboxamides and ,-haloacyl halides. Unlike the 2-aryl-substituted derivatives, such alkylated mesoionic compounds exist in equilibria with their non-dipolar tautomers, the corresponding 2-alkylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones. The unambiguous characterization of such tautomers and their relative stabilities have now been assessed by spectroscopic and computational studies. The presence of o,o, -disubstituted aryl groups at N-3 of the heterocyclic ring slows down free rotation around the N,Ar bond, thus opening access to a promising class of non-biaryl atropisomers. Finally, treatment of N -arylthioformamides with ,-haloacyl halides gives rise to N -acylthioformamides instead of the corresponding mesoionic species. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]

Pollen morphology, leaf surfaces, mycobiota diversity and leaf spots of three species of Zygophyllum growing along Cairo-Suez desert road, Eastern (Arabian) desert in Egypt

S. M. El Naggar
Three native species of Zygophyllum: Z. coccinum L., Z. decumbens L. and Z. simplex L. (Zygophyllaceae) have been investigated morphologically, palynologically and mycologically. Twenty-two fungal species belonging to 11 genera were collected from leaf surfaces (11 genera and 22 species) and anthers/ pollen grains (7, 13) of Zygophyllum coccinum, Z. decumbens and Z. simplex on Czapek-Dox agar at 25 °C. Fungal diversity of the two microhabitats is basically similar and the most prevalent fungi were Alternaria alternata /A. phragmospora, Cladosporium cladosporioides /C. herbarum and Ulocladium botrytis /U. consortiale. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. herbarum -leaf spots were rarely recorded in the three studied plant species. Leaf lamina size and sculpture of the studied taxa almost seem to be the most reliable factors of the fungal biodiversity on the studied plant species. On the other hand, reticulate-micro reticulate pollen type is the only pollen type recorded in the present study which reflects that the very narrow range of spectrum of fungal biodiversity between the studied plant species. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Pollenmorphologie, Blattoberfläche, mykobiotische Diversität und Blattflecken von drei Zygophyllum -Arten entlang der Wüstenstraße Kairo,Suez, Östliche (Arabische) Wüste Ägyptens Drei einheimische Zygophyllum -Arten (Z. coccinum, Z. decumbens und Z. simplex (Zygophyllaceae) wurden morphologisch, palynologisch und mykologisch untersucht. 22 Pilzarten aus elf Gattungen wurden von Blattoberflächen gesammelt (11 Gattungen, 22 Arten) und Antheren/Pollenkörner (7, 13) von Zygophyllum coccinum, Z. decumbens und Z. simplex mittels Czapek-Dox agar bei 25 °C untersucht. Die Pilzdiversität beider Mikrohabitate ist basisähnlich und die häufigsten Taxa sind: Alternaria alternata /A. phragmospora, Cladosporium cladosporioides /C. herbarum und Ulocladium botrytis /U. consor- tiale. Blattflecken von Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides und C. herbarum wurden auf den untersuchten Pflanzen selten verzeichnet. Die Größe der Blattlamina und die Skulptur der untersuchten Taxa scheinen die zuverlässigsten (häufigsten) Faktoren für die Pilz-Biodiversität auf den untersuchten Pflanzen zu sein. Andererseits ist der retikulate-microretikulate Pollentyp in vorliegender Studie der einzige Pollentyp, der dieses enge Spektrum der Pilz-Biodiversität zwischen den untersuchten Pflanzen aufzeigt (widerspiegelt). [source]

Clonal diversity and subpopulation structure in central European relict populations of Saxifraga paniculataMill. (Saxifragaceae)

C. Reisch
Saxifraga paniculata is a rare and endangered glacial relict in central Europe. It shows high clonal reproduction. In this study, we analysed the clonal diversity and the subpopulation structure of three populations from the species main distribution area in Germany outside of the Alps (Swabian Alb, Black Forest, Nahe Mountains). We used RAPD analysis to detect the genetic variation in S. paniculata and found high levels of clonal diversity. The percentage of distinguishable genotypes (PD) within populations of S. paniculata was 1.0 and even spatially well defined mats of rosettes consisted of several genotypes. In a cluster analysis, the investigated populations were clearly separated from each other. However, we detected no genetic differentiation among subpopulations. We ascribe the high level of genotypic variability to the species' mixed mating system, which creates and maintains high levels of genetic diversity within the populations of S. paniculata. Clonal reproduction seems, meanwhile, to be of secondary importance for the propagation of the species. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Klonale Diversität und Subpopulationsstruktur in mitteleuropäischen Reliktpopulationen von Saxifraga paniculataMill. (Saxifragaceae) Saxifraga paniculata ist in Mitteleuropa ein seltenes und gefährdetes Glazialrelikt, das sich durch die Fähigkeit zu starker klonaler Reproduktion auszeichnet. Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der klonalen Diversität und der Subpopulationsstruktur von drei Populationen aus dem Hauptverbreitungsgebiet der Art außerhalb der Alpen (Schwäbische Alb, Schwarzwald, Nahe-Bergland). Die genetische Variabilität wurde mittels RAPD-Analyse untersucht. Dabei konnte ein hohes Maß an klonaler Diversität festgestellt werden. Der Prozentsatz unterscheidbarer Genotypen innerhalb einer Population (PD) betrug 1.0 und selbst größere Matten, deren Entstehung nach rein morphologischer Einschätzung auf klonalem Wachstum beruhen müsste, bestanden aus mehreren Genotypen. In einer Clusteranalyse unterschieden sich die analysierten Populationen klar voneinander. Unterschiede zwischen Subpopulationen konnten jedoch nicht nachgewiesen werden. Das hohe Ausmaß an genetischer Diversität kann dem "mixed mating system" der Art zugeschrieben werden, das genetische Variabilität schafft und erhält. Klonales Wachstum scheint währenddessen eher von zweitrangiger Bedeutung für die Vermehrung der Art zu sein. [source]

Remarkable heterogeneity displayed by oval cells in rat and mouse models of stem cell,mediated liver regeneration,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Peter Jelnes
The experimental protocols used in the investigation of stem cell,mediated liver regeneration in rodents are characterized by activation of the hepatic stem cell compartment in the canals of Hering followed by transit amplification of oval cells and their subsequent differentiation along hepatic lineages. Although the protocols are numerous and often used interchangeably across species, a thorough comparative phenotypic analysis of oval cells in rats and mice using well-established and generally acknowledged molecular markers has not been provided. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the molecular phenotypes of oval cells in several of the most commonly used protocols of stem cell,mediated liver regeneration,namely, treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial (70%) hepatectomy (AAF/PHx); a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet; a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-collidin (DDC) diet; and N -acetyl-paraaminophen (APAP). Reproducibly, oval cells showing reactivity for cytokeratins (CKs), muscle pyruvate kinase (MPK), the adenosine triphosphate,binding cassette transporter ABCG2/BCRP1 (ABCG2), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and delta-like protein 1/preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk/Pref-1) were induced in rat liver treated according to the AAF/PHx and CDE but not the DDC protocol. In mouse liver, the CDE, DDC, and APAP protocols all induced CKs and ABCG2-positive oval cells. However, AFP and Dlk/Pref-1 expression was rarely detected in oval cells. Conclusion: Our results delineate remarkable phenotypic discrepancies exhibited by oval cells in stem cell,mediated liver regeneration between rats and mice and underline the importance of careful extrapolation between individual species. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;45:1462,1470.) [source]

Bismuth-catalyzed cyclization of amino-1,6-enynes

Kimihiro Komeyama
Bi(OTf)3 effectively catalyzed the cyclization of amino-1,6-enynes, leading to bicyclic amine and cyclopentadienyl amino compounds. The selectivity of the products depends on the substitution pattern of the olefinic moiety. 19F NMR trace experiment of the reaction and other results indicate a novel alkynophilicity of the bismuth species. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heteroatom Chem 19:644,648, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/hc.20490 [source]

Toward a reduction of the bimolecular reaction model for titan's ionosphere

Nathalie Carrasco
The aim of this paper is to highlight the skeletal chemistry responsible for the rich ionospheric chemistry observed in Titan's atmosphere. The present database is represented by about 700 ion,molecule reactions, which are not all important to describe the system. Our criterion to reduce the list of reactions is to reproduce a reference mass spectrum within its uncertainties. This reference mass spectrum is obtained with the complete reaction database and with neutral densities optimized for the INMS mass spectrum measured at 1200 km during the T5 flyby. We compared two mechanism reduction methods, brute force screening and global sensitivity analysis. The analysis of the residual scheme with only 35 bimolecular reactions highlights several patterns, concerning in particular ionic growth processes and introduction of nitrogen to the ionic species. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 40: 699,709, 2008 [source]

Experimental investigation of the intermediates of isooctane during ignition

X. He
Direct measurements of intermediates of ignition are challenging experimental objectives, yet such measurements are critical for understanding fuel decomposition and oxidation pathways. In the current work, a new gas-sampling system is used to provide quantitative discrete measurements of 30 hydrocarbon and oxygenate species during rapid compression facility studies of isooctane ignition. Two target conditions and equivalence ratios (based on molar fuel to oxygen ratio) were studied (P = 5.2 atm, T = 1000 K, , = 0.4 and P = 4.8 atm, T = 975 K, , = 1.2). The results are compared with model predictions that use the detailed reaction mechanism developed by Curran et al. (Combust Flame 2002, 129, 253,280). In general, the model predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, including several trace species. Isobutene (i-C4H8) and propene (C3H6) were the major olefin species identified in the experiments. The results are consistent with an intermediate temperature reaction path sequence, where isooctane is consumed by H-atom abstraction to yield isooctyl radicals that undergo ,-scission to form olefin and alkyl radical species. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 39: 498,517, 2007 [source]

Molecular magnetism via resonating valence bonds for conjugated radicals and selected transition metal complexes

D. J. Klein
Abstract Currently there is considerable interest in the nature of exchange interactions leading to unpaired electrons in molecular and cluster magnets. Here, the focus is largely at a qualitative level, via a novel "mean-field" resonance-theoretic view, to deal with exchange couplings, so as to allow unpaired electrons in either (or both of) the ,- and ,-parts of a (largely organic) bipartite (or alternate) molecular network. The (quantitative) number and (qualitative) location of unpaired spins are dealt with by this simple approach, which also offers some (qualitative) information on the occurrence of low-lying higher-spin states. To illustrate the approach it is applied to a variety of systems where the spin sources are conjugated ,-network molecules and polymers, carbenes, variously defected graphites, and a few species involving transition metals, especially Cu. The discussion deals not only with traditional conjugated organics compounds but also with selected inorganic species. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2001 [source]

A study of the mechanisms of divalent copper binding to a modified cellulose adsorbent

David William O'Connell
Abstract A modified cellulose material was prepared by grafting glycidyl methacrylate to cellulose (Cell- g -GMA) with subsequent functionalization with imidazole (Cell- g -GMA-imidazole). This latter compound was used in the adsorption of copper from aqueous solution. The mechanism of Cu(II) binding onto the cell- g -GMA-imidazole was investigated at the molecular level using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR and Raman spectroscopy provided an insight into the extent to which perturbation of the imidazole ring occurred following adsorption of the metal while XPS spectra indicated the binding of Cu(II) ions to nitrogen atoms by the appearance of additional binding energy peaks for nitrogen on the cellulose- g -GMA-imidazole sample post adsorption. The EDX technique provided clear evidence of the physical presence of both the copper and sulfate on the cellulose- g -GMA-imidazole material post adsorption. XRD analysis further confirmed the presence of a copper species in the adsorbent material as copper sulfate hydroxide (Cu3(OH)4SO4 - antlerite). The XRD studies further suggest that the overall extent of Cu(II) adsorption is not alone a combination of true metal chelation as suggested by FTIR, Raman and XPS, but also a function of surface precipitation of the polynuclear copper species. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Automatic annular laser trapping: a system for high-throughput sperm analysis and sorting

Linda Shi
Abstract An automatic microscope system is designed to study the response of sperm motility to an annular laser trap. A continuous annular laser trap provides a parallel way to analyze and sort sperm based on their motility and to study the effects of laser radiation, optical force and external obstacles. In the described automatic microscope system, the phase contrast images of swimming sperm are digitized to the computer at video rates. The microscope stage is controlled in real-time to relocate the sperm of interest to the annular trap with a normal or tangential entering angle. The sperm is continuously tracked and the swimming behavior is identified. Using this system, parallel sorting on human and gorilla sperm are achieved and threshold power levels separating the "fast" group and the "slow" group are compared for those two species. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Combined DFT, QCISD(T), and G2 mechanism investigation for the reactions of carbon monophosphide CP with unsaturated hydrocarbons allene CH2CCH2 and methylacetylene CH3CCH

YAn-Li Zhao
Abstract The possible reaction product distribution and mechanism of carbon monophosphide CP with unsaturated hydrocarbons allene CH2CCH2 and methylacetylene CH3CCH are investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p), QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2p), and G2 levels of theory. Corresponding reactants, products, intermediates, and interconversion and dissociation transition states are located on the reaction potential energy profiles. Computation results show that in the reaction of CP with CH2CCH2 the dominant reaction product should be species CH2CCHCP. Also, we can suggest species HCCCH2CP as a secondary reaction product despite of only minor contribution to reaction products. In the reaction of CP with CH3CCH, the primary and secondary products are suggested to be two important molecules HCCCP and CH3CCCP, respectively. The predicted mechanisms for the two reactions are not in parallel with the reactions of CN with allene CH2CCH2 and methylacetylene CH3CCH given in previous studies. The present calculations provide some useful information for future possible experimental isolation and observation for some interesting unsaturated carbon,phosphorus-bearing species. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2007 [source]

Selective manipulation of predators using pheromones: responses to frontalin and ipsdienol pheromone components of bark beetles in the Great Lakes region

Brian H. Aukema
Abstract 1,One proposed approach to improving biological control of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae; alt. Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is to manipulate predator movement using semiochemicals. However, selective manipulation is impeded by attraction of both predators and pests to bark beetle pheromones. 2,The primary bark beetle affecting pine plantations in Wisconsin, U.S.A., is the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say). Other herbivores include Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) and Dryophthorus americanus Bedel (Curculionidae). The predominant predators are the beetles Thanasimus dubius (Cleridae) and Platysoma cylindrica (Histeridae). 3,We conducted field assays using two enantiomeric ratios of ipsdienol, and frontalin plus ,-pinene. Ipsdienol is the principal pheromone component of I. pini, and frontalin is produced by a number of Dendroctonus species. ,-Pinene is a host monoterpene commonly incorporated into commercial frontalin lures. 4,Thanasimus dubius was attracted to frontalin plus ,-pinene, and also to racemic ipsdienol. By contrast, I. pini was attracted to racemic ipsdienol, but showed no attraction to frontalin plus ,-pinene. Platysoma cylindrica was attracted to 97%-(,)-ipsdienol and, to a lesser extent, racemic ipsdienol, but not to frontalin plus ,-pinene. Ips grandicollis was attracted to frontalin plus ,-pinene but not to ipsdienol. Dryophthorus americanus was attracted to both ipsdienol and frontalin plus ,-pinene. 5,This ability to selectively attract the predator T. dubius without attracting the principal bark beetle in the system, I. pini, provides new opportunities for research into augmentative biological control and basic population dynamics. Moreover, the attraction of T. dubius, but not P. cylindrica, to frontalin plus ,-pinene creates opportunities for selective manipulation of just one predator. 6,Patterns of attraction by predators and bark beetles to these compounds appear to reflect various degrees of geographical and host tree overlap with several pheromone-producing species. [source]

Fluid-particle drag in low-Reynolds-number polydisperse gas,solid suspensions

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
Xiaolong Yin
Abstract Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of low-Reynolds-number fluid flow in bidisperse fixed beds and suspensions with particle,particle relative motions have been performed. The particles are spherical and are intimately mixed. The total volume fraction of the suspension was varied between 0.1 and 0.4, the volume fraction ratio ,1/,2 from 1:1 to 1:6, and the particle size ratio d1/d2 from 1:1.5 to 1:4. A drag law with improved accuracy has been established for bidisperse fixed beds. For suspensions with particle,particle relative motions, the hydrodynamic particle,particle drag representing the momentum transfer between particle species through hydrodynamic interaction is found to be an important contribution to the net fluid-particle drag. It has a logarithmic dependence on the lubrication cutoff distance and can be fit as the harmonic mean of the drag forces in bidisperse fixed beds. The proposed drag laws for bidisperse fixed beds and suspensions are generalized to polydisperse suspensions with three or more particle species. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

A global examination of allometric scaling for predicting human drug clearance and the prediction of large vertical allometry,

Huadong Tang
Abstract Allometrically scaled data sets (138 compounds) used for predicting human clearance were obtained from the literature. Our analyses of these data have led to four observations. (1) The current data do not provide strong evidence that systemic clearance (CLs; n,=,102) is more predictable than apparent oral clearance (CLpo; n,=,24), but caution needs to be applied because of potential CLpo prediction error caused by differences in bioavailability across species. (2) CLs of proteins (n,=,10) can be more accurately predicted than that of non-protein chemicals (n,=,102). (3) CLs is more predictable for compounds eliminated by renal or biliary excretion (n,=,33) than by metabolism (n,=,57). (4) CLs predictability for hepatically eliminated compounds followed the order: high CL (n,=,11),>,intermediate CL (n,=,17),>,low CL (n,=,29). All examples of large vertical allometry (% error of prediction greater than 1000%) occurred only when predicting human CLs of drugs having very low CLs. A qualitative analysis revealed the application of two potential rules for predicting the occurrence of large vertical allometry: (1) ratio of unbound fraction of drug in plasma (fu) between rats and humans greater than 5; (2) C logP greater than 2. Metabolic elimination could also serve as an additional indicator for expecting large vertical allometry. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95: 1783,1799, 2006 [source]

Syntheses of cyclic polycarbonates by the direct phosgenation of bisphenol M,

Hans R. Kricheldorf
Abstract Bisphenol M was subjected to interfacial polycondensations in an NaOH/CH2Cl2 system with triethylamine as a catalyst. Regardless of the catalyst concentration, similar molecular weights were obtained, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra exclusively displayed mass peaks of cycles (detectable up to 15,000 Da). With triethyl benzyl ammonium chloride as a catalyst, linear chains became the main products, but the contents of the cycles and the molecular weights strongly increased with higher catalyst/bisphenol ratios. When the pseudo-high-dilution method was applied, both diphosgene and triphosgene yielded cyclic polycarbonates of low or moderate molecular weights. Size exclusion chromatography measurements, evaluated with the triple-detection method, yielded bimodal mass distribution curves with polydispersities of 5,12. Furthermore, a Mark,Houwink equation was elaborated, and it indicated that the hydrodynamic volume of poly(bisphenol M carbonate) was quite similar to that of poly(bisphenol A carbonate)s with similar concentrations of cyclic species. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 1248,1254, 2005 [source]

Molecular structure determination of Ni(II) diimine complex and DMA analysis of Ni(II) diimine-based polyethenes ,

J. O. Liimatta
Abstract Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis showed that polyethene, prepared under suitable polymerization conditions with the Brookhart-type catalyst dibromo- N,N,-1,2-acenaphthylenediylidenebis[2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)benzeneamine]Ni(II)/methylaluminoxane (MAO), behaved like an elastomer, even though no comonomer was added. A structural characterization showed that the polymers contained methyl to hexyl branches and some longer branches. The effect of the polymerization conditions on branching was investigated through variations in the pressure and temperature of the polymerization. Depending on the degree and type of branching, polyethene was either quite amorphous or highly crystalline with a high melting temperature. The solid-state structure of the catalyst dibromo- N,N,-1,2-acenaphthylenediylidenebis[2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)benzeneamine]Ni(II) consisted of two centrosymmetrically related monomeric moieties, where Ni atoms were bridged by two bromide ligands. The Ni atom was five-coordinated, with a square pyramidal coordination polyhedron. The sixth coordination site of the octahedral geometry was effectively blocked by the isopropyl groups of the 2,6-C6H3(i -Pr) substituents of the diimine ligand. In solution in the presence of MAO, the longer bridging NiBr bonds broke, and the complex dissociated to a monomeric species. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 39: 1426,1434, 2001 [source]

Antioxidant Protection Mechanisms And Arachidonic Acid Synthesis Are Altered In Schwann Cells Grown In Elevated Glucose

C Miinea
Accumulating evidence points to oxidative stress as an important factor in the onset of diabetic neuropathy. We have investigated the status of antioxidant protection mechanisms in immortalized rat Schwann cells cultured in high (30 and 50 mM) concentrations of glucose. As compared to growth in 5 mM glucose, the cells contained 40% less reduced glutathione (n =8, p < 0.01). Total superoxide dismutase activity was diminished by more than 50% (n=3; p < 0.001), whereas catalase activity was unchanged. The cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio was progressively increased with increasing medium glucose concentrations. Our previous findings have established that upon exposure of cultured cells to elevated glucose, the proportions of arachidonic acid-containing molecular species (ACMS) in phospholipids are decreased in a pattern similar to alterations exhibited by diabetic nerve. To examine whether biosynthesis of arachidonic acid might be perturbed, confluent cells maintained in either high or low glucose were incubated with either [14C]linoleic acid (18:2) or [14C]dihomo-,-linolenic acid (20:3) and radioactivity incorporated into molecular species of major phospholipid classes was measured. The incorporation of 18:2 either as unchanged fatty acid or into ACMS did not differ as a function of glucose concentration. Negligible labeled 18:3 or 20:3 molecular species were detected. In contrast, the uptake of 20:3 into 18:1/20:4 and 16:0/20:4 phosphatidylcholine and 18:1/20:4 phosphatidylethanolamine, but not into 20:3-containing molecular species, was significantly reduced in cells cultured in 30 mM glucose. These data imply that ,5 desaturase activity is decreased in cells exposed to elevated glucose. This reduced enzyme activity could adversely affect polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and might arise as a consequence of impaired scavenging of reactive oxygen species. (Supported by NIH grant DK30577) [source]

A new species of the genus Dichochrysa from Turkey (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae)

Abstract A new species of Chrysopidae from Konya province, Turkey; Dichochrysa hadimensis sp. n. is described, illustrated and compared to closely related species. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Validation of the FACSCount AF System for Determination of Sperm Concentration in Boar Semen

C Hansen
Contents A flow cytometric method has been developed for rapid determination of sperm concentration in semen from various mammalian species., All cells containing DNA are stained with SYBR-14 or propidium iodide (PI) and sperm concentration is determined in relation to an internal standard of fluorescent microspheres (beads). Satisfactory staining can be achieved within 2,3 min and the following flow cytometric analysis on the FACSCount AF System rapidly provides the user with a precise and accurate assessment of the sperm concentration. In this study, the FACSCount AF System and Sperm Counting Reagent (BD Biosciences) was compared with microscopic counting using a Bürker,Türk haemocytometer. In addition, sperm concentration was determined using the Corning 254 spectrophotometer which is used routinely by Danish artificial insemination stations for boars. The results show that the agreement between flow cytometry and microscopic counting is very high. The slope for the regression line was 1.12 (SE = 0.03) with an estimated intercept with the Y-axis of 22 × 106sperm/ml (SE = 10 × 106 sperm/ml) and an estimated error of the model of 10 × 106 sperm/ml. For the spectrophotometer, the slope of the regression line was 1.09 (SE = 0.07) with an estimated intercept of 137 × 106 sperm/ml (SE = 25 × 106 sperm/ml). The average error made by the spectrophotometer was 55 × 106 sperm/ml. In addition, the results obtained using flow cytometry was highly repeatable (CV = 2.7%) in comparison with the spectrophotometric method (CV = 6.3%). These results indicate that the FACSCount AF System is a valuable tool for precise and accurate assessment of sperm concentration in boar semen and that use of this system may lead to production of more uniform insemination doses containing a specific number of sperm per dose. [source]

Comparative studies of oncostatin M expression in the tissues of adult rodents

Iya Znoyko
Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, is thought to be expressed mostly by activated T-lymphocytes and monocytes in adult animals. However, here we report specific constitutive tissue expression of OSM in the pancreas, kidney, testes, spleen, stomach, and brain, but not liver or lung, of three adult rodent species. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Fish movements: the introduction pathway for topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva and other non-native fishes in the UK

G. H. Copp
Abstract 1.The contamination of fish consignments (for stocking or aquaculture) is a major pathway by which non-native organisms, including fish, are introduced to new areas. One of the best examples of this is the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, which was accidentally imported into Romania and then throughout Europe in consignments of Asian carp species. 2.The introduction and spread of topmouth gudgeon in the UK has been linked to imports and movements of the ornamental variety (golden orfe) of ide Leuciscus idus. To examine this hypothesis, relationships between authorized movements of both native and non-native fish species (in particular ide) and the occurrence in England of topmouth gudgeon were tested at the 10×10,km scale. 3.Topmouth gudgeon occurrence in the wild was significantly correlated with the trajectories of movements of ornamental fish species (ide/orfe, sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus) as well as a few non-ornamental fish species (European catfish Silurus glanis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella). 4.These results highlight the mechanism by which non-native fish species disperse from the point of first introduction, and especially that movements of fish within the country represent an important mechanism for accidental introductions of non-native species. © Crown copyright 2010. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]