Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Speciation

  • adaptive speciation
  • allopatric speciation
  • arsenic speciation
  • chemical speciation
  • copper speciation
  • cryptic speciation
  • ecological speciation
  • homoploid hybrid speciation
  • hybrid speciation
  • incipient speciation
  • mercury speciation
  • metal speciation
  • rapid speciation
  • recent speciation
  • sympatric speciation

  • Terms modified by Speciation

  • speciation analysis
  • speciation event
  • speciation mechanism
  • speciation model
  • speciation process
  • speciation rate
  • speciation studies

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2010
    James M. Sobel
    Since Darwin published the "Origin," great progress has been made in our understanding of speciation mechanisms. The early investigations by Mayr and Dobzhansky linked Darwin's view of speciation by adaptive divergence to the evolution of reproductive isolation, and thus provided a framework for studying the origin of species. However, major controversies and questions remain, including: When is speciation nonecological? Under what conditions does geographic isolation constitute a reproductive isolating barrier? and How do we estimate the "importance" of different isolating barriers? Here, we address these questions, providing historical background and offering some new perspectives. A topic of great recent interest is the role of ecology in speciation. "Ecological speciation" is defined as the case in which divergent selection leads to reproductive isolation, with speciation under uniform selection, polyploid speciation, and speciation by genetic drift defined as "nonecological." We review these proposed cases of nonecological speciation and conclude that speciation by uniform selection and polyploidy normally involve ecological processes. Furthermore, because selection can impart reproductive isolation both directly through traits under selection and indirectly through pleiotropy and linkage, it is much more effective in producing isolation than genetic drift. We thus argue that natural selection is a ubiquitous part of speciation, and given the many ways in which stochastic and deterministic factors may interact during divergence, we question whether the ecological speciation concept is useful. We also suggest that geographic isolation caused by adaptation to different habitats plays a major, and largely neglected, role in speciation. We thus provide a framework for incorporating geographic isolation into the biological species concept (BSC) by separating ecological from historical processes that govern species distributions, allowing for an estimate of geographic isolation based upon genetic differences between taxa. Finally, we suggest that the individual and relative contributions of all potential barriers be estimated for species pairs that have recently achieved species status under the criteria of the BSC. Only in this way will it be possible to distinguish those barriers that have actually contributed to speciation from those that have accumulated after speciation is complete. We conclude that ecological adaptation is the major driver of reproductive isolation, and that the term "biology of speciation," as proposed by Mayr, remains an accurate and useful characterization of the diversity of speciation mechanisms. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2009
    Alan Brelsford
    Hybrid zones between recently diverged taxa are natural laboratories for speciation research, allowing us to determine whether there is reproductive isolation between divergent forms and the causes of that isolation. We present a study of a classic avian hybrid zone in North America between two subspecies of the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata). Although previous work has shown very little differentiation in mitochondrial DNA across this hybrid zone, we identified two nuclear loci (one sex-linked and one autosomal) that show fixed differences across the hybrid zone, in a close concordance with patterns of plumage variation. Temporal stability and limited width of the hybrid zone, along with substantial linkage disequilibrium between these two diagnostic markers in the center of the zone, indicate that there is moderate reproductive isolation between these populations, with an estimated strength of selection maintaining the zone of 18%. Pairing data indicate that assortative mating is either very weak or absent, suggesting that this reproductive isolation is largely due to postmating barriers. Thus, despite extensive hybridization the two forms are distinct evolutionary groups carrying genes for divergent adaptive peaks, and this situation appears relatively stable. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2009

    We build a spatial individual-based multilocus model of homoploid hybrid speciation tailored for a tentative case of hybrid origin of Heliconius heurippa from H. melpomene and H. cydno in South America. Our model attempts to account for empirical patterns and data on genetic incompatibility, mating preferences and selection by predation (both based on coloration patterns), habitat preference, and local adaptation for all three Heliconius species. Using this model, we study the likelihood of recombinational speciation and identify the effects of various ecological and genetic parameters on the dynamics, patterns, and consequences of hybrid ecological speciation. Overall, our model supports the possibility of hybrid origin of H. heurippa under certain conditions. The most plausible scenario would include hybridization between H. melpomene and H. cydno in an area geographically isolated from the rest of both parental species with subsequent long-lasting geographic isolation of the new hybrid species, followed by changes in the species ranges, the secondary contact, and disappearance of H. melpomene -type ecomorph in the hybrid species. However, much more work (both empirical and theoretical) is necessary to be able to make more definite conclusions on the importance of homoploid hybrid speciation in animals. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2009
    Josef C. Uyeda
    Quantitative genetic models of sexual selection have generally failed to provide a direct connection to speciation and to explore the consequences of finite population size. The connection to speciation has been indirect because the models have treated only the evolution of male and female traits and have stopped short of modeling the evolution of sexual isolation. In this article we extend Lande's (1981) model of sexual selection to quantify predictions about the evolution of sexual isolation and speciation. Our results, based on computer simulations, support and extend Lande's claim that drift along a line of equilibria can rapidly lead to sexual isolation and speciation. Furthermore, we show that rapid speciation can occur by drift in populations of appreciable size (Ne, 1000). These results are in sharp contrast to the opinion of many researchers and textbook writers who have argued that drift does not play an important role in speciation. We argue that drift may be a powerful amplifier of speciation under a wide variety of modeling assumptions, even when selection acts directly on female mating preferences. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2008
    Pascal L. Zaffarano
    Agriculture played a significant role in increasing the number of pathogen species and in expanding their geographic range during the last 10,000 years. We tested the hypothesis that a fungal pathogen of cereals and grasses emerged at the time of domestication of cereals in the Fertile Crescent and subsequently speciated after adaptation to its hosts. Rhynchosporium secalis, originally described from rye, causes an important disease on barley called scald, although it also infects other species of Hordeum and Agropyron. Phylogenetic analyses based on four DNA sequence loci identified three host-associated lineages that were confirmed by cross-pathogenicity tests. Bayesian analyses of divergence time suggested that the three lineages emerged between ,1200 to 3600 years before present (B.P.) with a 95% highest posterior density ranging from 100 to 12,000 years B.P. depending on the implemented clock models. The coalescent inference of demographic history revealed a very recent population expansion for all three pathogens. We propose that Rhynchosporium on barley, rye, and Agropyron host species represent three cryptic pathogen species that underwent independent evolution and ecological divergence by host-specialization. We postulate that the recent emergence of these pathogens followed host shifts. The subsequent population expansions followed the expansion of the cultivated host populations and accompanying expansion of the weedy Agropyron spp. found in fields of cultivated cereals. Hence, agriculture played a major role in the emergence of the scald diseases, the adaptation of the pathogens to new hosts and their worldwide dissemination. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2007
    R. Brian Langerhans
    Although theory indicates that natural selection can facilitate speciation as a by-product, demonstrating ongoing speciation via this by-product mechanism in nature has proven difficult. We examined morphological, molecular, and behavioral data to investigate ecology's role in incipient speciation for a post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes. We show that adaptation to divergent predator regimes is driving ecological speciation as a by-product. Divergence in body shape, coupled with assortative mating for body shape, produces reproductive isolation that is twice as strong between populations inhabiting different predator regimes than between populations that evolved in similar ecological environments. Gathering analogous data on reproductive isolation at the interspecific level in the genus, we find that this mechanism of speciation may have been historically prevalent in Gambusia. These results suggest that speciation in nature can result as a by-product of divergence in ecologically important traits, producing interspecific patterns that persist long after speciation events have completed. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2007
    Mathieu Perret
    The geographical pattern of speciation and the relationship between floral variation and species ranges were investigated in the tribe Sinningieae (Gesneriaceae), which is found mainly in the Atlantic forests of Brazil. Geographical distribution data recorded on a grid system of 0.5 × 0.5 degree intervals and a near-complete species-level phylogenetic tree of Sinningieae inferred from a simultaneous analysis of seven DNA regions were used to address the role of geographical isolation in speciation. Geographical range overlaps between sister lineages were measured across all nodes in the phylogenetic tree and analyzed in relation to relative ages estimated from branch lengths. Although there are several cases of species sympatry in Sinningieae, patterns of sympatry between sister taxa support the predominance of allopatric speciation. The pattern of sympatry between sister taxa is consistent with range shifts following allopatric speciation, except in one clade, in which the overlapping distribution of recent sister species indicates speciation within a restricted geographical area and involving changes in pollinators and habitats. The relationship between floral divergence and regional sympatry was also examined by analyzing floral contrasts, phenological overlap, and the degree of sympatry between sister clades. Morphological contrast between flowers is not increased in sympatry and phenological divergence is more apparent between allopatric clades than between sympatric clades. Therefore, our results failed to indicate a tendency for sympatric taxa to minimize morphological and phenological overlap (geographic exclusion and/or character displacement hypotheses). Instead, they point toward adaptation in phenology to local conditions and buildup of sympatries at random with respect to flower morphology. Additional studies at a lower geographical scale are needed to identify truely coexisting species and the components of their reproductive isolation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2007
    Dietmar Schwarz
    Homoploid hybrid speciation,speciation via hybridization without a change in chromosome number,is rarely documented and poorly understood in animals. In particular, the mechanisms by which animal homoploid hybrid species become ecologically and reproductively isolated from their parents are hypothetical and remain largely untested by experiments. For the many host-specific parasites that mate on their host, choosing the right host is the most important ecological and reproductive barrier between these species. One example of a host-specific parasite is the Lonicera fly, a population of tephritid fruit flies that evolved within the last 250 years likely by hybridization between two native Rhagoletis species following a host shift to invasive honeysuckle. We studied the host preference of the Lonicera fly and its putative parent species in laboratory experiments. The Lonicera fly prefers its new host, introduced honeysuckle, over the hosts of both parental species, demonstrating the rapid acquisition of preference for a new host as a means of behavioral isolation from the parent species. The parent taxa discriminate against each other's native hosts, but both accept honeysuckle fruit, leaving the potential for asymmetric gene flow from the parent species. Importantly, this pattern allows us to formulate hypotheses about the initial formation of the Lonicera fly. As mating partners from the two parent taxa are more likely to meet on invasive honeysuckle than on their respective native hosts, independent acceptance of honeysuckle by both parents likely preceded hybridization. We propose that invasive honeysuckle served as a catalyst for the local breakdown of reproductive isolation between the native parent species, a novel consequence of the introduction of an exotic weed. We describe behavioral mechanisms that explain the initial hybridization and subsequent reproductive isolation of the hybrid Lonicera fly. These results provide experimental support for a combination of host shift and hybridization as a model for hybrid speciation in parasitic animals. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2006
    Reinhard Bürger
    Abstract It has been shown theoretically that sympatric speciation can occur if intraspecific competition is strong enough to induce disruptive selection. However, the plausibility of the involved processes is under debate, and many questions on the conditions for speciation remain unresolved. For instance, is strong disruptive selection sufficient for speciation? Which roles do genetic architecture and initial composition of the population play? How strong must assortative mating be before a population can split in two? These are some of the issues we address here. We investigate a diploid multilocus model of a quantitative trait that is under frequency-dependent selection caused by a balance of intraspecific competition and frequency-independent stabilizing selection. This trait also acts as mating character for assortment. It has been established previously that speciation can occur only if competition is strong enough to induce disruptive selection. We find that speciation becomes more difficult for very strong competition, because then extremely strong assortment is required. Thus, speciation is most likely for intermediate strengths of competition, where it requires strong, but not extremely strong, assortment. For this range of parameters, however, it is not obvious how assortment can evolve from low to high levels, because with moderately strong assortment less genetic variation is maintained than under weak or strong assortment sometimes none at all. In addition to the strength of frequency-dependent competition and assortative mating, the roles of the number of loci, the distribution of allelic effects, the initial conditions, costs to being choosy, the strength of stabilizing selection, and the particular choice of the fitness function are explored. A multitude of possible evolutionary outcomes is observed, including loss of all genetic variation, splitting in two to five species, as well as very short and extremely long stable limit cycles. On the methodological side, we propose quantitative measures for deciding whether a given distribution reflects two (or more) reproductively isolated clusters. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2006
    Mark A. McPeek
    Abstract Females of many species are frequently courted by promiscuous males of their own and other closely related species. Such mating interactions may impose strong selection on female mating preferences to favor trait values in conspecific males that allow females to discriminate them from their heterospecific rivals. We explore the consequences of such selection in models of the evolution of female mating preferences when females must interact with heterospecific males from which they are completely postreproductively isolated. Specifically, we allow the values of both the most preferred male trait and the tolerance of females for males that deviate from this most preferred trait to evolve. Also, we consider situations in which females base their mating decisions on multiple male traits and must interact with males of multiple species. Females will rapidly differentiate in preference when they sometimes mistake heterospecific males for suitable mates, and the differentiation of female preference will select for conspecific male traits to differentiate as well. In most circumstances, this differentiation continues indefinitely, but slows substantially once females are differentiated enough to make mistakes rare. Populations of females with broader preference functions (i.e., broader tolerance for males with trait values that deviate from females most preferred values) will evolve further to differentiate if the shape of the function cannot evolve. Also, the magnitude of separation that evolves is larger and achieved faster when conspecific males have lower relative abundance. The direction of differentiation is also very sensitive to initial conditions if females base their mate choices on multiple male traits. We discuss how these selection pressures on female mate choice may lead to speciation by generating differentiation among populations of a progenitor species that experiences different assemblages of heterospecifics. Opportunities for differentiation increase as the number of traits involved in mate choice increase and as the number of species involved increases. We suggest that this mode of speciation may have been particularly prevalent in response to the cycles of climatic change throughout the Quaternary that forced the assembly and disassembly of entire communities on a continentwide basis. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2006
    Chris D. Jiggins
    Abstract Species level phylogenetic hypotheses can be used to explore patterns of divergence and speciation. In the tropics, speciation is commonly attributed to either vicariance, perhaps within climate-induced forest refugia, or ecological speciation caused by niche adaptation. Mimetic butterflies have been used to identify forest refugia as well as in studies of ecological speciation, so they are ideal for discriminating between these two models. The genus Ithomia contains 24 species of warningly colored mimetic butterflies found in South and Central America, and here we use a phylogenetic hypothesis based on seven genes for 23 species to investigate speciation in this group. The history of wing color pattern evolution in the genus was reconstructed using both parsimony and likelihood. The ancestral pattern for the group was almost certainly a transparent butterfly, and there is strong evidence for convergent evolution due to mimicry. A punctuationist model of pattern evolution was a significantly better fit to the data than a gradualist model, demonstrating that pattern changes above the species level were associated with cladogenesis and supporting a model of ecological speciation driven by mimicry adaptation. However, there was only one case of sister species unambiguously differing in pattern, suggesting that some recent speciation events have occurred without pattern shifts. The pattern of geographic overlap between clades over time shows that closely related species are mostly sympatric or, in one case, parapatric. This is consistent with modes of speciation with ongoing gene flow, although rapid range changes following allopatric speciation could give a similar pattern. Patterns of lineage accumulation through time differed significantly from that expected at random, and show that most of the extant species were present by the beginning of the Pleistocene at the latest. Hence Pleistocene refugia are unlikely to have played a major role in Ithomia diversification. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2004
    R. F. Lachlan
    Abstract The songs of many birds are unusual in that they serve a role in identifying conspecific mates, yet they are also culturally transmitted. Noting the apparently high rate of diversity in one avian taxon, the songbirds, in which song learning appears ubiquitous, it has often been speculated that cultural transmission may increase the rate of speciation. Here we examine the possibility that song learning affects the rate of allopatric speciation. We construct a population-genetic model of allopatric divergence that explores the evolution of genes that underlie learning preferences (predispositions to learn some songs over others). We compare this with a model in which mating signals are inherited only genetically. Models are constructed for the cases where songs and preferences are affected by the same or different loci, and we analyze them using analytical local stability analysis combined with simulations of drift and directional sexual selection. Under nearly all conditions examined, song divergence occurs more readily in the learning model than in the nonlearning model. This is a result of reduced frequency-dependent selection in the learning models. Cultural evolution causes males with unusual genotypes to tend to learn from the majority of males around them, and thus develop songs compatible with the majority of the females in the population. Unusual genotypes can therefore be masked by learning. Over a wide range of conditions, learning therefore reduces the waiting time for speciation to occur and can be predicted to accelerate the rate of speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2003
    Daniel I. Bolnick
    Abstract Models of adaptive speciation are typically concerned with demonstrating that it is possible for ecologically driven disruptive selection to lead to the evolution of assortative mating and hence speciation. However, disruptive selection could also lead to other forms of evolutionary diversification, including ecological sexual dimorphisms. Using a model of frequency-dependent intraspecific competition, we show analytically that adaptive speciation and dimorphism require identical ecological conditions. Numerical simulations of individual-based models show that a single ecological model can produce either evolutionary outcome, depending on the genetic independence of male and female traits and the potential strength of assortative mating. Speciation is inhibited when the genetic basis of male and female ecological traits allows the sexes to diverge substantially. This is because sexual dimorphism, which can evolve quickly, can eliminate the frequency-dependent disruptive selection that would have provided the impetus for speciation. Conversely, populations with strong assortative mating based on ecological traits are less likely to evolve a sexual dimorphism because females cannot simultaneously prefer males more similar to themselves while still allowing the males to diverge. This conflict between speciation and dimorphism can be circumvented in two ways. First, we find a novel form of speciation via negative assortative mating, leading to two dimorphic daughter species. Second, if assortative mating is based on a neutral marker trait, trophic dimorphism and speciation by positive assortative mating can occur simultaneously. We conclude that while adaptive speciation and ecological sexual dimorphism may occur simultaneously, allowing for sexual dimorphism restricts the likelihood of adaptive speciation. Thus, it is important to recognize that disruptive selection due to frequency-dependent interactions can lead to more than one form of adaptive splitting. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2003
    Sergey Gavrilets
    Abstract Theoretical studies of speciation have been dominated by numerical simulations aiming to demonstrate that speciation in a certain scenario may occur. What is needed now is a shift in focus to identifying more general rules and patterns in the dynamics of speciation. The crucial step in achieving this goal is the development of simple and general dynamical models that can be studied not only numerically but analytically as well. I review some of the existing analytical results on speciation. I first show why the classical theories of speciation by peak shifts across adaptive valleys driven by random genetic drift run into trouble (and into what kind of trouble). Then I describe the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model of speciation that does not require overcoming selection. I describe exactly how the probability of speciation, the average waiting time to speciation, and the average duration of speciation depend on the mutation and migration rates, population size, and selection for local adaptation. The BDM model postulates a rather specific genetic architecture of reproductive isolation. I then show exactly why the genetic architecture required by the BDM model should be common in general. Next I consider the multilocus generalizations of the BDM model again concentrating on the qualitative characteristics of speciation such as the average waiting time to speciation and the average duration of speciation. Finally, I consider two models of sympatric speciation in which the conditions for sympatric speciation were found analytically. A number of important conclusions have emerged from analytical studies. Unless the population size is small and the adaptive valley is shallow, the waiting time to a stochastic transition between the adaptive peaks is extremely long. However, if transition does happen, it is very quick. Speciation can occur by mutation and random drift alone with no contribution from selection as different populations accumulate incompatible genes. The importance of mutations and drift in speciation is augmented by the general structure of adaptive landscapes. Speciation can be understood as the divergence along nearly neutral networks and holey adaptive landscapes (driven by mutation, drift, and selection for adaptation to a local biotic and/or abiotic environment) accompanied by the accumulation of reproductive isolation as a by-product. The waiting time to speciation driven by mutation and drift is typically very long. Selection for local adaptation (either acting directly on the loci underlying reproductive isolation via their pleiotropic effects or acting indirectly via establishing a genetic barrier to gene flow) can significantly decrease the waiting time to speciation. In the parapatric case the average actual duration of speciation is much shorter than the average waiting time to speciation. Speciation is expected to be triggered by changes in the environment. Once genetic changes underlying speciation start, they go to completion very rapidly. Sympatric speciation is possible if disruptive selection and/or assortativeness in mating are strong enough. Sympatric speciation is promoted if costs of being choosy are small (or absent) and if linkage between the loci experiencing disruptive selection and those controlling assortative mating is strong. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Lukas Rüber
    Abstract., The American seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini) are highly diverse both in morphology and ecology with many endemics in the Caribbean region. We have reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of 54 Gobio-somatini taxa (65 individuals) based on a 1646-bp region that includes the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Val, and 16S rRNA genes. Our results support the monophyly of the seven-spined gobies and are in agreement with the existence of two major groups within the tribe, the Gobiosoma group and the Microgobius group. However, they reject the monophyly of some of the Gobiosomatini genera. We use the molecular phylogeny to study the dynamics of speciation in the Gobiosomatini by testing for departures from the constant speciation rate model. We observe a burst of speciation in the early evolutionary history of the group and a subsequent slowdown. Our results show a split among clades into coastal-estuarian, deep ocean, and tropical reef habitats. Major habitat shifts account for the early significant acceleration in lineage splitting and speciation rate and the initial divergence of the main Gobiosomatini clades. We found that subsequent diversification is triggered by behavior and niche specializations at least in the reef-associated clades. Overall, our results confirm that the diversity of Gobiosomatini has arisen during episodes of adaptive radiation, and emphasize the importance of ecology in marine speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2003
    Arcadi Navarro
    Abstract Chromosomal rearrangements can promote reproductive isolation by reducing recombination along a large section of the genome. We model the effects of the genetic barrier to gene flow caused by a chromosomal rearrangement on the rate of accumulation of postzygotic isolation genes in parapatry. We find that, if reproductive isolation is produced by the accumulation in parapatry of sets of alleles compatible within but incompatible across species, chromosomal rearrangements are far more likely to favor it than classical genetic barriers without chromosomal changes. New evidence of the role of chromosomal rearrangements in parapatric speciation suggests that postzygotic isolation is often due to the accumulation of such incompatibilities. The model makes testable qualitative predictions about the genetic signature of speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2003
    Stuart F. McDaniel
    Abstract Many bryophyte species have distributions that span multiple continents. The hypotheses historically advanced to explain such distributions rely on either long-distance spore dispersal or slow rates of morphological evolution following ancient continental vicariance events. We use phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence variation at three chloroplast loci (atpB-rbcL spacer, rps4 gene, and trnL intron and 3,spacer) to examine these two hypotheses in the trans-Antarctic moss Pyrrhobryum mnioides. We find: (1) reciprocal monophyly of Australasian and South American populations, indicating a lack of intercontinental dispersal; (2) shared haplotypes between Australia and New Zealand, suggesting recent or ongoing migration across the Tasman Sea; and (3) reciprocal monophyly among Patagonian and neotropical populations, suggesting no recent migration along the Andes. These results corroborate experimental work suggesting that spore features may be critical determinants of species range. We use the mid-Miocene development of the Atacama Desert, 14 million years ago, to calibrate a molecular clock for the tree. The age of the trans-Antarctic disjunction is estimated to be 80 million years ago, consistent with Gondwanan vicariance, making it among the most ancient documented cases of cryptic speciation. These data are in accord with niche conservatism, but whether the morphological stasis is a product of stabilizing selection or phylogenetic constraint is unknown. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2002
    Matthew P. Hare
    Abstract Under a neutral model, the stochastic lineage sorting that leads to gene monophyly proceeds slowly in large populations. Therefore, in many recent species with large population size, the genome will have mixed support for monophyly unless historical bottlenecks have accelerated coalescence. We use genealogical patterns in mitochondrial DNA and in introns of four nuclear loci to test for historical bottlenecks during the speciation and divergence of two temperate Lagenorhynchus dolphin species isolated by tropical Pacific waters (an antitropical distribution). Despite distinct morphologies, foraging behaviors, and mitochondrial DNAs, these dolphin species are polyphyletic at all four nuclear loci. The abundance of shared polymorphisms between these sister taxa is most consistent with the maintenance of large effective population sizes (5.09 × 104 to 10.9 × 104) during 0.74,1.05 million years of divergence. A variety of population size histories are possible, however. We used gene tree coalescent probabilities to explore the rejection region for historical bottlenecks of different intensity given best estimates of effective population size under a strict isolation model of divergence. In L. obliquidens the data are incompatible with a colonization propagule of an effective size of 10 or fewer individuals. Although the ability to reject less extreme historical bottlenecks will require data from additional loci, the intermixed genealogical patterns observed between these dolphin sister species are highly probable only under an extended history of large population size. If similar demographic histories are inferred for other marine antitropical taxa, a parsimonious model for the Pleistocene origin of these distributions would not involve rare breaches of a constant dispersal barrier by small colonization propagules. Instead, a history of large population size in L. obliquidens and L. obscurus contributes to growing biological and environmental evidence that the equatorial barrier became permeable during glacial/interglacial cycles, leading to vicariant isolation of antitropical populations. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Maki Yamamoto
    The cell division mechanisms of seven strains from six species of Nannochloris Naumann were analyzed and compared with those of three species of Chlorella Beijerinck and Trebouxia erici Ahmadjian using differential interference microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Nannochloris bacillaris Naumann divides by binary fission and N. coccoides Naumann divides by budding. Distinct triangular spaces or mother cell walls were found in the dividing autosporangia of the other five strains from four species of Nannochloris, three species of Chlorella, and T. erici. In an attempt to infer an evolutionary relationship between nonautosporic and autosporic species of Nannochloris, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of the actin genes using seven strains from six species of Nannochloris, three species of Chlorella, and T. erici. Nannochloris species were polyphyletic in the Trebouxiophyceae group. Two nonautosporic species of N. bacillaris and N. coccoides were monophyletic and positioned distally. Moreover, to determine their phylogenetic position within the Trebouxiophyceae, we constructed phylogenetic tree of 18S rRNA genes adding other species of Trebouxiophyceae. Nannochloris species were polyphyletic in the Trebouxiophyceae and appeared in two different lineages, a Chlorella,Nannochloris group and a Trebouxia,Choricystis group. The nonautosporic species, N. bacillaris and N. coccoides, and three autosporic species of Nannochloris belonged to the Chlorella,Nannochloris group. Nannochloris bacillaris and N. coccoides were also monophyletic and positioned distally in the phylogenetic tree of 18S rRNA genes. These results suggest that autosporulation is the ancestral mode of cell division in Nannochloris and that nonautosporulative mechanisms, such as binary fission and budding, evolved secondarily. [source]

    Speciation via species interactions: the divergence of mating traits within species

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2010
    Conrad J. Hoskin
    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 409,420 Abstract A species may overlap with a mosaic of species across its geographic range. Many types of species interaction cause selection on mating traits, but their role in generating within-species divergence has been neglected. The pattern of reproductive character displacement (RCD) has been classically attributed to reinforcement, a process driven by selection against hybridisation. Recent reinforcement research shows that sexual isolation can result between displaced and non-displaced populations. We argue that RCD (and hence potentially speciation) among populations can be generated by a variety of fundamental species interactions beyond reinforcement. We unify these interactions under one process of mating trait divergence and speciation (,RCD speciation'). This process can occur in many geographic settings. Because selection is acting directly on mating traits, rapid speciation can result involving little differentiation in other traits. This pattern of diversification is seen in many groups and regions, and has previously been attributed to sexual selection alone. [source]

    Characteristics of Voltammetric Determination and Speciation of Chromium , A Review

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 13 2009
    Andrzej Bobrowski
    Abstract This article reviews the voltammetric methods of chromium determination, including adsorptive and catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry at liquid mercury, metallic films, and modified carbon paste electrodes. The principle applications of the catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetric method of chromium(VI) determination in the presence of DTPA and nitrate, most useful in the analysis of chromium traces and its speciation, is presented in detail. Special emphasis is put on the presentation and characterization of the voltammetric procedures which make it possible to conduction speciation studies of chromium(VI) in the presence of a great excess of chromium(III) and surfactants. This survey is based on 173 articles. [source]

    Construction and Evaluation of a Gold Tubular Electrode for Flow Analysis: Application to Speciation of Antimony in Water Samples

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 6 2007
    Rodrigo Santos
    Abstract A tubular gold electrode (TGE) is described for the first time by summarizing the important aspects of its construction and evaluation. Applicability of the TGE is evaluated in the speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) using anodic stripping voltammetry in a single flow manifold. Studies with surface active interferences and metallic cations were performed. The proposed conditions for antimony determination showed good tolerance towards cationic, anionic and nonionic surface active substances. A linear response for antimony was obtained for solutions containing significant amounts of several metallic cations. Linear calibration curves for Sb(III) were obtained in the range 1,10,ppb with a detection limit of 0.19,ppb (CV=2.91%, n=5, [Sb(III)]=5,ppb). For Sb(V), linear calibration curves were in the range 1,15,ppb with a detection limit of 0.32,ppb (CV=1.41%, n=5, [Sb(V)]=5,ppb). The figures of merit achieved sustain for the good applicability of the proposed method as it allows the determination of antimony at levels below maximum values permitted in consuming waters. Results of antimony concentration determined in water samples were validated against the ICP-MS reference procedure or compared with reference water samples. [source]

    Voltammetric Monitoring and Speciation of Copper Ions in Italian "Grappa" with Platinum Microelectrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 7 2006
    Antonietta Baldo
    Abstract A linear sweep voltammetric (LSV) investigation and the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) detection of copper ions in ethanol-water mixtures and grappa samples are reported. The measurements are carried out by using platinum microdisk electrodes. Ethanol-water mixtures with ethanol content in the range 40,100,vol%, commercially available and raw grappa samples having ethanol content in the above range are examined. From LSV measurements of copper (II) ions added to the samples, the formation of intermediate copper (I) soluble species, which are stabilized mainly by the naturally occurring organic compounds present in the real samples, is observed. The analysis of LSV and ASV current responses against added Cu2+ ions provides linear trends over the concentration range 5×10,5,5×10,3,M and 5×10,7,5×10,5,M, respectively. The sensitivity depends on the ethanol content in the mixture and, as expected, it is the higher the lower the viscosity of the medium. In particular, it varies from 1.54 to 3.53,nA mM,1 and from 0.114 to 0.263,nA ,M,1 for LSV and ASV measurements, respectively, upon changing the ethanol content from 40 to 100,vol%. In the same range of ethanol content, detection limits obtained by ASV vary from 0.27 to 0.15,,M, respectively. Labile or total copper contents in the grappa samples are determined by ASV measurements performed in the untreated matrices or in the samples acidified with 0.1,M HClO4, respectively. Finally, acidification of the samples with different amounts of HClO4 allows also some speciation investigations to be performed. [source]

    Suitability of Stripping Chronopotentiometry for Heavy Metal Speciation Using Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant: Application to the Cd(II)-EDTA-PMA System

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 24 2005
    Núria Serrano
    Abstract The possibilities of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for heavy metal speciation have been tested in the modality of chemical oxidation using the model systems Cd(II)-polyacrylic acid (PMA), Cd(II)-EDTA and Cd(II)-PMA-EDTA. The use of 0.03% H2O2 as a chemical oxidant provides reliable results from transition times, but peak potentials are dramatically affected by the presence of this reagent. The study suggests that chemical-oxidation SCP can be a technique complementary to other stripping modalities in the study of inert and macromolecular labile metal complexes. [source]

    Application of a Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with a Schiff Base Ligand to Mercury Speciation in Water

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2005
    Montserrat Colilla
    Abstract A carbon paste electrode, modified with benzylbisthiosemicarbazone is used for mercury speciation in water samples. Mercury ion is selectively accumulated on the electrode surface at open circuit and its analysis was performed by cyclic voltammetry or square-wave voltammetry (SWV). A detection limit of 8,,g L,1 (3,) was found for 15,min of accumulation using SWV as measurement technique. The effect of several metallic ions and organic substances on voltammetric signal is examined. For speciation purposes, a ligand competition methodology between ligands in solution and electrode is used. Model mercury complexes are characterized as a function of their dissociation kinetics. The method was applied to mercury speciation in water samples from the Jarama River in Madrid. [source]

    Integrated Microanalytical System Coupling Permeation Liquid Membrane and Voltammetry for Trace Metal Speciation.

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 10 2004
    Optimization, Technical Description
    Abstract A new minicell coupling the liquid-liquid extraction technique called permeation liquid membrane (PLM) with an integrated Ir-based Hg-plated microelectrode array for voltammetric detection has been developed for the speciation of heavy metals in natural waters. Lead and cadmium have been used as model compounds. The PLM consists of a carrier (0.1,M 22DD+0.1,M lauric acid) dissolved in 1,:,1 mixture of toluene/phenylhexane held in the small pores (30,nm) of a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane (Celgard 2500). One side of this membrane is in contact with a flowing source solution, containing the metal ions of interest. An acceptor or strip solution (pyrophosphate) is placed on the other side of the PLM with the microelectrode array placed at 480,,m of the PLM. The analyte is transported by the carrier from the source solution to the strip solution. The originality of the new minicell is that accumulation in the strip solution is voltammetrically followed by the integrated microelectrode array in real time, and at low concentration level, using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). In order to protect the Hg microelectrodes from the adsorption of the hydrophobic carrier, the microelectrodes are embedded in a thin gel layer (280,,m) of 1.5% LGL agarose gel containing 10% of hydrophobic silica particles C18. The choice of optimum conditions is discussed in details in this article. Due to the very small effective strip volume of the new cell (less than 1,,L), high enrichment factor can be obtained (e.g., 330 for Pb) after 2,hours of accumulation. No deaeration of the solutions is required for SWASV measurements. Detection limits under these conditions are 2,pM and 75,pM for Pb and Cd, respectively, using a voltammetric deposition time of 5,min. In addition, no fouling effects were observed with natural water samples. [source]

    Analysis and Speciation of Traces of Arsenic in Environmental, Food and Industrial Samples by Voltammetry: a Review

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 9 2004
    Andrea Cavicchioli
    Abstract Voltammetric approaches for the determination of arsenic and speciation at trace levels are critically appraised in a review covering the literature from 1970 to 2002. Special attention is devoted to stripping modes and to issues related to the choice of working material and supporting electrolyte. A section is dedicated to the management of real samples and aspects of sample preparation. An extensive compilation, organized by real sample type, gathers essential experimental conditions. Potentiometric stripping analysis is introduced for sake of comparison. The coupling of voltammetric detection or preaccumulation with FIA, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and ICP techniques is also addressed. [source]

    Speciation of selenium compounds by open tubular capillary electrochromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2006
    Shu-Yu Lin
    Abstract We introduce a T-type interface and a crossflow nebulizer to find ways to combine CEC with inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) detection for selenium speciation. For CEC separation, we employed a macrocyclic polyamine-bonded phase capillary as the separation column and a bare fused-silica capillary filled with the make-up liquid (0.05,M,HNO3). The effect of nebulizer gas flow rate, make-up liquid flow, type, concentration and pH of the mobile phase on the separation have been studied. Tris buffer of 50,mM at pH,8.50 gave the best performance for selenium speciation. The reproducibility of the retention time indicated that sample injection by electrokinetic and nebulizer gas flow was better than that by self-aspiration alone. The detection limits for selenate, selenite, selenocystine and selenomethionine were found to be 2.40, 3.53, 12.86 and 11.25,ng/mL, respectively. Due to the high sensitivity and element-specific detection, as well as the high selectivity of the bonded phase, quantitative analysis of selenium speciation in urine was also achieved. [source]

    Speciation of arsenic compounds in fish and oyster tissues by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7-8 2005
    Ching-Fen Yeh
    Abstract A capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (CE-ICP-MS) method for the speciation of six arsenic compounds, namely arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine and arsenocholine is described. The separation has been achieved on a 70,cm length×75,µm,ID fused-silica capillary. The electrophoretic buffer used was 15,mM Tris (pH,9.0) containing 15,mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), while the applied voltage was set at +22,kV. The arsenic species in biological tissues were extracted into 80%,v/v methanol-water mixture, put in a closed centrifuge tube and kept in a water bath, using microwaves at 80°C for 3,min. The extraction efficiencies of individual arsenic species added to the sample at 0.5,µg As/g level were between 96% and 107%, except for As(III), for which it was 89% and 77% for oyster and fish samples, respectively. The detection limits of the species studied were in the range 0.3,0.5,ng As/mL. The procedure has been applied for the speciation analysis of two reference materials, namely dogfish muscle tissue (NRCC DORM-2) and oyster tissue (NIST SRM 1566a), and two real-world samples. [source]

    Speciation of Arsenic under Dynamic Conditions

    J. Ackermann
    Abstract In periodically flooded soils, reductive conditions can occur, which favor the dissolution of Fe (hydr)oxides. Fe (hydr)oxides such as goethite are important sorbents for arsenate (AsV), which is the dominant As species in soils under aerobic conditions. Hence, the dissolution of Fe (hydr)oxides under reductive conditions can result in the mobilization and reduction of AsV and, thus, in an increase in the bioavailability of arsenic. The temporal dynamics of these processes and possible re-sorption or precipitation of arsenite (AsIII) formed are poorly understood. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the temporal change in the redox potential and arsenic speciation with time after a simulated flooding event in a quartz-goethite organic matter substrate, spiked with AsV, was examined. During a period of 6,weeks, substrate solutions were sampled weekly using micro-suction cups and analyzed for pH, AsIII and AsV, Fe, Mn and P concentrations. Redox potentials and matric potentials were determined in situ in the substrate-bearing cylinders. The redox potential and the ratio between AsIII and AsV concentrations remained unchanged during the experiment without organic matter application. With organic matter applied, the redox potential decreased and the AsIII concentrations in the substrate solution increased while the total As concentrations in the substrate solution strongly decreased. An addition of goethite (1,g/kg) per se led to a decrease of the total As in the substrate solution (almost 50,%). In respect to the potential As availability for plants, and consequently, the transfer into the food chain, the results are difficult to evaluate. The lower the total As concentrations in the substrate solution, determined with decreasing redox potential, the least plant As uptake will occur. This effect may however be compensated by a shift of the molar P/AsV ratio in the solution in favor of AsV which is expected to increase the As uptake. [source]