Spring Samples (spring + sample)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nitrification in terrestrial hot springs of Iceland and Kamchatka

Laila J. Reigstad
Abstract Archaea have been detected recently as a major and often dominant component of the microbial communities performing ammonia oxidation in terrestrial and marine environments. In a molecular survey of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) genes in terrestrial hot springs of Iceland and Kamchatka, the amoA gene encoding the ,-subunit of AMO was detected in a total of 14 hot springs out of the 22 investigated. Most of these amoA -positive hot springs had temperatures between 82 and 97 C and pH range between 2.5 and 7. In phylogenetic analyses, these amoA genes formed three independent lineages within the known sequence clusters of marine or soil origin. Furthermore, in situ gross nitrification rates in Icelandic hot springs were estimated by the pool dilution technique directly on site. At temperatures above 80 C, between 56 and 159 ,mol NO3, L,1 mud per day was produced. Furthermore, addition of ammonium to the hot spring samples before incubation yielded a more than twofold higher potential nitrification rate, indicating that the process was limited by ammonia supply. Our data provide evidence for an active role of archaea in nitrification of hot springs in a wide range of pH values and at a high temperature. [source]

Can macroinvertebrate rapid bioassessment methods be used to assess river health during drought in south eastern Australian streams?

Summary 1Despite significant concern about drought impacts in Australia, there have been no broad-scale studies of drought effects on river health. A severe and prolonged drought has been acting on many streams in south eastern Australia over the past decade. EPA Victoria has undertaken rapid bioassessment (RBA) of over 250 stream reference sites since 1990, providing an opportunity for a before-after-control-impact investigation of drought related changes to macroinvertebrate indices and water quality. This study uses data from 1990 to 2004 to critically evaluate the effectiveness of using RBA methods and indices, which were designed for assessment of human impacts, for monitoring streams during drought. 2Reference stream sites across Victoria (those with minimal anthropogenic disturbances and repeatedly sampled) were classified as being ,in drought' or ,not in drought' using the Bureau of Meteorology's rainfall deficiency definition. Four biological indices (SIGNAL, EPT, Family Richness and AUSRIVAS) were calculated for combined autumn and spring samples for edge and riffle habitats for the selected sites. 3General linear models and paired t -tests were used to detect drought related changes to index and water quality values at state-wide and bioregional scales. Changes in taxa constancy were examined to determine which taxa were sensitive to or benefited from drought conditions. Frequency of site failure against biological objectives specified in the State Environment Protection Policy (Waters of Victoria) (herein termed ,SEPP WoV') before and during drought was also examined to detect changes in a management context. 4Few significant changes in index values were detected for riffle habitat samples. Rates of failure against biological objectives were similar before and during drought for riffle samples. In contrast, edge habitat AUSRIVAS and SIGNAL scores were significantly reduced at the state-wide scale and most indices showed significant declines in the lower altitude forests, and foothills and coastal plains bioregions. 5Generally, more pollution tolerant, lentic taxa replaced sensitive and flow-requiring taxa in edge samples during drought. In contrast, there were few reductions in the taxa of riffle samples during drought. However, many pool preferring, but pollution sensitive taxa occurred more frequently in riffle areas. Hence, the riffle community began to resemble that of pools and edges. This was attributed to decreased flow and increased ,lentic' habitat opportunities in riffles. 6Detection of a drought effect was confined to the edge habitat and site failure could be assigned to drought and anthropogenic impacts, in conjunction or alone. The riffle sampling protocol was resistant to detection of drought effects as samples were only taken when sufficient water was present within this habitat. Therefore, biological changes at sites not meeting policy objectives for riffle habitats can be attributed to anthropogenic rather than drought impacts. [source]

Dispersion patterns of parasites in 0+ year three-spined sticklebacks: a cross population comparison

M. Kalbe
Two ciliates and 16 metazoan parasites were identified in 434 0+ year three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus collected from two small rivers and four lakes located in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. By repeated sampling and analysis of dispersion patterns of six frequently occurring parasites no consistent evidence was found for mortality induced by a single parasite species. Linear log-variance to log-mean abundance ratios with slopes of c. 2 indicated negative binomial distributions for five of the six parasites. The numbers of these six parasites were combined as multiples of S.D. of each parasite species over all samples to form an ,individual parasitation index' (IPI), which showed that only in one locality a slight decrease in parasite burden occurred between September and April. In two of the lake populations, however, there was a distinct decline in the degree of dispersion in spring samples. This indicates that a combination of different species might cause parasite-induced host mortality, undetectable by patterns obtained from single species. There were differences in parasite diversity and intensity of infection among river compared to lake populations suggesting a role for parasites as selective agents in the ecological divergence of three-spined sticklebacks. [source]

Low genotyping error rates in wild ungulate faeces sampled in winter

Abstract We show that Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and Corsican mouflon (Ovis musimon) faeces yield useful DNA for microsatellite analysis, however, we detected higher genotyping error rates for spring faeces than for winter faeces. We quantified the genotyping error rate by repeatedly genotyping four microsatellites. Respectively, 99 and 95% of mouflon and ibex genotyping repetitions provided a correct genotype using winter samples, whereas spring samples provided only 52 and 59% correct genotypes. Thus, before starting a noninvasive study, we recommend that researchers conduct a pilot study to quantify genotyping error rates for each season, population and species to be studied. [source]