Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Spectrograph

  • echelle spectrograph

  • Selected Abstracts

    HD 209621: abundances of neutron-capture elements,

    Aruna Goswami
    ABSTRACT High-resolution spectra obtained from the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph have been used to update the stellar atmospheric parameters and metallicity of the star HD 209621. We have derived a metallicity of [Fe/H]=,1.93 for this star, and have found a large enhancement of carbon and of heavy elements, with respect to iron. Updates on the elemental abundances of four s-process elements (Y, Ce, Pr, Nd) along with the first estimates of abundances for a number of other heavy elements (Sr, Zr, Ba, La, Sm, Eu, Er, Pb) are reported. The stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature, Teff, and the surface gravity, log g (4500 K, 2.0), are determined from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. Estimated [Ba/Eu]=+0.35, places the star in the group of CEMP-(r+s) stars; however, the s-elements abundance pattern seen in HD 209621 is characteristic of CH stars; notably, the second-peak s-process elements are more enhanced than the first-peak s-process elements. HD 209621 is also found to show a large enhancement of the third-peak s-process element lead (Pb) with [Pb/Fe]=+1.88. The relative contributions of the two neutron-capture processes, r and s, to the observed abundances are examined using a parametric model-based analysis, which hints that the neutron-capture elements in HD 209621 primarily originate in s-process. [source]

    Gas dynamics of the central few parsec region of NGC 1068 fuelled by the evolving nuclear star cluster

    M. Schartmann
    ABSTRACT Recently, high-resolution observations with the help of the near-infrared adaptive optics integral field spectrograph Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) at the Very Large Telescope proved the existence of massive and young nuclear star clusters in the centres of a sample of Seyfert galaxies. With the help of three-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations with the Pluto code, we follow the evolution of such clusters, especially focusing on stellar mass loss feeding gas into the ambient interstellar medium and driving turbulence. This leads to a vertically wide distributed clumpy or filamentary inflow of gas on large scales (tens of parsec), whereas a turbulent and very dense disc builds up on the parsec scale. In order to capture the relevant physics in the inner region, we treat this disc separately by viscously evolving the radial surface density distribution. This enables us to link the tens of parsec-scale region (accessible via SINFONI observations) to the (sub-)parsec-scale region (observable with the mid-infrared interferometer instrument and via water maser emission). Thereby, this procedure provides us with an ideal testbed for data comparison. In this work, we concentrate on the effects of a parametrized turbulent viscosity to generate angular momentum and mass transfer in the disc and additionally take star formation into account. Most of the input parameters are constrained by available observations of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, and we discuss parameter studies for the free parameters. At the current age of its nuclear starburst of 250 Myr, our simulations yield disc sizes of the order of 0.8,0.9 pc, gas masses of 106 M, and mass transfer rates of 0.025 M, yr,1 through the inner rim of the disc. This shows that our large-scale torus model is able to approximately account for the disc size as inferred from interferometric observations in the mid-infrared and compares well to the extent and mass of a rotating disc structure as inferred from water maser observations. Several other observational constraints are discussed as well. [source]

    Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey catalogue , I. A sample of systems with components' masses between 1 and 2 M,

    K. G. He, miniak
    ABSTRACT We derive the absolute physical and orbital parameters for a sample of 18 detached eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data base based on the available photometry and our own radial velocity (RV) measurements. The RVs are computed using spectra we collected with the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and its University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES), and the 1.9-m Radcliffe telescope and its Grating Instrument for Radiation Analysis with a Fibre-Fed Echelle (GIRAFFE) at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). In order to obtain as precise RVs as possible, most of the systems were observed with an iodine cell available at the AAT/UCLES and/or analysed using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR). The RVs were measured with TODCOR using synthetic template spectra as references. However, for two objects we used our own approach to the tomographic disentangling of the binary spectra to provide observed template spectra for the RV measurements and to improve the RV precision even more. For one of these binaries, AI Phe, we were able to the obtain an orbital solution with an RV rms of 62 and 24 m s,1 for the primary and secondary, respectively. For this system, the precision in M sin3i is 0.08 per cent. For the analysis, we used the photometry available in the ASAS data base. We combined the RV and light curves using phoebe and jktebop codes to obtain the absolute physical parameters of the systems. Having precise RVs, we were able to reach ,0.2 per cent precision (or better) in masses in several cases but in radii, due to the limited precision of the ASAS photometry, we were able to reach a precision of only 1 per cent in one case and 3,5 per cent in a few more cases. For the majority of our objects, the orbital and physical analysis is presented for the first time. [source]

    An analysis of the composite stellar population in M32,

    P. Coelho
    ABSTRACT We obtained long-slit spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio of the galaxy M32 with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini-North telescope. We analysed the integrated spectra by means of full spectral fitting in order to extract the mixture of stellar populations that best represents its composite nature. Three different galactic radii were analysed, from the nuclear region out to 2 arcmin from the centre. This allows us to compare, for the first time, the results of integrated light spectroscopy with those of resolved colour,magnitude diagrams from the literature. As a main result we propose that an ancient and an intermediate-age population co-exist in M32, and that the balance between these two populations change between the nucleus and outside one effective radius (1reff) in the sense that the contribution from the intermediate population is larger at the nuclear region. We retrieve a smaller signal of a young population at all radii whose origin is unclear and may be a contamination from horizontal branch stars, such as the ones identified by Brown et al. in the nuclear region. We compare our metallicity distribution function for a region 1 to 2 arcmin from the centre to the one obtained with photometric data by Grillmair et al. Both distributions are broad, but our spectroscopically derived distribution has a significant component with [Z/Z,],,1, which is not found by Grillmair et al. [source]

    Mapping low- and high-density clouds in astrophysical nebulae by imaging forbidden line emission,

    J. E. Steiner
    ABSTRACT Emission line ratios have been essential for determining physical parameters such as gas temperature and density in astrophysical gaseous nebulae. With the advent of panoramic spectroscopic devices, images of regions with emission lines related to these physical parameters can, in principle, also be produced. We show that, with observations from modern instruments, it is possible to transform images taken from density-sensitive forbidden lines into images of emission from high- and low-density clouds by applying a transformation matrix. In order to achieve this, images of the pairs of density-sensitive lines as well as the adjacent continuum have to be observed and combined. We have computed the critical densities for a series of pairs of lines in the infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-rays bands, and calculated the pair line intensity ratios in the high- and low-density limit using a four- and five-level atom approximation. In order to illustrate the method, we applied it to Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral Field Unit (GMOS-IFU) data of two galactic nuclei. We conclude that this method provides new information of astrophysical interest, especially for mapping low- and high-density clouds; for this reason, we call it ,the ld/hd imaging method'. [source]

    Measuring stellar magnetic fields with the low-resolution spectropolarimeter of the William Herschel Telescope

    F. Leone
    ABSTRACT Although the influence of magnetic fields on the structure and evolution of stars has, to a great extent, been demonstrated theoretically, observational evidence for this in non-degenerated stars is still rather scarce and is mainly restricted to bright objects (V < 10). Stellar magnetic fields are commonly measured on the basis of circular spectropolarimetry at high/middle resolution across the profile of metal lines. The level of sensitivity of telescopes and spectrographs at present makes this still an almost impossible method for faint stars. In principle, stellar magnetic fields can also be measured on the basis of low-resolution spectropolarimetry, and very important results have been obtained at the 8-m European Southern Observatory telescopes with the Focal Reducer and Low-Dispersion Spectrograph (FORS1). The trade-off between signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and spectral resolution in measuring stellar magnetic fields justifies an attempt, presented here, to perform these measurements at the 4.5-m William Herschel Telescope. One of the stars with the weakest known magnetic field, HD 3360, and the magnetic chemically peculiar stars, HD 10783, HD 74521 and HD 201601, have been observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) in the 3785,4480 Ĺ range. The measured stellar magnetic fields, from Stokes I and V spectra with S/N > 600, show an internal error of ,50 G when selecting the whole interval and ,200 G within a Balmer line. Ripples in the Stokes V spectra of HD 3360 result in an instrumental positive magnetic field certainly no larger than 80 G. [source]

    Coincident, 100 kpc scale damped Ly, absorption towards a binary QSO: how large are galaxies at z, 3?

    Sara L. Ellison
    ABSTRACT We report coincident damped Ly, (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption at zabs= 2.66 and zabs= 2.94 towards the z, 3, 13.8 arcsec separation binary quasar SDSS 1116+4118 AB. At the redshifts of the absorbers, this angular separation corresponds to a proper transverse separation of ,110 h,170 kpc. A third absorber, a sub-DLA at zabs= 2.47, is detected towards SDSS 1116+4118 B, but no corresponding high column density absorber is present towards SDSS 1116+4118 A. We use high-resolution galaxy simulations and a clustering analysis to interpret the coincident absorption and its implications for galaxy structure at z, 3. We conclude that the common absorption in the two lines of sight is unlikely to arise from a single galaxy, or a galaxy plus satellite system, and is more feasibly explained by a group of two or more galaxies with separations ,100 kpc. The impact of these findings on single line-of-sight observations is also discussed; we show that abundances of DLAs may be affected by up to a few tenths of a dex by line-of-sight DLA blending. From a Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager spectrum of the two quasars, we measure metal column densities for all five absorbers and determine abundances for the three absorbers with log N(H i) > 20. For the two highest N(H i) absorbers, we determine high levels of metal enrichment, corresponding to 1/3 and 1/5 Z,. These metallicities are amongst the highest measured for DLAs at any redshift and are consistent with values measured in Lyman-break galaxies at 2 < z < 3. For the DLA at zabs= 2.94 we also infer an approximately solar ratio of ,-to-Fe peak elements from [S/Zn]=+0.05, and measure an upper limit for the molecular fraction in this particular line of sight of log f (H 2) < ,5.5. [source]

    VIMOS-VLT spectroscopy of the giant Ly, nebulae associated with three z, 2.5 radio galaxies,

    M. Villar-Martín
    ABSTRACT The morphological and spectroscopic properties of the giant (>60 kpc) Ly, nebulae associated with three radio galaxies at z, 2.5 (MRC 1558,003, 2025,218 and 0140,257) have been investigated using integral field spectroscopic data obtained with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on VLT. The morphologies are varied. The nebula of one source has a centrally peaked, rounded appearance. In the other two objects, it consists of two spatial components. The three nebulae are aligned with the radio axis within ,30°. The total Ly, luminosities are in the range (0.3,3.4) × 1044 erg s,1. The Ly, spectral profile shows strong variation through the nebulae, with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values in the range ,400,1500 km s,1 and velocity shifts Voffset, 120,600 km s,1. We present an infall model that can successfully explain the morphology, size, surface brightness distribution and the velocity field of the Ly, nebula associated with MRC 1558,003. It can also explain why Ly, is redshifted relative to other emission lines and the FWHM values of the non-resonant He ii line. This adds further support to our previous conclusion that the quiescent giant nebulae associated with this and other high-redshift powerful radio galaxies are in infall. A problem for this model is the difficulty to reproduce the large Ly, FWHM values, which might be the consequence of a different mechanism. We have discovered a giant (,85 kpc) Ly, nebula associated with the radio galaxy MRC 0140,257 at z= 2.64. It shows strikingly relaxed kinematics (FWHM < 300 km s,1 and Voffset, 120 km s,1), unique among high- z (,2) radio galaxies. [source]

    Selection of ThAr lines for wavelength calibration of echelle spectra and implications for variations in the fine-structure constant

    M. T. Murphy
    ABSTRACT Echelle spectrographs currently provide some of the most precise and detailed spectra in astronomy, the interpretation of which sometimes depends on the wavelength calibration accuracy. In some applications, such as constraining cosmological variations in the fundamental constants from quasar absorption lines, the wavelength calibration is crucial. Here we detail an algorithm for selecting thorium,argon (ThAr) emission lines for wavelength calibration which incorporates the properties of both a new laboratory wavelength list and the spectrograph of interest. We apply the algorithm to the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) and demonstrate a factor of ,3 improvement in the wavelength calibration residuals (i.e. random errors) alone. It is also found that UVES spectra calibrated using a previous, widely distributed line-list contain systematic ±30 ,75 m s,1 distortions of the wavelength scale over both short and long wavelength ranges. These distortions have important implications for current UVES constraints on cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant. The induced systematic errors are most severe for Mg/Feii quasar absorbers in the redshift range 1.2 ,zabs, 2.3, with individual absorbers studied by recent authors containing systematic errors up to four times larger than quoted statistical errors. [source]

    The first appearance of the red sequence of galaxies in proto-clusters at 2 ,z, 3

    Tadayuki Kodama
    ABSTRACT We explore the evolved galaxy population in the proto-clusters around four high- z radio galaxies at 2 ,z, 3 based on wide-field near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Three of the four fields are known proto-clusters as demonstrated by overdensities of line-emitting galaxies at the same redshifts as the radio galaxies found by narrow-band surveys and spectroscopic follow-up observations. We imaged the fields of three targets (PKS 1138,262, USS 0943,242 and MRC 0316,257) to a depth of Ks, 22 (Vega magnitude, 5,) over a 4 × 7 arcmin2 area centred on the radio galaxies with a new wide-field NIR camera, Multi-Object Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS), on the Subaru Telescope. Another target (USS 1558,003) was observed with Son of ISAAC on the New technology Telescope (NTT) to a depth of Ks= 20.5 (5,) over a 5 × 5 arcmin2 area. We apply colour cuts in J,Ks and/or JHKs in order to exclusively search for galaxies located at high redshifts: z > 2. To the 5, limiting magnitudes, we see a significant excess of NIR-selected galaxies by a factor of 2 to 3 compared to those found in the field of GOODS-South. The spatial distribution of these NIR-selected galaxies is not uniform and traces structures similar to those of emission-line galaxies, although the samples of NIR-selected galaxies and emitters show little overlap, from which we conclude that the former tend to be an evolved population with much higher stellar mass than the latter, young and active emitters. We focus on the NIR colour,magnitude sequence of the evolved population and find that the bright-end (Mstars > 1011 M,) of the red sequence is well populated by z, 2 but much less so in the z, 3 proto-clusters. This may imply that the bright-end of the colour,magnitude sequence first appeared between z= 3 and 2, an era coinciding with the appearance of sub-mm galaxies and the peak of the cosmic star formation rate. Our observations show that during the same epoch, massive galaxies are forming in high-density environments by vigorous star formation and assembly. [source]

    Gemini near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the narrow-line region of ESO 428,G14: kinematics, excitation and the role of the radio jet

    Rogemar A. Riffel
    ABSTRACT We present two-dimensional (2D) gas kinematics and excitation of the inner 300 pc of the Seyfert galaxy ESO 428,G14 at a sampling of 14 pc2, from near-infrared spectroscopic observations at R, 6000 obtained with the Integral Field Unit (IFU) of the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. From measurements of fluxes and profiles of the emission lines [Fe ii],1.257 ,m, Pa,, H2, 2.121 ,m and Br,, we construct 2D maps of line intensities and ratios, radial velocities and velocity dispersions. Emission line ,tomography' is provided by velocity slices obtained across the line profiles, a unique capability of IFUs, which allows the mapping of not only the peak velocities but including also the wings. We compare these maps with a previously published high spatial resolution radio map and find a tight relation between the radio structure and the emission-line flux distributions and kinematics, revealing that the radio jet plays a fundamental role not only in shaping the narrow-line region but also in the imprint of its kinematics. Blueshifts of up to 400 km s,1 and velocity dispersions of up to 150 km s,1 are observed in association with the radio jet at a position angle (PA) = 129°, which is also the PA of the photometric major axis of the galaxy. We conclude that the radio jet is launched at a small angle relative to the galactic plane, with the north-western side slightly oriented towards us. This angle is small enough for the radio jet to shock and compress the gas in the plane of the galaxy, and for the nuclear continuum to ionize and heat it. The distinct kinematics and flux distributions observed for the different emission lines suggest different origins for their emission. The [Fe ii] shows the largest blueshifts and velocity dispersions and its flux distribution is concentrated along the jet, while the H2 shows the lowest velocity dispersions and has additional flux contribution from regions beyond the jet. Both X-rays emitted by the active galactic nucleus and shocks produced by the radio jet can excite the H2 and [Fe ii] emission lines. We use the 2D velocity dispersion maps to estimate upper limits to the contribution of the radio jet to the excitation of [Fe ii] and H2 which may reach 90 per cent for [Fe ii] and 80 per cent for H2 in the jet region. The [Fe ii]/Pa, emission-line ratios and the association of the [Fe ii] flux distribution and kinematics with the radio structure support a stronger contribution of the radio jet to the [Fe ii] excitation than that of H2. In the regions beyond the jet, the observations favour X-ray excitation. [source]

    A deep kinematic survey of planetary nebulae in the Andromeda galaxy using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    H. R. Merrett
    ABSTRACT We present a catalogue of positions, magnitudes and velocities for 3300 emission-line objects found by the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph in a survey of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. Of these objects, 2615 are found likely to be planetary nebulae (PNe) associated with M31. The survey area covers the whole of M31's disc out to a radius of . Beyond this radius, observations have been made along the major and minor axes, and the Northern Spur and Southern Stream regions. The calibrated data have been checked for internal consistency and compared with other catalogues. With the exception of the very central, high surface brightness region of M31, this survey is complete to a magnitude limit of m5007, 23.75, 3.5 mag into the PN luminosity function. We have identified emission-line objects associated with M31's satellites and other background galaxies. We have examined the data from the region tentatively identified as a new satellite galaxy, Andromeda VIII, comparing it to data in the other quadrants of the galaxy. We find that the PNe in this region have velocities that appear to be consistent with membership of M31 itself. The luminosity function of the surveyed PNe is well matched to the usual smooth monotonic function. The only significant spatial variation in the luminosity function occurs in the vicinity of M31's molecular ring, where the luminosities of PNe on the near side of the galaxy are systematically ,0.2 mag fainter than those on the far side. This difference can be explained naturally by a modest amount of obscuration by the ring. The absence of any difference in luminosity function between bulge and disc suggests that the sample of PNe is not strongly populated by objects whose progenitors are more massive stars. This conclusion is reinforced by the excellent agreement between the number counts of PNe and the R -band light. The number counts of kinematically selected PNe also allow us to probe the stellar distribution in M31 down to very faint limits. There is no indication of a cut-off in M31's disc out to beyond four scalelengths, and no signs of a spheroidal halo population in excess of the bulge out to 10 effective bulge radii. We have also carried out a preliminary analysis of the kinematics of the surveyed PNe. The mean streaming velocity of the M31 disc PNe is found to show a significant asymmetric drift out to large radii. Their velocity dispersion, although initially declining with radius, flattens out to a constant value in the outer parts of the galaxy. There are no indications that the disc velocity dispersion varies with PN luminosity, once again implying that the progenitors of PNe of all magnitudes form a relatively homogeneous old population. The dispersion profile and asymmetric drift results are shown to be mutually consistent, but require that the disc flares with radius if the shape of its velocity ellipsoid remains invariant. [source]

    Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular clusters in the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    Duncan A. Forbes
    ABSTRACT We present Sloan g and i imaging from the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) instrument on the Gemini North telescope for the globular cluster (GC) system around the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Our three pointings, taken in good seeing conditions, cover an area of about 90 square arcmin. We detect 2151 unresolved sources. Applying colour and magnitude selection criteria to this source list gives 995 candidate GCs. Our source list is greater than 90 per cent complete to a magnitude of i= 23.6, and has little contamination from background galaxies. We find fewer than half a dozen potential ultracompact dwarf galaxies around NGC 4649. Foreground extinction from the nearby spiral NGC 4647 is limited to be AV < 0.1. We confirm the bimodality in the GC colour distribution found by earlier work using Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 imaging. As is commonly seen in other galaxies, the red GCs are concentrated towards the centre of the galaxy, having a steeper number density profile than the blue GC subpopulation. The varying ratio of red-to-blue GCs with radius can largely explain the overall GC system colour gradient. The underlying galaxy starlight has a similar density profile slope and colour to the red GCs. This suggests a direct connection between the galaxy field stars and the red GC subpopulation. We estimate a total GC population of 3700 ± 900, with the uncertainty dominated by the extrapolation to larger radii than observed. This total number corresponds to a specific frequency SN= 4.1 ± 1.0. Future work will present properties derived from GMOS spectra of the NGC 4649 GCs. [source]

    Discovery of magnetic fields in the , Cephei star ,1 CMa and in several slowly pulsating B stars,

    S. Hubrig
    ABSTRACT We present the results of a magnetic survey of a sample of eight , Cephei stars and 26 slowly pulsating B (SPBs) stars with the FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. A weak mean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss is detected in the , Cephei star ,1 CMa and in 13 SPB stars. The star ,1 CMa becomes the third magnetic star among the , Cephei stars. Before our study, the star , Cas was the only known magnetic SPB star. All magnetic SPB stars for which we gathered several magnetic field measurements show a field that varies in time. We do not find a relation between the evolution of the magnetic field with stellar age in our small sample. Our observations imply that , Cephei and SPB stars can no longer be considered as classes of non-magnetic pulsators, but the effect of the fields on the oscillation properties remains to be studied. [source]

    Elemental abundance analyses with Coudé Echelle spectrograms from the TÜB,TAK National Observatory of Turkey: I. The HgMn stars 11 Per, HR 2801, and , Cnc,

    S.J. Adelman
    Abstract Using coadded spectrograms taken with the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph (CES) of the 1.50-m Russian-Turkish Telescope of the TÜB,TAK National Observatory (TUG) near Antalya in Turkey, elemental abundance analyses of three HgMn stars 11 Per, HR 2801, and , Cnc were performed. Comparisons are made with spectra obtained with the long camera of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) coudé spectrograph and its SITe4 CCD. The CES equivalent widths are about 12% larger than that for the DAO long camera. Our first results from TUG data/spectra show that all three stars exhibit the Hg II ,3984 line and somewhat diverse abundance patterns. 11 Per tends to have underabundant light elements with underabundant and overabundant Fe-peak elements. HR 2801 has mostly underabundant elements, with a few elements having solar abundances while N and Mn are overabundant. The coolest star , Cnc has light elements having mostly solar abundances, overabundant iron group abundances, and very overabundant SrYZr and Ba. Comparisons with the abundance patterns of other HgMn stars show that they have a wide diversity of abundance patterns (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    GREGOR solar telescope: Design and status

    R. Volkmer
    Abstract The integration and verification phase of the GREGOR telescope reached an important milestone with the installation of the interim 1 m SolarLite primary mirror. This was the first time that the entire light path had seen sunlight. Since then extensive testing of the telescope and its subsystems has been carried out. The integration and verification phase will culminate with the delivery and installation of the final 1.5 m Zerodur primary mirror in the summer of 2010. Observatory level tests and science verification will commence in the second half of 2010 and in 2011. This phase includes testing of the main optics, adaptive optics, cooling and pointing systems. In addition, assuming the viewpoint of a typical user, various observational modes of the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), the Grating Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS), and high-speed camera systems will be tested to evaluate if they match the expectations and science requirements. This ensures that GREGOR will provide high-quality observations with its combination of (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics and advanced post-focus instruments. Routine observations are expected for 2012 (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Scientific instrumentation for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    W. Cao
    Abstract The NST (New Solar Telescope), a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis telescope, is in its commissioning phase at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It will be the most capable, largest aperture solar telescope in the US until the 4 m ATST (Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) comes on-line late in the next decade. The NST will be outfitted with state-of-the-art scientific instruments at the Nasmyth focus on the telescope floor and in the Coudé Lab beneath the telescope. At the Nasmyth focus, several filtergraphs already in routine operation have offered high spatial resolution photometry in TiO 706 nm, H, 656 nm, G-band 430 nm and the near infrared (NIR), with the aid of a correlation tracker and image reconstruction system. Also, a Cryogenic Infrared Spectrograph (CYRA) is being developed to supply high signal-to-noise-ratio spectrometry and polarimetry spanning 1.0 to 5.0 ,m. The Coudé Lab instrumentation will include Adaptive Optics (AO), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM), Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). A 308 sub-aperture (349-actuator deformable mirror) AO system will enable nearly diffraction limited observations over the NST's principal operating wavelengths from 0.4 ,m through 1.7 ,m. IRIM and VIM are Fabry-Pérot based narrow-band tunable filters, which provide high resolution two-dimensional spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging in the NIR and visible respectively. FISS is a collaboration between BBSO and Seoul National University focussing on chromosphere dynamics. This paper reports the up-to-date progress on these instruments including an overview of each instrument and details of the current state of design, integration, calibration and setup/testing on the NST (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Defect structure and spectroscopic characteristics of codoped Hf: Er: LiNbO3 crystals

    Liang Sun
    Abstract Codoped Hf: Er: LiNbO3 crystals have been grown by the Czochralski technique. Defect structures of the crystals were analyzed by IR absorption spectra, and the compositions of the crystals were measured by X-ray fluorescent spectrograph. A new OH, -associated vibrational peak at 3492 cm,1 was revealed in 6 mol % Hf: 1 mol % Er: LiNbO3 crystal. It was attributed to (HfNb), -OH, -(ErNb)2, defect centers. The Er3+ concentrations in crystals gradually decreased with the increase of the codoped Hf4+ concentrations in the melts. The emission characteristics of the crystals were investigated by the fluorescence spectrum. It was found that the luminescent intensity in codoped 6 mol % Hf: 1 mol % Er: LiNbO3 crystal was 3.5 times stronger than that in single doped 1 mol % Er: LiNbO3 crystal. The luminescent enhancement effect was successfully explained on the basis of defect structure of the crystals. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Influence of Mg/Er co-doping on the principal laser parameters of LiNbO3 crystals

    Liang Sun
    Abstract Mg: Er: LiNbO3 crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique with various concentrations of MgO = 2 mol%, 4 mol%, 6 mol% and the fixed concentration of Er2O3= 1 mol% in the melt, and the 8 mol%Mg: 1 mol%Er: LiNbO3 crystal was fabricated by the Czochralski technique with special technology process. The crystals were treated by polarization, reduction and oxidation. The segregation coefficients of Mg2+ and Er3+ in Mg: Er: LiNbO3 crystals were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrograph, as well as the crystal's defect structure and optical properties were analyzed by the UV-Vis, IR and fluorescent spectroscopy. The pump wavelength and the surge wavelength were determined. Using m-line method tested optical damage resistance of those crystals, the results show that photodamage threshold of Mg: Er: LiNbO3 crystals are higher than that of Er: LiNbO3 crystal, and the oxidation treat could enhance the photodamage resistant ability of crystals while the reduction treat could depress the ability. The optical damage resistance of 8 mol%Mg: 1 mol%Er: LiNbO3 crystal was the strongest among the samples, which was two orders magnitude higher than that of 1 mol%Er: LiNbO3 crystal. The dependence of the optical properties on defect structure of Mg: Er: LiNbO3 crystals was discussed. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    A new single grating spectrograph for ultraviolet Raman scattering studies

    Lutz Hecht
    Abstract A state-of-the-art single grating spectrograph for Raman scattering studies within the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is discussed. It is based on a high throughput DUV version of a single-stage monochromator originally designed for use in the visible spectral region. Its key components are two identical, newly designed calcium fluoride camera lenses each consisting of five different individual optical elements. The first of these lenses collimates the Raman scattered DUV radiation entering the spectrometer through its entrance slit. The second lens focuses the collimated beam of dispersed Raman scattered DUV radiation emerging from a high-resolution reflection grating onto a charge coupled device (CCD) detector with enhanced DUV sensitivity. A novel high transmission edge filter is used as a blocking device for a sufficient rejection of the Rayleigh line generating a relatively sharp transmittance cutoff at a Stokes Raman wavenumber shift of about ,450 cm,1 employing 257 nm DUV excitation. Overall, this new spectrograph enables rapid collection of Stokes DUV Raman scattered photons at f/2 wide apertures with sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in relatively short acquisition times and with an effective spectral resolution of approximately ,6 cm,1. Backscattered Raman spectra of the following chemicals are presented as typical results illustrating the excellent performance characteristics of this new DUV spectrograph for a variety of experimental conditions within different scattering scenarios and for a relatively wide range of commonly used sample preparation techniques: neat cyclohexane, laboratory air, polycrystalline D -glucose, single crystal L -alanine and a dilute aqueous solution of 2,-deoxyadenosine. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging by TCSPC

    Wolfgang Becker
    Abstract We present a fluorescence lifetime imaging technique with simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution. The technique is fully compatible with the commonly used multiphoton microscopes and nondescanned (direct) detection. An image of the back-aperture of the microscope lens is projected on the input of a fiber bundle. The input of the fiber bundle is circular, and the output is flattened to match the input slit of a spectrograph. The spectrum at the output of the spectrograph is projected on a 16-anode PMT module. For each detected photon, the encoding logics of the PMT module deliver a timing pulse and the number of the PMT channel in which the photon was detected. The photons are accumulated by a multidimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) process. The recording process builds up a four-dimensional photon distribution over the times of the photons in the excitation pulse period, the wavelengths of the photons, and the coordinates of the scan area. The method delivers a near-ideal counting efficiency and is capable of resolving double-exponential decay functions. We demonstrate the performance of the technique for autofluorescence imaging of tissue. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    E+A and companion galaxies , I. A catalogue and statistics

    Chisato Yamauchi
    ABSTRACT Based on our intensive spectroscopic campaign with the GoldCam spectrograph on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 2.1-m telescope, we have constructed the first catalogue of E+A galaxies with spectroscopic companion galaxies, and investigated a probability that an E+A galaxy has close companion galaxies. We selected 660 E+A galaxies with 4.0 Ĺ < H, EW at a redshift of <0.167 from the Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We selected their companion candidates from the SDSS imaging data, and classified them into true companions, fore/background galaxies and companion candidates using the SDSS and our KPNO spectra. We observed 26 companion candidates of E+A galaxies at the KPNO to measure their redshifts. Their spectra showed that 17 targets are true companion galaxies. The number of spectroscopically confirmed E+A's companions is now 34. This becomes the first catalogue of E+A galaxies with spectroscopic companion systems. We found that E+A galaxies have 54 per cent larger probability of having companion galaxies (7.88 per cent) as compared to the comparison sample of normal galaxies (5.12 per cent). A statistical test shows that the probabilities are different with 99.7 per cent significance. Our results based on spectroscopy tighten the connection between the dynamical merger/interaction and the origin of E+A galaxies. [source]

    A homogeneous sample of sub-damped Lyman systems , IV.

    Global metallicity evolution
    ABSTRACT An accurate method to measure the abundance of high-redshift galaxies involves the observation of absorbers along the line of sight towards a background quasar. Here, we present abundance measurements of 13 z, 3 sub-damped Lyman , (sub-DLA) systems (quasar absorbers with H i column density in the range 19 < log N(H i) < 20.3 cm,2) based on high-resolution observations with the VLT UVES spectrograph. These observations more than double the amount of metallicity information for sub-DLAs available at z > 3. These new data, combined with other sub-DLA measurements from the literature, confirm the stronger evolution of metallicity with redshift for sub-DLAs than for the classical damped Lyman , absorbers. In addition, these observations are used to compute for the first time, using photoionization modelling in a sample of sub-DLAs, the fraction of gas that is ionized. Based on these results, we calculate that sub-DLAs contribute no more than 6 per cent of the expected amount of metals at z, 2.5. We therefore conclude that, even if sub-DLAs are found to be more metal-rich than classical DLAs, their contribution is insufficient to solve the so-called ,missing-metals' problem. [source]

    Observations towards early-type stars in the ESO-POP Survey , II.

    Searches for intermediate-, high-velocity clouds
    ABSTRACT We present Ca ii K and Ti ii optical spectra of early-type stars taken mainly from the ultraviolet and visual echelle spectrograph (UVES) Paranal Observatory Project, plus H i 21-cm spectra, from the Vila-Elisa and Leiden-Dwingeloo Surveys, which are employed to obtain distances to intermediate- and high-velocity clouds (IHVCs). H i emission at a velocity of ,117 km s,1 towards the sightline HD 30677 () with column density ,1.7 × 1019 cm,2 has no corresponding Ca ii K absorption in the UVES spectrum, which has a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 610 per resolution element. The star has a spectroscopically determined distance of 2.7 kpc, and hence sets this as a firm lower distance limit towards Anti-Centre cloud ACII. Towards another sightline (HD 46185 with ), H i at a velocity of +122 km s,1 and column density of 1.2 × 1019 cm,2 is seen. The corresponding Ca ii K spectrum has a S/N of 780, although no absorption is observed at the cloud velocity. This similarly places a firm lower distance limit of 2.9 kpc towards this parcel of gas that may be an intermediate-velocity (IV) cloud. The lack of IV Ca ii absorption towards HD 196426 () at a S/N of 500 reinforces a lower distance limit of ,700 pc towards this part of complex gp, where the H i column density is 1.1 × 1019 cm,2 and velocity is +78 km s,1. Additionally, no IV Ca ii is seen in absorption in the spectrum of HD 19445, which is strong in H i with a column density of 8 × 1019 cm,2 at a velocity of ,,42 km s,1, placing a firm although uninteresting lower distance limit of 39 pc to this part of IV South. Finally, no high-velocity Ca ii K absorption is seen towards HD 115363 () at a S/N of 410, placing a lower distance of ,3.2 kpc towards the HVC gas at velocity of ,+224 km s,1 and H i column density of 5.2 × 1019 cm,2. This gas is in the same region of the sky as complex WE (Wakker 2001), but at higher velocities. The non-detection of Ca ii K absorption sets a lower distance of ,3.2 kpc towards the HVC, which is unsurprising if this feature is indeed related to the Magellanic System. [source]

    Selection of ThAr lines for wavelength calibration of echelle spectra and implications for variations in the fine-structure constant

    M. T. Murphy
    ABSTRACT Echelle spectrographs currently provide some of the most precise and detailed spectra in astronomy, the interpretation of which sometimes depends on the wavelength calibration accuracy. In some applications, such as constraining cosmological variations in the fundamental constants from quasar absorption lines, the wavelength calibration is crucial. Here we detail an algorithm for selecting thorium,argon (ThAr) emission lines for wavelength calibration which incorporates the properties of both a new laboratory wavelength list and the spectrograph of interest. We apply the algorithm to the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) and demonstrate a factor of ,3 improvement in the wavelength calibration residuals (i.e. random errors) alone. It is also found that UVES spectra calibrated using a previous, widely distributed line-list contain systematic ±30 ,75 m s,1 distortions of the wavelength scale over both short and long wavelength ranges. These distortions have important implications for current UVES constraints on cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant. The induced systematic errors are most severe for Mg/Feii quasar absorbers in the redshift range 1.2 ,zabs, 2.3, with individual absorbers studied by recent authors containing systematic errors up to four times larger than quoted statistical errors. [source]

    Spitzer observations of M83 and the hot star, H ii region connection

    Robert H. Rubin
    ABSTRACT We have undertaken a programme to observe emission lines of [S iv] 10.51, [Ne ii] 12.81, [Ne iii] 15.56, and [S iii] 18.71 ,m in a number of extragalactic H ii regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Here we report our results for the nearly face-on spiral galaxy M83. A subsequent paper will present our data and analysis for another substantially face-on spiral galaxy M33. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (RG). The observations were made with the infrared spectrograph in the short wavelength, high dispersion configuration. The above set of four lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++ and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger RG. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne and S for H ii regions, we can approximate the Ne/S ratio by (Ne++ Ne++)/(S+++ S3+). Our findings of ratios that significantly exceed the benchmark Orion Nebula value, as well as a decrease in this ratio with increasing RG, are more likely due to other effects than a true gradient in Ne/S. Two effects that will tend to lower these high estimates and to flatten the gradient are first, the method does not account for the presence of S+ and second, S but not Ne is incorporated into grains. Both Ne and S are primary elements produced in ,-chain reactions, following C and O burning in stars, making their yields depend very little on the stellar metallicity. Thus, it is expected that Ne/S remains relatively constant throughout a galaxy. We stress that this type of observation and method of analysis does have the potential for accurate measurements of Ne/S, particularly for H ii regions that have lower metallicity and higher ionization than those here, such as those in M33. Our observations may also be used to test the predicted ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of various stellar atmosphere models. We compare the ratio of fractional ionizations ,Ne++,/,S++, and ,Ne++,/,S3+, versus ,S3+,/,S++, with predictions made from our photoionization models using several of the state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere model grids. The overall best fit appears to be the nebular models using the supergiant stellar atmosphere models of Pauldrach, Hoffmann & Lennon and Sternberg, Hoffmann & Pauldrach. This result is not sensitive to the electron density and temperature range expected for these M83 nebulae. Considerable computational effort has gone into the comparison between data and models, although not all parameter studies have yet been performed on an ultimate level (e.g. in the present paper the stellar atmosphere model abundances have been fixed to solar values). A future paper, with the benefit of more observational data, will continue these studies to further discriminate how the ionic ratios depend on the SED and the other nebular parameters. [source]

    The SAURON project , VIII.

    OASIS/CFHT integral-field spectroscopy of elliptical, lenticular galaxy centres
    ABSTRACT We present high spatial resolution integral-field spectroscopy of 28 elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies from the SAURON representative survey obtained with the OASIS spectrograph during its operation at the Canada,France,Hawaii Telescope. These seeing-limited observations explore the central 8 × 10 arcsec2 (typically 1 kpc diameter) regions of these galaxies using a spatial sampling four times higher than SAURON (0.27-arcsec versus 0.94-arcsec spatial elements), resulting in almost a factor of 2 improvement in the median point spread function. These data allow accurate study of the central regions to complement the large-scale view provided by SAURON. Here we present the stellar and gas kinematics, stellar absorption-line strengths and nebular emission-line strengths for this sample. We also characterize the stellar velocity maps using the ,kinemetry' technique, and derive maps of the luminosity-weighted stellar age, metallicity and abundance ratio via stellar population models. We give a brief review of the structures found in our maps, linking also to larger-scale structures measured with SAURON. We present two previously unreported kinematically decoupled components (KDCs) in the centres of NGC 3032 and NGC 4382. We compare the intrinsic size and luminosity-weighted stellar age of all the visible KDCs in the full SAURON sample, and find two types of components: kiloparsec-scale KDCs, which are older than 8 Gyr, and are found in galaxies with little net rotation; and compact KDCs, which have intrinsic diameters of less than a few hundred parsec, show a range of stellar ages from 0.5 to 15 Gyr (with 5/6 younger than 5 Gyr), are found exclusively in fast-rotating galaxies, and are close to counter-rotating around the same axis as their host. Of the seven galaxies in the SAURON sample with integrated luminosity-weighted ages less than 5 Gyr, five show such compact KDCs, suggesting a link between counter-rotation and recent star formation. We show that this may be due to a combination of small sample size at young ages, and an observational bias, since young KDCs are easier to detect than their older and/or corotating counterparts. [source]

    The SAURON project , VI.

    Line strength maps of 48 elliptical, lenticular galaxies
    ABSTRACT We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, we measure four key age, metallicity and abundance ratio sensitive indices from the Lick/IDS system over a two-dimensional field extending up to approximately one effective radius. A discussion of calibrations and offsets is given, along with a description of error estimation and nebular emission correction. We modify the classical Fe5270 index to define a new index, Fe5270S, which maximizes the useable spatial coverage of SAURON. Maps of H,, Fe5015, Mg b and Fe5270S are presented for each galaxy. We use the maps to compute average line strengths integrated over circular apertures of one-eighth effective radius, and compare the resulting relations of index versus velocity dispersion with previous long-slit work. The metal line strength maps show generally negative gradients with increasing radius roughly consistent with the morphology of the light profiles. Remarkable deviations from this general trend exist, particularly the Mg b isoindex contours appear to be flatter than the isophotes of the surface brightness for about 40 per cent of our galaxies without significant dust features. Generally, these galaxies exhibit significant rotation. We infer from this that the fast-rotating component features a higher metallicity and/or an increased Mg/Fe ratio as compared to the galaxy as a whole. The H, maps are typically flat or show a mild positive outwards radial gradient, while a few galaxies show strong central peaks and/or elevated overall H, strength likely connected to recent star formation activity. For the most prominent post-starburst galaxies, even the metal line strength maps show a reversed gradient. [source]

    A star-forming galaxy at z= 5.78 in the Chandra Deep Field South

    Andrew J. Bunker
    ABSTRACT We report the discovery of a luminous z= 5.78 star-forming galaxy in the Chandra Deep Field South. This galaxy was selected as an ,i -drop' from the GOODS public survey imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (object 3 in the work of Stanway, Bunker & McMahon 2003). The large colour of (i,,z,)AB= 1.6 indicated a spectral break consistent with the Lyman , forest absorption shortward of Lyman , at z, 6. The galaxy is very compact (marginally resolved with ACS with a half-light radius of 0.08 arcsec, so rhl < 0.5 h,170 kpc). We have obtained a deep (5.5 h) spectrum of this z,AB= 24.7 galaxy with the DEIMOS optical spectrograph on the Keck Telescope, and here we report the discovery of a single emission line centred on 8245 Ĺ detected at 20, with a flux of f, 2 × 10,17 erg cm,2 s,1. The line is clearly resolved with detectable structure at our resolution of better than 55 km s,1, and the only plausible interpretation consistent with the ACS photometry is that we are seeing Lyman , emission from a z= 5.78 galaxy. This is the highest redshift galaxy to be discovered and studied using HST data. The velocity width (,vFWHM= 260 km s,1) and rest-frame equivalent width (WLy,rest= 20 Ĺ) indicate that this line is most probably powered by star formation, as an AGN would typically have larger values. The starburst interpretation is supported by our non-detection of the high-ionization N v,1240- Ĺ emission line, and the absence of this source from the deep Chandra X-ray images. The star formation rate inferred from the rest-frame UV continuum is 34 h,270 M, yr,1 (,M= 0.3, ,,= 0.7). This is the most luminous starburst known at z > 5. Our spectroscopic redshift for this object confirms the validity of the i,-drop technique of Stanway et al. to select star-forming galaxies atz, 6. [source]

    The lithium depletion boundary and the age of NGC 2547

    J. M. Oliveira
    ABSTRACT We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic survey of cool M dwarf candidates in the young open cluster NGC 2547. Using the 2dF fibre spectrograph, we have searched for the luminosity at which lithium remains unburned in an attempt to constrain the cluster age. The lack of a population of individual lithium-rich objects towards the faint end of our sample places a very strong lower limit to the cluster age of 35 Myr. However, the detection of lithium in the averaged spectra of our faintest targets suggests that the lithium depletion boundary lies at 9.5 < MI < 10.0 and that the cluster age is <54 Myr. The age of NGC 2547 judged from fitting isochrones to low-mass pre-main-sequence stars in colour,magnitude diagrams is 20,35 Myr using the same evolutionary models. The sense and size of the discrepancy in age determined by these two techniques is similar to that found in another young cluster, IC 2391, and in the low-mass pre-main-sequence binary system, GJ 871.1AB. We suggest that the inclusion of rotation or dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the evolutionary models could reconcile the two age determinations, but only at the expense of increasing the cluster ages beyond that currently indicated by the lithium depletion. Alternatively, some mechanism is required that increases the rate of lithium depletion in young, very low-mass fully convective stars. [source]