Specific Growth Rate (specific + growth_rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Specific Growth Rate

  • highest specific growth rate
  • lower specific growth rate
  • maximum specific growth rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2000
    ABSTRACT One strain of 11 serotypes or 11 strains of Salmonella, which were isolated from the ceca of broilers, were surveyed for their growth kinetics on sterile ground chicken breast burgers incubated at 25C to determine the variation of lag time and specific growth rate. Growth curves, four per strain, were fit to a two-phase linear model to determine lag time (h) and specific growth rate (log10/h). Repeatability of growth kinetics measurements for individual strains had a mean coefficient of variation of 11.7% for lag time (range: 5.8 to 17.3%) and a mean coefficient of variation of 6.7% for specific growth rate (range: 2.7 to 13.3%). Lag time among strains ranged from 2.2 to 3.1 h with a mean of 2.8 h for all strains, whereas specific growth rate among strains ranged from 0.3 to 0.38 log10 per h with a mean of 0.35 log10per h for all strains. One-way analysis of variance indicated that lag time (P =0.029) and specific growth rate (P =0.025) differed slightly among strains. S. Haardt had a shorter (P < 0.05) lag time than S. Agona and S. Brandenburg, whereas the specific growth rate of S. Enteritidis was less than (P < 0.05) the specific growth rates of S. Typhimurium and S. Brandenburg. All other strains had similar lag times and specific growth rates. The coefficient of variation among strains was 9.4% for lag time and 5.7% for specific growth rate. These results indicate that there were only minor differences in the lag times and specific growth rates among the strains of Salmonella surveyed. Thus, the growth kinetic values obtained with one strain of Salmonella may be useful for predicting the growth of other strains of Salmonella for which data do not currently exist. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Yoshimasa Yamamoto
    Diel changes in the frequency of dividing cells (FDC) of three Microcystis species were investigated in a small eutrophic pond from July to October 2005. The representative species was M. aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz., constituting 57%,86% of the Microcystis population throughout the study period, and the remainder were M. viridis (A. Braun) Lemmerm. and M. wesenbergii (Komárek) Komárek. The FDC of M. aeruginosa and M. wesenbergii increased in the daytime and fell in the nighttime in July and August, but this regular variation was not observed in September or October. The in situ specific growth rates of Microcystis species were estimated based on the assumption that the specific growth rate can be given as an absolute value of the derivative of FDC with respect to time. The calculated values were similar among species,0.15,0.38 · d,1 for M. aeruginosa, 0.14,0.63 · d,1 for M. viridis, and 0.18,0.61 · d,1 for M. wesenbergii. The specific growth rates in July and August slightly exceeded those in September and October. The analysis of the in situ specific growth rate of Microcystis indicated that recruitment of the benthic population or morphological change, rather than massive growth, was at least partly responsible for the dominance of M. aeruginosa in the study pond. [source]

    Partial compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus following food deprivation

    Y. Wang
    Summary The capacity of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus [23.2 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SE)] to show compensatory growth was assessed in an 8-week experiment. Fish were deprived of feed for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and then fed to satiation for 4 weeks; fish fed to satiation during the experiment served as control. Water temperature gradually declined from 28.1 to 25.5°C throughout the experiment. Specific growth rate (SGR) decreased with progressive food deprivation. At the end of deprivation, body weight was lower in the deprived fish than in the control. Fish deprived for 4 weeks exhibited lower contents of lipids and energy in whole body, and higher moisture content and ratio of protein to energy (P/E) than those of the control; they also consumed feed faster than the control when normal feeding was resumed. All deprived fish showed higher food intake (FI) than that of the control during re-alimentation; however, enhanced SGR was only observed in the fish deprived for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in digestibility of protein and energy, food efficiency (FE) or energy retention efficiency between the control and deprived fish. At the end of re-alimentation, deprived fish failed to catch up in body weight with the control, while content of moisture, lipids and energy, and P/E in whole body of the deprived fish did not significantly differ from that of the control. The results of the experiment revealed that the hybrid tilapia reared in freshwater showed partial capacity for compensatory growth following food deprivation of 4 weeks, and that growth compensation was due mainly to increased FI, rather than to improved FE. [source]

    Growth, Survival, and Body Composition of Cage-Cultured Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Pelleted and Unpelleted Distillers Grains with Solubles in Polyculture with Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    James H. Tidwell
    Nine 1.0-m3 cages were stocked with 200 juvenile (26 ± 0.9 g) tilapia. Cages were suspended in a 0.2-ha pond stocked with juvenile freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii at 40,000/ha. Three replicate cages were randomly assigned to each dietary treatment. In one dietary treatment DDGS was fed as an unpelleted loose grain ration (26% protein). In a second dietary treatment fish were fed DDGS that had been steam-pelleted (23% protein). Fish in a third dietary treatment were fed a commercial catfish diet (31% protein) for comparison. After 12 wk, individual weight, individual length, and specific growth rate were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and feed conversion ratio was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for fish fed the commercial catfish diet than for fish fed either unpelleted or pelleted DDGS. Specific growth rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for fish fed pelleted DDGS than for fish fed unpelleted DDGS. Survival did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among treatments (>95%). Although growth was increased in fish fed the commercial diet, their cost of production (<0.66/kg gain) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in fish fed unpelleted and pelleted DDGS (<0.26/ kg gain and <0.37/kg gain, respectively). The costs of gain in fish fed unpelleted DDGS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in fish fed the pelleted DDGS. Prawn production was 1,449 kg/ha and addition of tilapia in polyculture increased total pond productivity approximately 81 %. These data suggest that DDGS provides economical growth in tilapia when fed as a direct feed and that polyculture of tilapia may improve overall pond efficiency in freshwater prawn production ponds, even at temperate latitudes. [source]

    Evaluation of indigenous marine periphytic Amphora, Navicula and Cymbella grown on substrate as feed supplement in Penaeus monodon postlarval hatchery system

    Abstract Three isolated marine diatoms (Amphora, Navicula and Cymbella) grown on substrate were evaluated as feed supplement for Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL) in hatchery system for a period of 19 days without changing water. Specific growth rate (day,1) (0.27 ± 0.0) and survival (%) (56.3 ± 1.8) of PLs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in treatment tanks when compared with the control (0.20 ± 0.0; 36.0 ± 1.5, respectively). Shrimp PLs reared in substrate-based tanks had significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of protein, lipid (521.0 ± 7.0; 304.0 ± 2 g kg,1 dry weight, respectively), ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (189.0 ± 2.0; 176.0 ± 2 g kg,1 of total fatty acid, respectively) than the control (435.0 ± 22.0; 258.0 ± 22 g kg,1 dry weight; 172.0 ± 5.0; 152 ± 2 g kg,1 total fatty acid, respectively). The periphytic diatoms contained protein and lipid (430,490; 230,260 g kg,1 dry weight, respectively), EPA (30,150 g kg,1 of total fatty acids), DHA (20,30 g kg,1 of total fatty acids) and nine essential amino acids. The results showed that isolated marine periphytic diatoms grown on substrate could be used as feed supplement in enhancing the growth and survival of P. monodon postlarvae. [source]

    Nutrient values of dietary ascorbic acid (l -ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate) on growth, survival and stress tolerance of larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    J. NIU
    Abstract l -ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (ApP) was used as a vitamin C source to investigate the ascorbic acid (AsA) requirements on growth performance and stress resistance of the larval white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous fish meal-fish protein hydrolysate-based diets with five levels of ApP, AsA equivalent to 91.8, 188, 271, 360 and 436 mg kg,1 diet were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei (mean initial wet weight 1 mg) for 32 days. The diet with AsA 91.8 mg kg,1 showed high cumulative mortality after 10 days of feeding. After the 32-day trial, the shrimp that fed the diet had significantly lower survival and weight gain (WG, %) than those that fed 188, 271, 360 and 436 mg AsA kg,1 diets. Specific growth rate (SGR, % day,1) and final body wet weight (FBW, mg) showed the same pattern as WG (%). There were no significant differences in growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR) among the groups that fed 188, 271, 360 and 436 mg kg,1 of AsA at the termination of feeding trial. Broken-line regression analysis on WG indicated that 191 mg AsA kg,1 in the diet was the optimum for larval L. vannamei. On the contrary, dietary level of more than 360 mg AsA kg,1 was needed to ensure high resistance to stressful conditions such as low dissolved oxygen stressors. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth performance and biological indices of iridescent Shark (Pangasius hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878) fry

    Preeda Phumee
    Abstract Dietary protein and lipid effects on growth, body composition and indices of iridescent Shark Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage 1878) fry were studied using a 4 × 2 factorial design. Triplicate groups of 10 fish per tank, with initial mean weights of 3.54,3.85 g were fed eight isocaloric diets comprising a combination of four protein levels (250, 300, 350 and 400 g kg,1 or 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) and two lipid levels (60 and 120 g kg,1 or 6% and 12%) respectively. The fish were hand-fed to satiety twice daily for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant effects (P<0.05) with variations in dietary protein and lipid. The highest SGR was observed in fish fed 40% protein/12% lipid diet but this value was not significantly (P>0.05) different from the fish fed 30% protein/12% lipid diet. The FCR was lowest for the 40/12 diet and differed significantly only with the 25/6, 25/12 and 30/6 treatments respectively. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly affected by the level of protein, but intraperitoneal fat (IPF) showed significant variation due to dietary lipid level. The HSI significantly (P<0.05) decreased when dietary protein increased from 25% to 30% but increased marginally thereafter. The IPF values increased with increased dietary lipid but decreased with increased dietary protein. Body protein was positively correlated with dietary protein content; conversely, body lipid content decreased with increase in dietary protein. The results of this experiment indicate the presence of a protein-sparing effect of lipid as fish fed 30% protein/12% lipid diet had growth and feed utilization comparable to those fed 40% protein/12% lipid diet. [source]

    Phosphorus requirement of Catla (Catla catla Hamilton) fingerlings based on growth, whole-body phosphorus concentration and non-faecal phosphorus excretion

    Krishna Sukumaran
    Abstract A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary requirement of phosphorus for Indian major carp, catla (Catla catla) fingerlings. Four hundred and eighty fingerlings (mean body weight: 4.23±0.87 g) were randomly distributed among eight treatment groups with three replicates each. Eight isonitrogenous and isocaloric semi-purified diets (crude protein: 35% and crude lipid: 8.5%) were formulated with graded levels of phosphorus using KH2PO4 (T1: control, 0.1%; T2: 0.3%; T3: 0.5%; T4: 0.7%; T5: 0.9%; T6: 1.1%; T7: 1.3%; T8: 1.5%) and fed to the respective groups. Twenty fish were stocked in 150 L plastic tanks and fed to apparent satiation twice a day. Specific growth rate (SGR) significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing dietary phosphorus concentration from 0.73% to 1.27%, after which there was a slight decline in growth at 1.1% available phosphorus (aP) and remained constant thereafter. The quadratic broken-line model based on growth was Y=317.5,581(0.64,x) (0.64,x); R2=0.73. Moisture and crude protein contents of whole body were similar among all the treatments. However, the ether extract in T1 group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than all the other treatments. The whole-body phosphorus content increased significantly (P<0.05) with an increase in phosphorus in the diets. The one-slope broken-line model based on whole-body phosphorus concentration was Y=4.07,1.63 (0.71,x); R2=0.48. The one-slope broken-line model for non-faecal phosphorus excretion as inorganic phosphorus (Pi) for 24 h revealed a trend of Y=12.67+73.96 (x,0.6); R2=0.81. Minimum aP requirements based on weight gain (%), whole-body phosphorus content and phosphorus excretion were 0.64%, 0.71% and 0.6%, respectively. Hence, the dietary aP requirement of catla fingerlings ranges from 0.6% to 0.71%. [source]

    Vitamin C requirement of kuruma shrimp postlarvae, Marsupenaeus japonicus (Bate), using l -ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na/Ca

    Yin Yin Moe
    Abstract l -ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na/Ca (AMP-Na/Ca) was used as a vitamin C source to investigate the ascorbic acid (AsA) requirements on growth performance and stress resistance of the post-larval kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. Purified carrageenan-microbound diets with six levels of AMP-Na/Ca, AsA equivalent to 0, 20, 56, 87, 759 and 1697 mg kg,1 diet were fed to triplicate groups of M. japonicus (mean initial weight 16±0.3 mg) for 30 days. The diets with AsA 0, 20 and 56 mg kg,1 showed high cumulative mortality after 10 days of feeding. After the 30-day trial, the shrimp fed these diets had significantly lower survival and weight gain (WG, %) than those fed the 87, 759 and 1697 mg AsA kg,1 diets. Specific growth rate and individual dry weight showed the same pattern as WG (%). There were no significant differences in growth performance among the groups fed the AsA levels at 87, 759 and 1697 mg kg,1 at the termination of feeding trial. Broken-line regression analysis indicated that 91.8 mg AsA kg,1 in the diet was the optimum for post-larval shrimp. On the other hand, dietary level of more than 800 mg AsA kg,1 was needed to ensure high resistance to stressful conditions such as osmotic and formalin stressors. [source]

    Carbohydrate utilization by juvenile silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell).


    Abstract The ability of silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) to digest and utilize dietary starch or starch breakdown products was investigated. For experiment 1 the ability of silver perch (2.7 ± 0.01 g) to digest wheat starch at two dietary inclusion levels (30% or 60%), each at four levels of gelatinization (0%, 25%, 50% or 80%), was investigated over a 31-day period. For experiment 2, the ability of silver perch (15.9± 0.25 g) to digest wheat starch, dextrin (at three levels of dextrinization), maltose, glucose and pea starch, all at the 30% inclusion level, was investigated over a 41-day period. Water temperature for both experiments was 25 ± 1 °C. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for starch, dry matter (DM) and energy were affected by both degree of gelatinization (80% > 50% > 25% = 0%) and inclusion level (30% > 60%). Specific growth rate (SGR) was unaffected by the inclusion of 30% starch; however, it was reduced at the 60% starch content level. Degree of gelatinization had no effect on SGR. For experiment 2, there were significant differences between carbohydrate and DM ADCs for the test ingredients. The carbohydrate, DM and energy ADCs were ranked as follows: dextrin (Fieldose 9) = dextrin (Fieldose 17) = dextrin (Fieldose 30) = gelatinized wheat starch = maltose = glucose > raw wheat starch > raw pea starch. The protein ADC of the diets, postprandial plasma glucose concentration and SGR were all unaffected by ingredient type. For both experiments, HSI tended to increase with carbohydrate inclusion. Liver glycogen concentrations were also elevated, but muscle glycogen and liver and muscle triacylglycerol concentrations were unaffected. Digestibility of starch by silver perch is clearly affected by inclusion content and processing. [source]

    Causes of shear sensitivity of the toxic dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum

    J. J. Gallardo Rodríguez
    Abstract Dinoflagellates have proven extremely difficult to culture because they are inhibited by low-level shear forces. Specific growth rate of the toxic dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum was greatly decreased compared with static control culture by intermittent exposure to a turbulent hydrodynamic environment with a bulk average shear rate that was as low as 0.3 s,1. Hydrodynamic forces appeared to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cells and this caused peroxidation of cellular lipids and ultimately cell damage. Exposure to damaging levels of shear rate correlated with the elevated level of lipoperoxides in the cells, but ROS levels measured directly by flow cytometry did not correlate with shear induced cell damage. This was apparently because the measured level of ROS could not distinguish between the ROS that are normally generated by photosynthesis and the additional ROS produced as a consequence of hydrodynamic shear forces. Continuously subjecting the cells to a bulk average shear rate value of about 0.3 s,1 for 24-h caused an elevation in the levels of chlorophyll a, peridinin and dinoxanthin, as the cells apparently attempted to counter the damaging effects of shear fields by producing pigments that are potential antioxidants. In static culture, limitation of carbon dioxide produced a small but measureable increase in ROS. The addition of ascorbic acid (0.1 mM) to the culture medium resulted in a significant protective effect on lipid peroxidation, allowing cells to grow under damaging levels of shear rates. This confirmed the use of antioxidant additives as an efficient strategy to counter the damaging effects of turbulence in photobioreactors where shear sensitive dinoflagellates are cultivated. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

    Use of Cyclopoid Copepod Apocyclops dengizicus as Live Feed for Penaeus monodon Postlarvae

    Omidvar Farhadian
    In this study, the suitability of cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops dengizicus as a live food for black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, postlarvae was investigated. After 14 d, P. monodon postlarvae (PL1) had survival rates of 41.7 ± 2.9% (mean ± SE), 28.7 ± 1.2%, 56.3 ± 3.7%, 4.4 ± 1.9%, and 2.8 ± 1.0% when fed A. dengizicus (CC), Artemia nauplii (AN), mixture of A. dengizicus and Artemia nauplii (CC + AN), artificial shrimp feed (SF), and microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele (TT), respectively. Specific growth rates (SGRs) of P. monodon were maximum (14.2 ± 0.6%/d) in CC + AN, followed by CC (11.0 ± 0.4%/d), AN (9.3 ± 0.7%/d), SF (6.1 ± 0.2%/d), and TT (6.0 ± 0.5%/d). The total n-3 fatty acids of postlarvae increased from 20.6 to 25.8% when fed with CC, 28.8% with AN, and 29.0% with CC + AN. Better survival and SGRs of P. monodon postlarvae could be attributed to docosahexaenoic acid : eicosapentaenoic acid : arachidonic acid ratio of CC (10.2:3.2:1) diet. The results of this study showed that A. dengizicus has a potential to be used as a substitute live feed for P. monodon postlarvae because of better survival, growth, and high polyunsaturated fatty acids. [source]

    Feeding by the Pfiesteria -Like Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Luciella masanensis

    ABSTRACT. To explore the feeding ecology of the Pfiesteria -like dinoflagellate (PLD) Luciella masanensis (GenBank Accession no. AM050344, previously Lucy), we investigated the feeding behavior and the kinds of prey species that L. masanensis fed on and determined its growth and ingestion rates of L. masanensis when it fed on the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae and an unidentified cryptophyte species (equivalent spherical diam., ESD=5.6 ,m), which were the dominant phototrophic species when L. masanensis and similar small heterotrophic dinoflagellates were abundant in Masan Bay, Korea in 2005. Additionally, these parameters were also measured for L. masanensis fed on blood cells of the perch Lateolabrax japonicus and the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo in the laboratory. Luciella masanensis fed on prey cells by using a peduncle after anchoring the prey with tow filament, and was able to feed on diverse prey such as cryptophytes, raphidophytes, diatoms, mixotrophic dinoflagellates, and the blood cells of fish and humans. Among the prey species tested in the present study, perch blood cells were observed to be the optimal prey for L. masanensis. Specific growth rates of L. masanensis feeding on perch blood cells, A. carterae, H. akashiwo, and the cryptophyte, either increased continuously or became saturated with increasing the mean prey concentration. The maximum specific growth rate of L. masanensis feeding on perch blood cells (1.46/day) was much greater than that of A. carterae (0.59/day), the cryptophyte (0.24/day), or H. akashiwo (0.20/day). The maximum ingestion rate of L. masanensis on perch blood cells (2.6 ng C/grazer/day) was also much higher than that of A. carterae (0.32 ng C/grazer/day), the cryptophyte (0.44 ng C/grazer/day), or H. akashiwo (0.16 ng C/grazer/day). The kinds of prey species which L. masanensis is able to feed on were the same as those of Pfiesteria piscicida, but very different from those of another PLD Stoeckeria algicida. However, the maximum growth and ingestion rates of L. masanensis on perch blood cells, A. carterae, H. akashiwo, and the cryptophyte were considerably lower than those of P. piscicida. Therefore, these three dinoflagellates may occupy different ecological niches in marine planktonic communities, even though they have a similar size and shape and the same feeding mechanisms. [source]

    Mixotrophy in the Phototrophic Harmful Alga Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophycean): Prey Species, the Effects of Prey Concentration, and Grazing Impact

    ABSTRACT We first reported here that the harmful alga Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which had been previously known as an autotrophic dinoflagellate, was a mixotrophic species. We investigated the kinds of prey species and the effects of the prey concentration on the growth and ingestion rates of C. polykrikoides when feeding on an unidentified cryptophyte species (Equivalent Spherical Diameter, ESD = 5.6 ,m). We also calculated grazing coefficients by combining field data on abundances of C. polykrikoides and co occurring cryptophytes with laboratory data on ingestion rates obtained in the present study. Cocholdinium polykrikoides fed on prey cells by engulfing the prey through the sulcus. Among the phytoplankton prey offered, C. polykrikoides ingested small phytoplankton species that had ESD's , 11 ,m (e.g. the prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana, an unidentified cryptophyte, the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo, and the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae). It did not feed on larger phytoplankton species that had ESD's , 12 ,m (e.g. the dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra, Prorocentrum minimum, Scrippsiella sp., Alexandrium tamarense. Prorocentrum micans, Gymnodinium catenatum, Akashiwo sanguinea, and Lingulodinium polyedrum). Specific growth rates of C. polykrikoides on a cryptophyte increased with increasing mean prey concentration, with saturation at a mean prey concentration of approximately 270 ng C ml,1 (i.e. 15,900 cells ml,1)- The maximum specific growth rate (mixotrophic growth) of C. polykrikoides on a cryptophyte was 0.324 d,', under a 14:10 h light-dark cycle of 50 ,E m,2 s,1, while its growth rate (phototrophic growth) under the same light conditions without added prey was 0.166 d,. Maximum ingestion and clearance rates of C. polykrikoides on a cryptophyte were 0.16 ng C grazer,1d 1 (9.4 cells grazer 1d,1) and 0.33 ,1 grazer 1h,1, respectively. Calculated grazing coefficients by C. polykri koides on cryptophytes were 0.001,0.745 h,1 (i.e. 0.1,53% of cryptophyte populations were removed by a C. polykrikoides population in 1 h). The results of the present study suggest that C. polykrikoides sometimes has a considerable grazing impact on populations of cryptophytes. [source]

    Comparisons of growth and economic performance among monosex and mixed-sex culture of red mud crab (Scylla olivacea Herbst, 1796) in bamboo pens in the tidal flats of mangrove forests, Bangladesh

    Mst. Muslima Khatun
    Abstract An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design to compare growth and economic performance between monosex and mixed-sex culture of red mud crab (Scylla olivacea Herbst, 1796) fed with trash fish at 5,10% body weight per day in the mangrove tidal flat at Burigoaliny Union of Satkhira District, Bangladesh. The experiment had three treatments in triplicate each: (a) all-male culture, (b) all-female culture and (c) mixed-sex culture. Crabs of 80,120 g in size were stocked at a density of 0.5 crab m,2 and cultured for 100 days. Specific growth rates (SGRs) by weight and internal carapace width (ICW) in the all-male culture were significantly higher than those in the all-female culture (P<0.05), while SGRs in the mixed-sex culture showed no significant differences from those in the all-male and all-female culture (P>0.05). No significant differences in final mean body weight, ICW, daily weight gain, survival rate, gross and net yields were found among all the treatments (P>0.05). The area of high water level with mangroves gave significantly better results in terms of feed conversion ratio, survival rate, gross and net yields than the area of low water level (P>0.05). The experiment suggests that the all-female culture in the area of high water level with mangroves could be suitable in developing commercial pen culture of red mud crabs in Bangladesh. [source]

    Does timing of daily feeding affect growth rates of juvenile three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L?

    M. Ali
    Abstract , To assess the consequences of unpredictability in the availability of food, this study measured the effect of timing of the daily feeding on food consumption and growth rates of juvenile Gasterosteus aculeatus. The experiment lasted 21 days at 14 °C and a photoperiod of 10 hours of light and 14 hours of dark. Fish were housed individually and allocated at random to three treatments. The mean initial weight of fish was 0.402 g. Group 1 were fed live enchytraeid worms for 2 h after lights came on ("morning"), group 2 was offered food for 2 h randomly at any time of the day ("random") during the light period and group 3 received food for 2 h before the lights went off ("evening"). There was no significant effect of timing of feeding on mean daily food consumption, which was 0.052 g day,1. Daily consumption on the random schedule was more irregular than on the two fixed schedules. Timing of feeding had no significant effect on mean specific growth rate (G) (2.42% day,1), gross growth efficiency (23.3%), white muscle RNA:DNA ratio (5.6), carcase lipid content (31.7% dry wt) and carcase dry matter content (27.4% wet wt). Thus, a lack of predictability in the availability of food during the light period of the day did not impose a detectable cost on the growth performance of the stickleback., [source]

    Development and application of a flexible controller in yeast fermentations using pO2 cascade control

    Juris Vanags
    Abstract The development and application of a flexible process controller in fed-batch yeast fermentations using pO2 cascade control was performed. A new algorithm for fed-batch fermentations using pO2 cascade control was developed, the concept of which could be used as a realizable solution in fermentation systems equipped according to the basic configuration. The algorithm is based on the combined influence of pO2 and pH on the substrate feeding intensity. To test and develop this algorithm, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DY 7221 and Candida tropicalis CK-4 fermentations were carried out. As a result of the use of the combined algorithm, the specific growth rate and productivity grew in both fermentations. In this case, the effect of the use of the algorithm was most pronounced in the C. tropicalis fermentation. [source]

    Transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to preferred and nonpreferred nitrogen sources in glucose-limited chemostat cultures

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 4 2007
    Viktor M. Boer
    Abstract Aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown with six different nitrogen sources were subjected to transcriptome analysis. The use of chemostats enabled an analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcriptional regulation at a fixed specific growth rate. A selection of preferred (ammonium and asparagine) and nonpreferred (leucine, phenylalanine, methionine and proline) nitrogen sources was investigated. For each nitrogen source, distinct sets of genes were induced or repressed relative to the other five nitrogen sources. In total, 131 such ,signature transcripts' were identified in this study. In addition to signature transcripts, genes were identified that showed a transcriptional coresponse to two or more of the six nitrogen sources. For example, 33 genes were transcriptionally upregulated in leucine-grown, phenylalanine-grown and methionine-grown cultures; this was partly attributed to the involvement of common enzymes in the dissimilation of these amino acids. In addition to specific transcriptional responses elicited by individual nitrogen sources, their impact on global regulatory mechanisms such as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) were monitored. NCR-sensitive gene expression in the chemostat cultures showed that ammonium and asparagine were ,rich' nitrogen sources. By this criterion, leucine, proline and methionine were ,poor' nitrogen sources, and phenylalanine showed an ,intermediate' NCR response. [source]

    Generation of the improved recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB 3400 by random mutagenesis and physiological comparison with Pichia stipitis CBS 6054

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
    C.Fredrik Wahlbom
    Abstract The recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB 3399 was constructed by chromosomal integration of the genes encoding d -xylose reductase (XR), xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and xylulokinase (XK). S. cerevisiae TMB 3399 was subjected to chemical mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate and, after enrichment, 33 mutants were selected for improved growth on d -xylose and carbon dioxide formation in Durham tubes. The best-performing mutant was called S. cerevisiae TMB 3400. The novel, recombinant S. cerevisiae strains were compared with Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 through cultivation under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions in a defined mineral medium using only d -xylose as carbon and energy source. The mutation led to a more than five-fold increase in maximum specific growth rate, from 0.0255 h,1 for S. cerevisiae TMB 3399 to 0.14 h,1 for S. cerevisiae TMB 3400, whereas P. stipitis grew at a maximum specific growth rate of 0.44 h,1. All yeast strains formed ethanol only under oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions. The ethanol yields and maximum specific ethanol productivities during oxygen limitation were 0.21, 0.25, and 0.30 g ethanol g xylose,1 and 0.001, 0.10, and 0.16 g ethanol g biomass,1 h,1 for S. cerevisiae TMB 3399, TMB 3400, and P. stipitis CBS 6054, respectively. The xylitol yield under oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions was two-fold higher for S. cerevisiae TMB 3399 than for TMB 3400, but the glycerol yield was higher for TMB 3400. The specific activity, in U mg protein,1, was higher for XDH than for XR in both S. cerevisiae TMB 3399 and TMB 3400, while P. stipitis CBS 6054 showed the opposite relation. S. cerevisiae TMB 3400 displayed higher specific XR, XDH and XK activities than TMB 3399. Hence, we have demonstrated that a combination of metabolic engineering and random mutagenesis was successful to generate a superior, xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae, and uncovered distinctive physiological properties of the mutant. [source]

    Culture-based fisheries in non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka: production and relative performance of stocked species

    Abstract, In Sri Lanka, there is a great potential for the development of culture-based fisheries because of the availability of around 12 000 non-perennial reservoirs in the dry zone (<187 cm annual rainfall) of the island. These reservoirs fill during the north-east monsoonal period in October to December and almost completely dry up during August to October. As these non-perennial reservoirs are highly productive, hatchery-reared fish fingerlings can be stocked to develop culture-based fisheries during the water retention period of 7,9 months. The present study was conducted in 32 non-perennial reservoirs in five administrative districts in Sri Lanka. These reservoirs were stocked with fingerlings of Indian (catla Catla catla Hamilton and rohu Labeo rohita Hamilton) and Chinese (bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis Richardson) major carps, common carp Cyprinus carpio L., genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and post-larvae of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, at three different species combinations and overall stocking densities (SD) ranging from 218 to 3902 fingerlings ha,1, during the 2002,2003 culture cycle. Of the 32 reservoirs stocked, reliable data on harvest were obtained from 25 reservoirs. Fish yield ranged from 53 to 1801 kg ha,1 and the yields of non-perennial reservoirs in southern region were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the northern region. Naturally-recruited snakehead species contributed the catches in northern reservoirs. Fish yield was curvilinearly related to reservoir area (P < 0.05), and a negative second order relationship was evident between SD and yield (P < 0.05). Chlorophyll- a and fish yield exhibited a positive second order relationship (P < 0.01). Bighead carp yield impacted positively on the total yield (P < 0.05), whereas snakehead yield impact was negative. Bighead carp, common carp and rohu appear suitable for poly-culture in non-perennial reservoirs. GIFT strain O. niloticus had the lowest specific growth rate among stocked species and freshwater prawn had a low return. [source]

    Stream temperature and the potential growth and survival of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss in a southern California creek

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
    Summary 1.,We asked whether an increase in food supply in the field would increase the ability of fish populations to withstand climate warming, as predicted by certain bioenergetic models and aquarium experiments. 2.,We subsidised the in situ food supply of wild juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a small stream near the species' southern limit. High-quality food (10% of fish biomass per day) was added to the drift in eight in-stream enclosures along a naturally-occurring thermal gradient. 3.,The temperatures during the experiment were well below the upper thermal limit for the species (means of enclosures ranged from 15.1 to 16.5 °C). Food supplements had no discernible effect on survival, but raised mean (± SD) specific growth rate substantially, from 0.038 ± 0.135 in controls to 2.28 ± 0.51 in feeding treatments. Food supplements doubled the variation in growth among fish. 4.,The mean and variance of water temperature were correlated across the enclosures, and were therefore transformed into principal component scores T1 (which expressed the stream-wide correlation pattern) and T2 (which expressed local departures from the pattern). Even though T1 accounted for 96% of the variation in temperature mean and variance, it was not a significant predictor of fish growth. T2 was a significant predictor of growth. The predicted time to double body mass in an enclosure with a large T2 score (cool-variable) was half that in an enclosure with a low T2 score (warm-stable). 5.,Contrary to expectation, temperature effects were neutral, at least with respect to the main axis of variation among enclosures (cool-stable versus warm-variable). Along the orthogonal axis (cool-variable versus warm-stable), the effect was opposite from expectations, probably because of temperature variation. Subtle patterns of temperature heterogeneity in streams can be important to potential growth of O. mykiss. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Echinacea purpurea and Allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    S. M. Aly
    Summary The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of echnicacea (E) and garlic (G) supplemented diets as immunostimulant for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seven treatments were designed including a control (C). Fish were fed on 35% protein diet at a rate of 3% body weight per day. Echinacea (1.0 ppt) and garlic (3%) were incorporated in the feed, which was administered for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months (summer season), followed by basal diet for 4 more months (winter season). Neutrophil adherence and haematocrit values increased in both supplemented groups with prolonging period of application. The neutrophils adherence was significantly increased in all treatments except group administered echinacea for 1 month. The lymphocytic counts were significantly (p < 0.004) elevated that resulted in a significant increase in the total leucocytic count in groups administered echinacea for 1 and 2 months when compared with the control and/or other treatments. The gain in the body weight and specific growth rate was significantly increased in all supplemented groups (p < 0.004) during summer, but remained without any significant increase after winter. The survival rate was significantly high (>85%) in all the supplemented groups. The percentage of protection, after challenge infection using pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was the highest in groups supplemented with echinacea and garlic for 3 months after summer and winter seasons. It could be concluded that echinacea and garlic improve the gain in body weight, survival rate and resistance against challenge infection. Both compounds showed extended effects after withdrawal and improved resistance to cold stress during the winter season. However, a full commercial cost benefit analysis is necessary before recommending their application in aquaculture. [source]

    Response of beech (Fagus sylvatica) to elevated CO2 and N: Influence on larval performance of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Lep., Lymantriidae)

    M. W. Henn
    Two-year-old beech seedlings were kept from germination to bioassays with Lymantriadispar under the following conditions: ambient CO2/low N, elevated CO2/low N, ambient CO2/elevated N, and elevated CO2/elevated N. The effect of these growing conditions of the trees on the performance of the defoliator L. dispar was studied 2 years after initiating the tree cultivation. The developmental success of third-instar larvae of L. dispar was characterized by the weight gained, percentage of weight gain, relative growth rate (RGR), relative consumption rate (RCR), and efficiency of conversion of ingested food into body substance (ECI). Contrary to our expectations, additional N-fertilization did not increase and elevated CO2 did not delay larval growth rate. However, the environmental treatments of the beech seedlings were found to affect the larval performance. Larvae consumed significantly higher amounts of foliage (RCR) on beech trees under controlled conditions (ambient CO2 and low N) compared to those under elevated CO2 and enhanced N. The opposite was true for ECI. The lowest efficacy to convert consumed food to body substance was observed under control conditions and the highest when the larvae were kept on beech trees grown under elevated CO2 and additional N-fertilization. These opposite effects resulted in the weight gain-based parameters (absolute growth, percentage of growth, and RGR) of the gypsy moth larvae remaining unaffected. The results indicate that the gypsy moth larvae are able to change their ECI and RCR to obtain a specific growth rate. This is discussed as an adaptation to specific food qualities. [source]

    Dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) based on growth, nutrient retention efficiencies, RNA/DNA ratio and body composition

    S. F. Abidi
    Summary To quantify the optimum dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (4.10 ± 0.04 cm; 0.62 ± 0.02 g), an 8-week growth trial was conducted in eighteen 70-L indoor circular aqua-coloured troughs provided with a flow-through system at 28 ± 1°C. Isonitrogenous (40 g 100 g,1 crude protein) and isocaloric (4.28 kcal g,1 gross energy) amino acid test diets containing casein and gelatin as intact protein sources with graded levels of arginine (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 g 100 g,1 dry diet) were fed to triplicate groups of fish to apparent satiation at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:30 hours. Growth performance of fish fed the above diets was evaluated on the basis of absolute weight gain (AWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE). Maximum AWG (2.61), SGR (2.80), best FCR (1.35), highest PER (1.85), PRE (37%) and ERE (76%) were recorded at 1.25 g 100 g,1 dietary arginine. Maximum body protein (18.88 g 100 g,1) and RNA/DNA ratio (5.20) were also obtained in a 1.25 g 100 g,1 arginine dry diet. Except for the reduced growth performance in fish fed arginine-deficient diets, no other deficiency signs were apparent. Based on the broken-line and second-degree polynomial regression analysis of the AWG, SGR, FCR, PER, PRE and ERE data, the optimum arginine requirement for fingerling Labeo rohita was found to be in the range of 1.22,1.39 g 100 g,1 of the dry diet, corresponding to 3.05,3.47 g 100 g,1 of dietary protein. [source]

    Effects of dietary l -carnitine supplements on growth and body composition in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles

    M. Mohseni
    Summary The effects of dietary l -carnitine on growth performance, whole body composition and feed utilization were studied in beluga, Huso huso. Fish were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (30 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed to satiety during 84 days one of five isonitrogenous (41% CP) and isoenergetic (20 MJ kg,1) diets, each differing in l -carnitine content [0 (control), 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg kg,1 diet]. At the end of the trial, fish grew from 19- to 23-fold in weight, from 8.4 g to a maximum of 191 g. Fish fed 300,600 mg l -carnitine had the highest specific growth rate (SGR, 3.69 and 3.72% day,1) and protein efficiency ratio (PER, 0.95 and 0.99), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR, 1.4 and 1.3) than the other groups (P < 0.0001). SGR, PER and FCR were the poorest for fish fed 1200 mg l -carnitine, while fish fed the unsupplemented and 900 mg l -carnitine supplemented diet showed intermediate performance. Body lipid concentration decreased significantly from 5.8 to 5.1% (P < 0.0001) with dietary l -carnitine supplementation increasing from 0 to 300 mg. Energy content was significantly lower in fish fed the 900 and 1200 mg l -carnitine diet (5.8 MJ kg,1), when compared with the other treatment groups (6.4,6.6 MJ kg,1). The results indicated that feeding sturgeon on diets supplemented with 300 mg l -carnitine kg,1 diet improved growth performance, and stimulated protein-sparing effects from lipids. [source]

    Growth performance and body composition of sub-yearling Persian sturgeon, (Acipenser persicus, Borodin, 1897), fed different dietary protein and lipid levels

    M. Mohseni
    Summary In order to evaluate the protein and energy requirement of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) sub-yearlings, eight experimental diets containing two protein levels (40% and 45%) and four lipid levels (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were tested. Sturgeons (W0 = 136.8 g) were fed the experimental diets to satiation four times daily for 150 days, resulting in a final mean weight of 375.8 g. Growth was significantly affected by lipid content of the diets. At 40% protein level, weight gain and specific growth rate (% per day) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) by increasing the dietary lipid (energy) content. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was significantly affected by different dietary treatments for each dietary protein level tested, reaching a mean value of 3.58 in fish fed high lipid diets and a PER of 2.77 in low lipid diets. Results obtained in the present study suggest that the optimum dietary protein content for Persian sturgeon is 40%, with an estimated optimum protein-to-energy ratio of 18,20 mg kJ,1. [source]

    Effect of inclusion of blue-green algae meal on growth and accumulation of microcystins in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    M. Zhao
    Summary Six isonitrogenous (crude protein content: 38%) and isoenergetic (gross energy content: 17 kJ g,1) diets were formulated to investigate the effects of inclusion of blue-green algae meal on gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). In each diet, 15% of the protein was supplied by fishmeal; the remainder was supplied by soybean meal and blue-green algae meal. Diet 1 was used as control with no blue-green algae meal whereas the content in diets 2,6 was 15.15, 29.79, 44.69, 59.58 and 74.48%, respectively. Each diet was fed to five groups of gibel carp for 12 weeks in a flow-through system. Final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed diet 5 were significantly lower than the control diet (P < 0.05). Mortality of gibel carp increased with increase in algae meal inclusion (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between fish fed diets 3,6 (P > 0.05). Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) decreased with the increase in algae meal inclusion (P < 0.05). Fish-fed diet 6 showed the highest feeding rate (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other groups (P > 0.05). Apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, protein, and energy decreased with increasing algae meal inclusion in the diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) activity in the liver was not significantly different among groups (P > 0.05). Liver alanine aminotransferase (GPT) activity of fish-fed diets 4, 5 and 6 was significantly lower than the control diet (diet 1; P < 0.05). Microcystins in the muscle, liver, gallbladder, and spleen increased with increasing algae inclusion (P < 0.05). [source]

    Comparison of some live organisms and artificial diet as feed for Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Günther) larvae

    A. D. Evangelista
    Summary Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of five live organisms (Artemia, Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus plumosus, Moina macrocopa and Tubifex sp.) and an artificial diet (40% protein) in the larval rearing of Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus. The larvae were fed three times daily starting at the onset of exogenous feeding. Results showed that the catfish larvae utilized the live organisms more efficiently than the artificial diet. The Tubifex -fed larvae consistently showed the highest growth rate. In trial 1, length increment (64.9 mm), weight gain (3192 mg) and specific growth rate (13.1%) after 8 weeks of feeding were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in catfish larvae given Tubifex than those in all other treatments. In trial 2, length increment after 4 weeks of feeding was highest in larvae fed Tubifex (22.9 mm) although it did not significantly differ from that of larvae given Moina (21.0 mm). However, weight gain of larvae fed Tubifex (253.0 mg) was significantly higher than that of larvae fed Moina (171.6 mg). The specific growth rate was highest for larvae fed Tubifex (15.0%) followed by larvae fed Artemia (14.5%), Moina (14.4%) and Chironomus (12.0%). Survival rates of the catfish larvae ranged from 9 to 39% after 8 weeks in trial 1 and from 26 to 83% after 4 weeks in trial 2. The present results suggest that Tubifex is an excellent food and a potential substitute for Artemia in the rearing of catfish larvae. [source]

    Mutual influence of protein and lipid feed content on European catfish (Silurus glanis) growth

    E. Has-Schön
    Summary We wished to determine protein and lipid content in pelleted raw fish food, necessary for optimal growth of European catfish (Silurus glanis). Experiments were set up in 20 cages, each holding 30 young catfish. Fishes in each cage received a different food combination over a 98-day period at favourable physical and chemical water conditions. Food protein content varied between 37.5 and 45%, while lipid content, added in the form of soybean oil, varied between 3 and 11%. The oil contained an adequate , -fatty acids concentration, necessary for fish growth. The main growth indicators determined at the end of experiment were total body gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio. There was a high statistical difference among the experimental groups receiving variable food combinations for each growth parameter (P < 0.001). Both protein and lipid food content affected growth parameters, but in a different manner. Further analysis , percentage of change depending on lipid to protein ratio and bivariate surface analysis , allowed us to recognize the most economical combination: 39.5% protein + 9% lipid content. The addition of 9% soybean oil to the fish food reduces the necessary protein concentration by 5.5%, with resulting identical catfish growth effects. [source]

    Effects of amino acid supplementation on the nutritive quality of fermented linseed meal protein in the diets for rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings

    N. Mukhopadhyay
    A feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks to examine the effects of partial substitution of fish meal (FM) protein (crude protein content: 58.5%) with linseed meal protein with and without supplemental amino acids in diets for rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings (mean weight: 1.50 ± 0.3 g). Prior to incorporation into the diets, linseed meal was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus) to reduce/eliminate the antinutritional tannin and phytic acid factors. Twelve experimental diets (diets D1,D12) were formulated to replace the FM protein from a reference diet (RD) with linseed meal protein at different levels (four sets of diets, of which each set of three diets contained 25%, 50% and 75% replacement of FM protein by linseed meal protein, respectively). Diets D1,D3 were not supplemented with any amino acid. Lysine was supplemented in diets D4,D6. Diets D7,D9 were supplemented with methionine + cystine (together), and diets D10,D12 contained lysine and methionine + cystine (together). Lysine and methionine + cystine (together) were added to the diets at 5.7% and 3.1% of dietary protein, respectively. The groups of fish fed diets without amino acid supplementation had significantly lower percentages of weight gain, specific growth rate and high feed : gain ratio than the fish groups fed other experimental diets. The addition of lysine and methionine + cystine to the diet in which 50% of the FM protein was replaced by linseed meal protein (diet D11) significantly improved fish performance. The results of the present study suggest that rohu fingerlings can effectively utilize the supplemented amino acids and that linseed meal protein can replace up to 50% of the FM protein in rohu diets if the linseed meal is properly processed (fermented) and supplemented with the lacking amino acids. [source]