Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Spring

  • boreal spring
  • chinese spring
  • early spring
  • hot spring
  • karst spring
  • late spring
  • thermal spring

  • Terms modified by Spring

  • spring barley
  • spring bloom
  • spring drought
  • spring emergence
  • spring flood
  • spring flow
  • spring growth
  • spring meeting
  • spring migration
  • spring model
  • spring month
  • spring orogeny
  • spring peak
  • spring period
  • spring phytoplankton bloom
  • spring precipitation
  • spring rainfall
  • spring sample
  • spring season
  • spring semester
  • spring snowmelt
  • spring system
  • spring temperature
  • spring tide
  • spring water
  • spring wheat

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Corinne R. Lehr
    The unicellular eukaryotic algae Cyanidium, Galdieria, and Cyanidioschyzon (herein referred to as "cyanidia") are the only photoautotrophs occurring in acidic (pH<4.0) geothermal environments at temperatures above 40C. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), we examined an annual event we refer to as "mat decline," where cyanidial mats undergo a seasonably defined color fading. Monthly sampling of chemical, physical, and biological features revealed that spring aqueous chemistry was essentially invariant over the 1-year sampling period. However, multiple regression analysis suggested that a significant proportion of algal most probable number (MPN) count variation could be explained by water temperature and UV,visible (VIS) light exposure. Irradiance manipulations (filtering) were then coupled with 14CO2 incorporation experiments to directly demonstrate UV inhibition of photosynthesis. Population dynamics were also evident in 18S rDNA PCR clone libraries, which were different in composition at MPN maxima and minima, and again evident in PCR-amplified chloroplast genomic short sequence repeat (SSR) analysis. PCR-cloned SSRs of the YNP isolates and mats were very similar to Cyanidioschyzon merolae Luca, Taddei et Varano, although distance analysis could distinguish the YNP cyanidia from the genome sequenced C. merolae that was isolated in Italy. Unexpectedly, while phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences and SSR sequences derived from YNP cyanidial mats and pure cultures suggested these algae are most closely related to C. merolae (99.7% identity), cell morphology was consistent with the genera Galdieria and Cyanidium. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Mills, J. T.1 & Johansen, J. R.2 1Department of Biology, St. Edwards University, Austin, TX 78704.USA; 2Department of Biology, John Carroll University, University Heights, OH 44118 USA A large Lyngbya species was isolated from Aquarena Springs, a series of freshwater, nonmineral springs flowing from the Edwards Aquifer that are impounded to form Spring Lake. The species grows in rather large, loosely formed clumps at a depth of 2-3 meters, and consists of sheathed filaments from 55 to 60 um in thickness containing a single trichome that ranges from 45-50 um in thickness in each sheath. The sheath is 5-6um thick. Our isolate is similar to Plectonema wollei Farlow ex Gomont, a large, thick sheathed morphospecies which has recently been placed in Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Onodera et al. It is also similar to Blennothrix species, another large-trichomed genus with a distinctive form of false branching. However, the Lyngbya from Aquarena Springs shows no evidence of false branching of any type, forms loose clusters rather than mats, and is larger than any of the species currently described in any of the genera in question. When we sequenced the 16SrRNA and associated 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS), phylogenetic analysis indicated the taxon was most similar to Oscillatoria sanctae. However, there are so few taxa in the Oscillatoriaceae sensu stricto that have been sequenced, phylogenetic placement of the taxon by molecular analysis alone is not possible at present. Two different ITS configurations were obtained, one with both the tRNA "Ile" gene and the tRNA "Ala" gene, the other with no tRNA genes. Our work represents the first molecular analysis of any form in the large-trichomed Lyngbya clade. [source]

    Paul, Luther, and the Cross: In Dialog with Karl Donfried

    DIALOG, Issue 2 2007
    David A. Brondos
    Abstract: In response to the articles appearing in Dialog 46:1 (Spring 2007), David Brondos defends his position that in Paul's thought Christ's death did not "effect" human salvation, over against Karl Donfried's critique of that position. While Brondos and Donfried agree that Luther got the essence of Paul's gospel right and that Paul did not understand Jesus' death in terms of satisfaction or penal substitution, Brondos argues that the idea of "inclusive substitution" defended by Donfried and characteristic of the "new perspective on Paul" is foreign to the thought of both Paul and Luther. [source]

    Ancestors and variants: tales from the cryptic

    William E. Browne
    SUMMARY Those who work at the interface of development and evolution are united by the conviction that developmental comparisons can shed light on both the evolution of specific morphologies and the macroevolutionary process itself. In practice, however, the field comprises a diversity of approaches. As the field grows and practitioners attempt to digest a growing mountain of comparative data, the various approaches of "Evo Devo" have themselves evolved. A meeting organized by the authors and held at the University of Chicago in the Spring of 1999 illustrated some of these changes. This review will draw on its content to discuss recent developments in two areas: the reconstruction of common ancestors and the developmental basis of evolutionary change. [source]

    Cohort splitting in bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in the US mid-Atlantic Bight

    Abstract Atlantic bluefish exhibit cohort splitting, whereby two modes of juvenile recruits originate from spatially distinct spring- and summer-spawning regions in US Atlantic shelf waters. We evaluate the pattern of cohort splitting in a transition area (US Maryland coastal region and Chesapeake Bay) between the two major spawning regions. Spring and summer cohorts were differentially represented in Maryland estuarine (Chesapeake Bay) and coastal waters. The spring cohort was dominant in Chesapeake Bay, but was not well represented in the ocean environment, and the converse true for the summer cohort. We hypothesized that ocean temperatures control the bimodal spawning behavior and extent of cohort splitting. As evidence, we observed an intervening early summer cohort produced in years when shelf temperatures during early summer were suitably warm for spawning. In most years however, two dominant cohorts were evident. We propose that vernal warming dynamics in the mid-Atlantic Bight influence spawning behavior and the resultant bimodal pattern of seasonal juvenile cohort production commonly observed along the US east coast. [source]

    Effects of sand sedimentation on the macroinvertebrate fauna of lowland streams: are the effects consistent?

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Summary 1. In lowland streams sand sedimentation can produce sand slugs: very slow moving, discrete volumes of sand that are created episodically. Hypothetically, such sedimentation causes losses of habitat and fauna but little is known about the effects of sand slugs. In south-eastern Australia sand slugs are widespread, especially in streams with granitic catchments. 2. This study in north-central Victoria was centred on three streams that rise in the Strathbogie Ranges and flow out onto lowland plains, where they contain sand slugs. Below the sand slugs, the streams are slow-flowing ,chains of ponds' with a clay streambed. To correct for potential upstream-downstream confounding of comparisons, two unsanded, nearby streams were included as potential controls. Habitat measurements and faunal samples were taken in Spring 1998, from three sites in the sand slug and three sites in the clay-bed, downstream sections of each impacted stream, as well as from three sites in commensurate upstream and downstream sections of the control streams. 3. The sand-slugged sections had significantly higher velocities, shallower depths and less coarse woody debris than the unsanded downstream sections. Macroinvertebrate taxon richness and abundance showed some significant differences between the sand and clay sections compared with commensurate up- and downstream locations in the control streams. Effects were not uniform, however. In Castle Creek there were no significant differences between the sand and clay sections, in Pranjip-Ninemile Creek taxon richness and abundances were higher in sand than in the clay sections, whereas in Creightons Creek the ,expected' results of lower taxon richness and abundance in the sand were found. 4. Of the 40 most common taxa, only eight provided a clear signal related to sand and, of these, one (Slavina sp.) occurred only in the sand slugs, whereas the other seven had significantly higher numbers in the clay sections. Of these taxa, three were ostracods, three were chironomids and one was a tubificid oligochaete, all taxa that live in detritus-rich environments. Overall faunal composition did not show a clear distinction though, between sandy and clay sites. The sand slug community of Creightons Creek was very different from the other communities in all of the streams. There were clear differences in community composition between the sand-affected and the control streams, even for downstream, clay sections, suggesting they cannot act as controls for the impacted sections of the sand-slugged streams. 5. Differences between streams within categories (particularly between sand-slugged streams) and between sites in the same section of stream accounted for most of the variability in species richness and the abundances of each of the 40 most common taxa. That finding was repeated when data were examined at the family level, for both numbers of families per sample and collated lists of families occurring across sites. These results strongly suggest that the effects of sedimentation by sand slugs do not overwhelm background variation in macroinvertebrate density and diversity. Overall the results suggest that many taxa may respond individually, and that there is much variation between sand-affected streams even over relatively small (approximately <10 km) spatial scales. [source]

    Spring 2007 warmth and frost: phenology, damage and refoliation in a temperate deciduous forest

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Carol K. Augspurger
    Summary 1.,Climate change is predicted to bring earlier bud break and perhaps a greater risk of frost damage to developing leaves and flowers. Given the rarity and unpredictability of major frost events and limited community-level phenological observations, comparisons among deciduous forest species experiencing frost damage and refoliation are rare. 2.,This study used phenological observations ongoing at the time of a hard freeze to compare leaf and flower development, frost damage and leaf refoliation of 20 deciduous woody species in Trelease Woods, Champaign Co., IL, USA. Freezing temperatures from 5 to 9 April 2007 followed 22 days after very warm temperatures began in March. 3.,Bud break was the earliest in 17 years. Frost caused damage to leaf buds, developing shoots and/or expanding leaves of canopy trees of six species and saplings of two species. Undamaged species were inactive, or in bud break or shoot expansion. Among damaged species, 11,100% of individuals exhibited some frost damage. Mean damage level per individual ranged from 20% to 100% among species. 4.,Refoliation from dormant buds led to mean final canopy fullness that ranged from 46% to 99% among damaged species, but time of full leaf expansion was extended by 16,34 days for refoliating species. 5.,Frost damaged flowers, but not flower buds or developing fruit, of five of eight species that flowered during the frost period. 6.,The extent of frost damage in 2007 was unusual; damage was greater than any of the other 4 years with frost damage from 1993 to 2009 because record-breaking March temperatures in 2007 caused more species to be at later vulnerable stages with the advent of subfreezing temperatures in April. 7.,Differences among individuals and species in frost damage and ability to refoliate caused strong selection on individuals and differences in carbon gain that could, in the long-term, affect species' abundances. The frost also reduced fruit/seed abundance for insects and mammals. [source]

    Gender and Welfare Reform in Post- Revolutionary Mexico

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2008
    Nichole Sanders
    This article discusses the impact a gender and woman's history conference had on the development of my own research and writing. ,Las Olvidadas' was a conference held at Yale in the Spring of 2001, and was the first in a series of Mexican women's and gender history conferences organised. My own research, on the gendered nature of the welfare state in Mexico, explores how class and race intersected with gender to produce a welfare system that, while particular to Mexico, also nevertheless had much in common with other Latin American countries. These conferences shaped both my views of gender, but also the importance of the transnational to historical research. [source]

    Lipid biomarker and carbon isotopic signatures for stromatolite-forming, microbial mat communities and Phormidium cultures from Yellowstone National Park

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Linda L. Jahnke
    ABSTRACT The molecular and isotopic compositions of lipid biomarkers from cultured filamentous cyanobacteria (Phormidium, also known as Leptolyngbya) have been used to investigate the community and trophic structure of photosynthetic mats from alkaline hot springs of the Lower Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park. We studied a shallow-water coniform mat from Octopus Spring (OS) and a submerged, tufted mat from Fountain Paint Pots (FPP) and found that 2-methylhopanepolyols and mid-chain branched methylalkanes were diagnostic for cyanobacteria, whereas abundant wax esters were representative of the green non-sulphur bacterial population. The biomarker composition of cultured Phormidium -isolates varied, but was generally representative of the bulk mat composition. The carbon isotopic fractionation for biomass relative to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; ,CO2) for cultures grown with 1% CO2 ranged from 21.4 to 26.1 and was attenuated by diffusion limitation associated with filament aggregation (i.e. cell clumping). Isotopic differences between biomass and lipid biomarkers, and between lipid classes, depended on the cyanobacterial strain, but was positively correlated with overall fractionation. Acetogenic lipids (alkanes and fatty acids) were generally more depleted than isoprenoids (phytol and hopanoids). The ,13CTOC for OS and FPP mats were somewhat heavier than for cultures (,16.9 and ,23.6, respectively), which presumably reflects the lower availability of DIC in the natural environment. The isotopic dispersions among cyanobacterial biomarkers, biomass and DIC reflected those established for culture experiments. The 7-methyl- and 7,11-dimethylheptadecanes were from 9 to 11 depleted relative to the bulk organic carbon, whereas 2-methylhopanols derived from the oxidation-reduction of bacteriohopanepolyol were enriched relative to branched alkanes by approximately 5,7. These isotopic relationships survived with depth and indicated that the relatively heavy isotopic composition of the OS mat resulted from diffusion limitation. This study supports the suggestion that culture studies can establish valid isotopic relationships for interpretation of trophic structure in modern and ancient microbial ecosystems. [source]

    Artificial DNA Nano-Spring Powered by Protons

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 25 2010
    Chunyan Wang
    A novel multifunctional, proton-fueled DNA nano-spring has been constructed. By incorporation of the G-quadruplex/i-motif sequence into the assembly, the nanodevice can perform spring-like motions in response to changes in the environmental pH without permanent deformation. Nanosized objects/functional groups could be assembled/disassembled into this system in an addressable, contractile, and reversible manner. [source]

    British Division of the International Academy of Pathology

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    J Van Den Tweel
    Spring 2004 Symposium on Dermatopathology. Brussels, Belgium 10--15 October 2004 XXVth International Congress. Brisbane, Australia 26--27 November 2004 Symposium on Pulmonary Pathology. London, UK [source]

    Intelligence-led policing at the Amsterdam-Amstelland Police Department: operationalized business intelligence with an enterprise ambition

    Stijn Viaene
    This article elaborates on the setup for intelligence-led policing in support of ensuring public safety as it presented itself in the Spring of 2007 at the Amsterdam-Amstelland Police Department in the Netherlands. The picture that is painted is the outcome of a qualitative research effort involving semi-structured interviews triangulated with other internal data sources. The main goal of the article is to establish how an organization can leverage its operationalized business intelligence ambition by connecting it into an ambition for better enterprise management. The case ends in showcasing two popular operational business intelligence tools instrumental to capacity management. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Spring,summer temperature reconstruction in western Norway 1734,2003: a data-synthesis approach

    P. . Nordli
    Abstract A series of spring,summer (April,August) temperatures was reconstructed for the period 1734,1923 for western Norway based on multi-proxy data. For the period 1734,1842 the long-term variations were based on terminal moraines in front of two southern Norwegian glaciers, whereas the annual variations were based on grain-harvest data extracted from farmers' diaries. For the period 1843,1867 the spring,summer temperatures were reconstructed solely from diaries overlapping instrumental observations. All the results were incorporated into one series for the period 1734,2003 to form the Vestlandet composite series. The reconstruction method using terminal-moraine sequences was tested against the modern instrumental Bergen series for the periods of moraine formations in front of the glaciers. The agreement with the instrumental series was good, with the mean difference for all periods being only 0.2 C. Analyses of decadal variations in western Norway revealed three periods of low spring,summer temperatures: around 1740, in the first decade of the 19th century, and in the 1830s. These periods are well known from historic records as periods of starvation, during which the use of bark bread became common. Copyright 2003 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    British Society for Matrix Biology Spring 2005 Meeting University of Liverpool

    Article first published online: 24 NOV 200
    First page of article [source]

    BSMB Spring 2003 Meeting Report, Oxford

    Article first published online: 16 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Experimental evidence for costs of parasitism for a threatened species, White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa)

    Summary 1We used field and experimental data to test if white grub parasites (Diplostomatidae) are costly to White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), a threatened species restricted to four sites in the Chihuahuan desert, New Mexico. 2Of the four populations of C. tularosa, two are native and two are introduced. The two native populations (Malpais Spring and Salt Creek) are genetically distinct and have been isolated historically in dissimilar aquatic habitats (brackish spring and saline river, respectively). Two populations were established c. 1970 from translocation of Salt Creek fish to another saline river (Lost River) and another brackish spring (Mound Spring). 3Physid snails (Physidae) occur in the two brackish spring habitats but not the saline river habitats. These snails are first intermediate hosts for white grubs (Diplostomatidae). Therefore, the two freshwater populations are infected by diplostomatids. For the Mound Spring population, the ecological relationship of C. tularosa and diplostomatids has only recently occurred. 4In 1995, a population crash occurred for C. tularosa at Mound Spring, associated with a parasite outbreak. Diplostomatids were the presumptive cause of this crash, but this was inferred from observation of infection in collected fish. 5Two years of seasonal sampling of the two populations revealed that all collected fish were infected. Parasite intensities were significantly lower in winter compared to summer, suggesting that heavily infected fish were lost from the population on a seasonal basis. 6We conducted an artificial infection experiment to assess the costs of parasitism for previously uninfected C. tularosa females for various life-history traits. Under experimental conditions, diplostomatid infection caused increases in C. tularosa mortality and decreases in growth and fat storage. Individual-level costs of parasitism may translate to population-level patterns of parasitism for C. tularosa populations. Results from this study suggest that parasites may impact host overwinter survival, which is consistent with lower parasite intensities found during winters in wild populations. [source]

    Kootenai River velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection , a mystery unraveled?

    V. L. Paragamian
    Summary The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0,246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a ,short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam water management has reduced velocities and shear stress, thus sediment is now covering the cobbles and gravels. Although higher discharges will likely provide more suitable spawning and rearing conditions, this would be socially and politically unacceptable because it would bring the river elevation to or in excess of 537.66 m, which is flood stage. Thus, support should be given to habitat modifications incorporated into a management plan to restore suitable habitat and ensure better survival of eggs and larvae. [source]

    Small Built Works Project

    Energizing the Public Realm in Buffalo
    The Small Built Works Project is an experimental design-build program that uses the city as its laboratory. Work is primarily initiated by a senior undergraduate option studio offered in the Spring then augmented by a construction techniques elective open to both graduate and undergraduate students. Small Built Works has completed twenty-seven streetscape projects in Buffalo's urban core since 2001 under the management construct of six conceptual projects that have generated four approved building permits. These six projects are the Community Transformation Project (2001,2004), the Bus Shelter Project (2002,2005), the Gateway Project (Kiosk and Planter 2003,2005), the Totem Project (Mardi Gras float and the Connecticut Street Sculpture Park 2004,2006), the El Museo Gallery (2005,2006), and the Greening Collaborative Project (2006). In 2005, the Small Built Works Project won the National Council of Architecture Registration Boards Grand Prize for the creative integration of education and practice. This presentation is broken down into three aspects of the concept of 1:1 inherent in the work. [source]

    Diversity and abundance of Bacteria and Archaea in the Bor Khlueng Hot Spring in Thailand

    Pattanop Kanokratana
    The prokaryotic diversity in the Bor Khlueng hot spring in Ratchaburi province, Thailand was investigated by a culture-independent molecular approach. This hydrothermal pool is located in the central part of Thailand and contains sulfide-rich mineral water that is believed to relieve muscle ache and pain. The water flow year-round with temperature ranging between 50,57 C. Community DNA was extracted directly from sediment samples by coring to depth of ,20,30 cm. Small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the domains Archaea and Bacteria. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. For the bacterial rDNA clone library, 200 clones were randomly selected for further analyses. After restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rDNA clones and exclusion of chimeric sequences 36 phylotypes were obtained. The Bor Khlueng phylotypes spanned a wide range within the domain Bacteria, occupying eleven major lineages (phyla). Almost a quarter (23%) of the clones were classifed as Acidobacteria. The other clones were grouped into the Bacteriodetes (19%), Nitrospirae (13%), Proteobacteria (12%), Deinococcus-Thermus lineage (11%), planctomycetes (6%), and Verrucomicrobia (5%). The four remaining phyla, 5% each, were assigned to Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and the candidate division "OP10". For the archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequence library, 25 distinct phylotypes were obtained, 17 clones were found to be associated with Crenarahaeota and 8 clones were associated with Euryarachaeota. The findings of the molecular survey of this so far not investigated site showed that Bor Khlueng hot spring is a potential rich source of unique bacterial and archaeal species. The great majority (,80%) of the prokaryotic sequences detected in Bor Khlueng were unknown. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Using Quality Circles to Enhance Student Involvement and Course Quality in a Large Undergraduate Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    S.J. Schmidt
    ABSTRACT: Large undergraduate classes are a challenge to manage, to engage, and to assess, yet such formidable classes can flourish when student participation is facilitated. One method of generating authentic student involvement is implementation of quality circles by means of a Student Feedback Committee (SFC), which is a volunteer problem-solving and decision-making group that communicates student-generated input to the teaching team for the purpose of improving the course content, structure, and environment in the present and redesigning it for the future. Our objective was to implement a SFC in a large introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN 101) course to enhance student involvement and course quality. Overall, the SFC provided a continuous and dynamic feedback mechanism for the teaching team, a beneficial experience for the SFC members, and an opportunity for class members to confidentially share their input to enhance the quality of the course throughout the semester. This article includes a brief introduction of the use of quality circles in higher education classrooms, as well as our methods of implementation and assessment after using the SFC for 3 semesters (Spring 2003, Fall 2003, and Spring 2004). [source]

    W55a Encodes a Novel Protein Kinase That Is Involved in Multiple Stress Responses

    Zhao-Shi Xu
    Abstract Protein kinases play crucial roles in response to external environment stress signals. A putative protein kinase, W55a, belonging to SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) subfamily, was isolated from a cDNA library of drought-treated wheat seedlings. The entire length of W55a was obtained using rapid amplification of 5, cDNA ends (5,-RACE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). It contains a 1 029 -bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 342 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of W55a had eleven conserved catalytic subdomains and one Ser/Thr protein kinase active-site that characterize Ser/Thr protein kinases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that W55a was 90.38% homologous with rice SAPK1, a member of the SnRK2 family. Using nullisomic-tetrasomic and ditelocentric lines of Chinese Spring, W55a was located on chromosome 2BS. Expression pattern analysis revealed that W55a was upregulated by drought and salt, exogenous abscisic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate, but was not responsive to cold stress. In addition, W55a transcripts were abundant in leaves, but not in roots or stems, under environmental stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing W55a exhibited higher tolerance to drought. Based on these findings, W55a encodes a novel dehydration-responsive protein kinase that is involved in multiple stress signal transductions. [source]

    Effect of Seasonality on Distribution of Macroalgae in a Stream System (Xin'an Spring) in Shanxi Province, North China

    Bian-Fang Hu
    Abstract A survey of the seasonal distribution of macroalgae in a stream system in Shanxi Province, north China, was undertaken from July 2004 to April 2005. The relative abundance and percentage cover of macroalgae, and several environmental factors were monitored along a 20-m stretch at each of four sites, at intervals of approximately three months (one sampling per season). Several stream conditions were relatively constant over the sampling period (pH, maximum width and maximum depth), whereas others exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern (water temperature and specific conductance), and some fluctuated with no discernable seasonal pattern (current velocity and dissolved oxygen). Forty-two species of macroalgae were found, with a predominance of Chlorophyta (26 species, 61.9%). Rhodophyta and Charophyta represented the smallest proportion (1 species each, 2.38%). Six macroalgae species were the most widespread, occurring in all four sampling sites. Twelve species were found at only one site each. In terms of seasonality, eight species occurred throughout the year, whereas 16 species were found in only one season each. The macroalgal community at Xin'an Spring was species rich relative to other streams. Species richness per sampling site was negatively correlated with pH. Principal component analysis revealed that no single variable had much influence on the macroalgal seasonal dynamics. We calculated Sorensen similarity indices to compare our study with other continent-wide surveys of stream macroalgae, but the similarity indices were all very low. This study also shows that macroalgae in different locations have significant reproductive isolation. (Managing editor: Ya-Qin Han) [source]

    Improving Compliance in Your Dyslipidemic Patient: An Evidence-based Approach

    Diane M. Becker RN
    Purpose To synthesize the evidence from landmark clinical studies of lipid-lowering pharma-cotherapy and nurse management of hyperlipidemia, discuss issues related to nonadherence, and proposes strategies for achieving long-term cholesterol control. Data Sources All publications of lipid-lowering clinical trials related to pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemias were accessed from a thorough Medline Search and reviewed by two nurse experts. Conclusions Randomized controlled studies provide com-pelling evidence that reduction of blood cho-lesterol with pharmacotherapy reduces both first and subsequent coronary events. Nonetheless, inadequate provider and patient adherence to guidelines for lipid lowering remains prevalent. Studies show that nurses provide safe and effective care for patients with abnormal lipids. Implications This article assists nurse practitioners in playing an active role in the implementation of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Report to be released in Spring 2001, where a strong emphasis will be placed on multidisciplinary approaches and adherence. [source]

    Evaluation of baking procedures for incorporation of barley roller milling fractions containing high levels of dietary fibre into bread

    Morrison S Jacobs
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Roller milling of hull-less barley generates fibre-rich fractions (FRF) enriched in non-starch polysaccharides from the endosperm cell walls (,-glucans and arabinoxylans). This investigation was initiated to compare the suitability of different baking processes and to determine the optimal conditions for incorporation of barley FRF into pan bread. RESULTS: Addition of FRF from waxy and high-amylose starch hull-less barley genotypes was evaluated in pan bread prepared from Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) and Canada Western Extra Strong (CWES) wheat flour. Three bread processes were used: Canadian short process (CSP), remix-to-peak, and sponge-and-dough. Addition of 20% FRF (equivalent to enrichment with 4.0 g of arabinoxylans and ,-glucans per 100 g of flour) disrupted dough properties and depressed loaf volume. CSP was not suitable for making FRF-enriched bread because dough could not be properly developed. FRF-enriched remix-to-peak bread was better, especially for the stronger CWES flour. The better bread quality compared to CSP was probably due to redistribution of water from non-starch polysaccharides to gluten during fermentation prior to remixing and final proof. The sponge-and-dough process produced the best FRF-enriched bread because of the positive effect of sponge fermentation on gluten development and hydration. FRF was added at the dough stage to fully developed dough. CONCLUSION: The method of bread production strongly influences bread quality. Pre-hydration of FRF improved bread quality. CWRS and CWES flour produced comparable FRF-enriched sponge-and-dough bread. Addition of xylanase to the sponge-and-dough formula improved the loaf volume, appearance, crumb structure and firmness of FRF-enriched bread. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Effects of Phase-Shifted Photoperiod Regimes on Oocyte Growth and Hormonal Profiles in Female Striped Bass Morone saxatilis

    Verapong Vuthiphandchai
    Phase-shifted photoperiod cycles did not induce a full shift in oogenesis during the first year cycles, but did in the following years. Spawning time, indicated by maximum oocyte diameters, was advanced up to 4 mo in females maintained under the phase-shifted advanced photoperiod, and delayed up to 4 mo when they exposed to the phase-shifted delayed photoperiod, compared to the natural spawning time in Spring (March-May). Phase-shifted photoperiod regimes shifted the profiles of plasma testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), corresponding to the shift of oogenesis in the respective groups. Significant increases in T and E2 levels occurred during the vitellogenic phase, and these levels peaked before the occurrence of maximum oocyte diameters. The studies demonstrate that phase-shifted photoperiod regimes can be used to control oogenesis, and have implications for ensuring the year-round supply of mature female striped bass, particularly in domesticated striped bass. [source]

    Threshold wind velocity as an index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion under variable climatic conditions

    Laura A. de Oro
    Abstract Wind erosion starts when the threshold wind velocity (t) is exceeded. We evaluated the sensitivity of t to determine the wind erosion susceptibility of soils under variable climatic conditions. Three years field data were used to calculate t by means of the equation t,=,, - , ,,1 (,), where , is the mean wind speed (m,s,1), , the , standard deviation (m,s,1), , the saltation activity and , the standard normal distribution function of ,. Saltation activity was measured with a piezoelectric sensor (Sensit). Results showed that , of the whole studied period (341 m,s,1) was lower than t (753,m,s,1), therefore, wind erosion was produced mainly by wind gusts. The t values ordered in the sequence: Winter (610 m,s,1),<,Spring (822,m,s,1),=,Summer (828,m,s,1),<,Autumn (2648,m,s,1). Higher t values were related to higher air humidity and lower wind speeds and temperatures. The t values did not agree with the erosion amounts of each season, which ordered as follows: Summer (1288,t ha,1),>,Spring (311,t ha,1),=,Winter (017,t ha,1),=,Autumn (no erosion). Low t and erosion amounts of Winter were produced by a scarce number of gusts during eroding storms. We concluded that t is useful as an index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion of different climatic periods. The use of a unique t value in wind erosion prediction models can lead to erroneous wind erosion calculations. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The distant activity of Short Period Comets,, II.

    E. Mazzotta Epifani
    ABSTRACT The activity of the Short Period Comets (SPCs) at large heliocentric distance (Rh > 3 au) occurs in a region of the Solar system where the water sublimation rate is low and so the sublimation of other volatiles, for example CO or CO2, could drive the presence of a coma. The detection of distant activity in a SPC can therefore give important hints on its composition. Moreover, a complete characterization of the distant SPCs degree of activity is crucial in order to give correct estimates of the nucleus size and to obtain more reliable size-distribution curves of cometary nuclei. The aim of this paper is to present the last results of a program of CCD imaging of distant SPCs, started in 2004 December and concluded with observing runs at the 3.5-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at La Palma, in 2005 April, and at the 2.2-m Centro Astronmico Hispano Alemn (CAHA) telescope in Spain, in 2005 May. During the Spring 2005 campaign, 12 SPCs have been targeted in the R band (eight numbered SPCs and four still unnumbered SPCs): 61P/Schajn,Schaldach, 71P/Clark, 98P/Takamizawa, 103P/Hartley 2, 117P/Helin,Roman,Alu 1, 118P/Shoemaker,Levy 4, 121P/Shoemaker,Holt 2, 136P/Mueller 3, P/2002 T5 (LINEAR), P/2003 S1 (NEAT), P/2003 S2 (NEAT), P/2004 DO29 (Spacewatch,LINEAR). The heliocentric distance of the targets was 3.05 ,Rh, 5.30 au. Several levels of activity were detected in the sample, from stellar appearance to well-developed coma and tail. In some cases, the occurrence of cometary activity could be enhanced only with deep visible imaging (e.g. with very long exposure time). For comets with stellar appearance, it was possible to derive a value or a range for the nucleus radius rnucleus (assuming a ,classical' albedo value of 0.04): 98P (rnucleus= 0.43 0.10 km), 136P (rnucleus= 1.2 0.2 km), P/2003 S2 (rnucleus= 0.81 to 1.55 km). For the active comets, we measured dust production levels in terms of Af, quantity, which was 9.9 , Af,, 671 cm. Ensemble properties of the whole sample of the long-term program (a total of 17 SPCs) have been analysed in terms of the relationship among distant activity and dynamical evolution of the targets (in particular, an inward ,jump' of the perihelion distance): we can conclude that, even if there is some theoretical indication that this could occur, the hypothesis of distant activity triggered by a rise in perihelion temperature cannot be univocally invoked for these comets. [source]

    Temperature conditions control embryo growth and seed germination of Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv., a temperate forest spring geophyte

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    F. Vandelook
    Abstract Spring is often the most suitable period for seedling establishment of temperate woodland species. Different physiological mechanisms resulting in spring emergence have evolved in seeds of such plants. The aim of this study was to determine the requirements for breaking dormancy and for seed germination of the European perennial spring geophyte Corydalis solida (Fumariaceae). Ripe seeds of C. solida contain an underdeveloped embryo, consisting of no more than a clump of cells. As a consequence, the embryo has to differentiate and grow to a critical length before germination can occur. In nature, seeds are dispersed in spring, while growth of the embryo starts in the autumn and continues in winter. Germination starts in late winter, immediately after embryo growth is completed, resulting in seedling emergence in the following spring. Experiments in controlled conditions showed that temperature is the main factor controlling dormancy and germination. Incubation at autumn temperatures (15/6 C; 20/10 C) for at least 8 weeks is required to initiate embryo growth, while a transfer to 5 C is needed for completion of embryo growth and germination. Growth of the embryo of C. solida occurs at different temperatures over an extended period, a feature typical of temperate forest herbs. Our results indicate that the dormancy mechanism in seeds of C. solida is very similar to mechanisms in other Corydalis species studied thus far, suggesting that stasis in the dormancy trait has occurred. [source]

    Microsatellite monitoring of recombination around the Vrn -B1 locus of wheat during early backcross breeding

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 2 2003
    E. Salina
    Abstract The length of chromosomal segments retained around the Vrn-B1 gene controlling sensitivity to vernalization in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied in the first and third backcrosses by using microsatellite markers. Eleven polymorphic markers located on chromosome 5B were used for microsatellite analysis. It was shown in the first backcross that plants with a donor segment around the gene of interest not longer than 50% of chromosome 5B could be selected. When selection is not molecular-marker assisted, the length of the chromosomal donor segment with the target gene may reach 94% of chromosome 5B even in plants of the third backcross generation. The considerable length differences in the 5B microsatellite loci between the winter and spring lines of wheat studied indicate that these markers are promising in marker-assisted backcrossing or marker-assisted selection for the Vrn-B1 gene using different combinations of Spring and Winter genotypes. [source]

    Violence: Terrorism and America Spring 2002

    Matthew Lippman
    First page of article [source]